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Index Intersex

Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies". [1]

203 relations: Abortion, Adrenal gland, Alice Dreger, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Journal of Bioethics, American Journal of Human Biology, American Psychological Association, Andrea Prader, Androgen insensitivity syndrome, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia, Anne Tamar-Mattis, Anorchia, Anti-Müllerian hormone, Ashgate Publishing, Asia Pacific Forum, Association of American Medical Colleges, Australian Senate, Basic Books, Bavarian State Library, Bovinae, BuzzFeed, Cannes Film Festival, Canon law, Caster Semenya, Castration, Cervix, Cheryl Chase (activist), Chimera (genetics), Christiane Völling, Chromosome, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Clitoris, Clitoromegaly, Common law, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, Council of Europe, Cryptorchidism, Decretum Gratiani, Deutsche Welle, Diodorus Siculus, Discrimination against intersex people, Disorders of sex development, Dominican Republic, DSM-5, Dutee Chand, Eliezer Waldenberg, Endocrine system, Epispadias, ..., Erik Schinegger, Faking It (U.S. TV series), Fallopian tube, Female, Female genital mutilation, Films about intersex, Fixing Sex, Foekje Dillema, Freemartin, Fundamental Rights Agency, Gamete, Gazeta Wyborcza, Gender dysphoria, Gender identity, Genetic diagnosis of intersex, Genetics, Genotype, Georgiann Davis, Global Action for Trans Equality, Gonad, Gonadal dysgenesis, Halakha, Herculine Barbin, Herculine Barbin (memoir), Hermaphrodite, Hijra (South Asia), Histology, Homosexuality, Human Rights between the Sexes, Hypospadias, Institutes of the Lawes of England, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Interact Advocates for Intersex Youth, International Association of Athletics Federations, International Commission of Jurists, International Intersex Forum, Intersex Awareness Day, Intersex civil society organizations, Intersex Day of Remembrance, Intersex human rights, Intersex Human Rights Australia, Intersex rights in Australia, Intersex rights in Chile, Intersex rights in China, Intersex rights in Germany, Intersex rights in Kenya, Intersex rights in Malta, Intersex rights in New Zealand, Intersex rights in South Africa, Intersex rights in the United States, Intersex rights in Uganda, Intersex Society of North America, Jeffrey Eugenides, John Money, Julius Kaggwa, Karyotype, Katrina Karkazis, Klinefelter syndrome, Las Salinas, Legal recognition of intersex people, LGBT, LGBT rights in India, Lurie Children's Hospital, Male, Malta declaration (International Intersex Forum), Maria José Martínez-Patiño, Mauro Cabral Grinspan, Müllerian agenesis, Medical necessity, Medicalization, Mesonephric duct, Michel Foucault, Micropenis, Middlesex (novel), Milton Diamond, Morgan Carpenter, Morgan Holmes, Mosaic (genetics), Moshe Feinstein, National human rights institution, New York University Press, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, OII Europe, Orchidometer, Organisation Intersex International, Ovary, Ovotestis, Palm Center, Paramesonephric duct, Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, Pediatrics, Penis, Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome, Phall-O-Meter, Phenotype, Placenta, Prader scale, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Progestin, Progestin-induced virilization, Quigley scale, Rebecca Jordan-Young, Richard Goldschmidt, Roman law, Rowman & Littlefield, RT (TV network), Sangam literature, Santhi Soundarajan, Sex, Sex assignment, Sex chromosome, Sex organ, Sex steroid, Sexing the Body, Sexual differentiation, Southern Poverty Law Center, Special Broadcasting Service, Stanisława Walasiewicz, Sterilization (medicine), Talmud, Television works about intersex, The Atlantic, The BMJ, The Guardian, The Hollywood Reporter, The New York Times, The New York Times Magazine, Transgender, Transgender Europe, Triple X syndrome, True hermaphroditism, Turner syndrome, Twin, United Nations, United Nations special rapporteur, Uterus, Vagina, Vaginal atresia, Vas deferens, Victorian era, World Health Organization, XX male syndrome, XXXY syndrome, XXY (film), XXYY syndrome, XY gonadal dysgenesis, XY sex-determination system, XYY syndrome, Y chromosome, Zwischengeschlecht, 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, 49,XXXXY, 5α-Reductase deficiency. Expand index (153 more) »


Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Alice Dreger

Alice Domurat Dreger is a historian, bioethicist, author, and former professor of clinical medical humanities and bioethics at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois.

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American Academy of Pediatrics

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.

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American Journal of Bioethics

The American Journal of Bioethics is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Taylor & Francis, covering all aspects of bioethics.

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American Journal of Human Biology

The American Journal of Human Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering human biology.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Andrea Prader

Andrea Prader (December 23, 1919 – June 3, 2001) was a Swiss scientist, physician, and pediatric endocrinologist.

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Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an intersex condition in which there is a partial or complete inability of many cells in the affected genetic male to respond to androgenic hormones.

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Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia

The Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia (AISSGA) is possibly the oldest known intersex organization, established in 1985.

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Anne Tamar-Mattis

Anne Tamar-Mattis is an American attorney, human rights advocate, and founder of interACT (formerly Advocates for Informed Choice).

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Anorchia (also called anorchidism or anorchism) is a disorder of sex development in which a person with XY karyotype, which usually corresponds to male sex, is born without testes.

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Anti-Müllerian hormone

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), also known as Müllerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH), is a glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, whose key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis.

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Ashgate Publishing

Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).

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Asia Pacific Forum

The Asia Pacific Forum (APF) is one of four regional networks of national human rights institutions (NHRIs) within the International Co-ordinating Committee of NHRIs.

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Association of American Medical Colleges

The Association of American Medical Colleges is a not-for-profit organization based in Washington, DC, and established in 1876.

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Australian Senate

The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.

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Basic Books

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.

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Bavarian State Library

The Bavarian State Library (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, abbreviated BSB, called Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis before 1919) in Munich is the central "Landesbibliothek", i. e. the state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of Europe's most important universal libraries.

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The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.

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BuzzFeed, Inc. is an American Internet media company based in New York City.

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Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.

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Canon law

Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Caster Semenya

Mokgadi Caster Semenya OIB (born 7 January 1991) is a South African middle-distance runner and 2016 Olympic gold medalist.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.

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Cheryl Chase (activist)

Bo Laurent, better known by her pseudonym Cheryl Chase (born August 14, 1956), is an American intersex activist and the founder of the Intersex Society of North America.

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Chimera (genetics)

A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes.

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Christiane Völling

Christiane Völling is the first intersex person known to have successfully sued for damages in a case brought for non-consensual surgical intervention described as a non-consensual sex reassignment.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Cleft lip and cleft palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).

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The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.

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Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris that is mostly congenital or acquired, though deliberately induced clitoris enlargement as a form of female genital body modification is achieved through various uses of anabolic steroids, including testosterone, and may also be referred to as clitoromegaly. Clitoromegaly is not the same as normal enlargement of the clitoris seen during sexual arousal.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from a defect in the gene CYP17A1, which encodes for the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and "CAH" in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.

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Decretum Gratiani

The Decretum Gratiani, also known as the Concordia discordantium canonum or Concordantia discordantium canonum or simply as the Decretum, is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

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Discrimination against intersex people

Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies"; "Because their bodies are seen as different, intersex children and adults are often stigmatized and subjected to multiple human rights violations".

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Disorders of sex development

Disorders of sex development (DSD), sometimes referred to as disorders of sex differentiation or differences of sex development, are medical conditions involving the reproductive system.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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Dutee Chand

Dutee Chand (born 3 February 1996) is an Indian professional sprinter and current national champion in the women's 100 metres event.

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Eliezer Waldenberg

Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg (הרב אליאזר יהודה וולדנברג, December 10, 1915 – November 21, 2006) was a rabbi, posek, and dayan in Jerusalem.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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An epispadias is a rare type of malformation of the penis in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect of the penis.

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Erik Schinegger

Erik Schinegger (born 19 June 1948) is an Austrian intersex and transgender skier.

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Faking It (U.S. TV series)

Faking It is an American single-camera romantic comedy series that premiered on MTV on April 22, 2014, starring Rita Volk, Katie Stevens, Gregg Sulkin, Michael Willett and Bailey De Young.

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Fallopian tube

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.

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Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).

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Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

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Films about intersex

Intersex, in humans and other animals, describes variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies".

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Fixing Sex

Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, a book by Stanford anthropologist and bioethicist Katrina Karkazis, was published in 2008.

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Foekje Dillema

Foekje Dillema (18 September 1926 – 5 December 2007) was a Dutch track and field athlete.

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A freemartin or free-martin (sometimes martin heifer) is an infertile female mammal with masculinized behavior and non-functioning ovaries.

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Fundamental Rights Agency

The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (usually known in English as the Fundamental Rights Agency; FRA) is a Vienna-based agency of the European Union inaugurated on 1 March 2007.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gazeta Wyborcza

Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.

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Gender dysphoria

Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.

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Gender identity

Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.

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Genetic diagnosis of intersex

Intersex people are born with variations in physical and sex characteristics including those of the chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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Georgiann Davis

Georgiann Davis is an assistant professor of sociology at University of Nevada, Las Vegas and author of the book Contesting Intersex: The Dubious Diagnosis.

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Global Action for Trans Equality

Global Action for Trans* Equality (GATE) is an organisation and think tank for transgender and intersex rights.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Gonadal dysgenesis

Gonadal dysgenesis is classified as any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system in the male or female.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Herculine Barbin

Herculine Barbin (1838–1868) was a French intersex person who was determined as female at birth and raised in a convent, but was later reclassified as male by a court of law, after an affair and physical examination.

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Herculine Barbin (memoir)

Herculine Barbin: Being the Recently Discovered Memoirs of a Nineteenth-century French Hermaphrodite is a 1980 English-language translation of Herculine Barbin's nineteenth-century memoirs, which were originally written in French.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Hijra (South Asia)

Hijra is a term given to eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people in South Asia.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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Human Rights between the Sexes

Human Rights between the Sexes is an analysis of the human rights of intersex people in 12 countries.

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Hypospadias is a congenital disorder of the urethra where the urinary opening is not at the usual location on the head of the penis.

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Institutes of the Lawes of England

The Institutes of the Lawes of England are a series of legal treatises written by Sir Edward Coke.

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Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or, in the three other official languages Spanish, French, and Portuguese CIDH, Comisión Interamericana de los Derechos Humanos, Commission Interaméricaine des Droits de l'Homme, Comissão Interamericana de Direitos Humanos) is an autonomous organ of the Organization of American States (OAS).

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Interact Advocates for Intersex Youth

interACT or interACT Advocates for Intersex Youth, formerly known as Advocates for Informed Choice, is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization using innovative strategies to advocate for the legal and human rights of children born with intersex traits.

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International Association of Athletics Federations

The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics.

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International Commission of Jurists

The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-governmental organization.

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International Intersex Forum

The International Intersex Forum is an annual event organised, then later supported, by the ILGA and ILGA-Europe that began in 2011.

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Intersex Awareness Day

Intersex Awareness Day is an internationally observed awareness day designed to highlight human rights issues faced by intersex people.

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Intersex civil society organizations

Intersex civil society organizations have existed since at least the mid-1980s.

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Intersex Day of Remembrance

Intersex Day of Remembrance, also known as Intersex Solidarity Day, is an internationally observed civil awareness day designed to highlight issues faced by intersex people.

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Intersex human rights

Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals, that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies." Intersex people face stigmatisation and discrimination from birth, particularly when an intersex variation is visible.

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Intersex Human Rights Australia

Intersex Human Rights Australia (IHRA) is a voluntary organisation for intersex people that promotes the human rights and bodily autonomy of intersex people in Australia, and provides education and information services.

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Intersex rights in Australia

Intersex rights in Australia are protections and rights afforded to intersex people through statutes, regulations, and international human rights treaties, including through the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth) which makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person based upon that person's intersex status in contexts such as work, education, provision of services, and accommodation.

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Intersex rights in Chile

Between December 2015 and August 2016, the Chilean Ministry of Health issued a regulatory suspension of non-necessary cosmetic medical interventions on intersex children.

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Intersex rights in China

Intersex rights in China including the People's Republic of China, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Taiwan, are protections and rights afforded to intersex people through legislation and regulation.

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Intersex rights in Germany

Intersex people in Germany have no recognition of their rights to physical integrity and bodily autonomy, and no specific protections from discrimination on the basis of sex characteristics.

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Intersex rights in Kenya

Intersex people in Kenya face significant human rights violations, starting from birth.

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Intersex rights in Malta

Intersex rights in Malta since 2015 are among the most progressive in the world.

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Intersex rights in New Zealand

Intersex rights in New Zealand are protections and rights afforded to intersex people.

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Intersex rights in South Africa

Intersex people in South Africa have some of the same rights as other people, but with significant gaps in protection from non-consensual cosmetic medical interventions and protection from discrimination.

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Intersex rights in the United States

Intersex people in the United States have some of the same rights as other people, but with significant gaps, particularly in protection from non-consensual cosmetic medical interventions and violence, and protection from discrimination.

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Intersex rights in Uganda

Intersex people in Uganda face a dangerous environment, with significant gaps in protection from mutilation and non-consensual cosmetic medical interventions and protection from discrimination.

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Intersex Society of North America

The Intersex Society of North America (ISNA) was a non-profit advocacy group founded in 1993 by Cheryl Chase to end shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgeries.

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Jeffrey Eugenides

Jeffrey Kent Eugenides (born March 8, 1960) is an American novelist and short story writer.

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John Money

John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a psychologist, sexologist and author, specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender.

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Julius Kaggwa

Julius Kaggwa is a prominent Ugandan intersex and transgender activist and executive director of intersex support organization Support Initiative for People with atypical sex Development (SIPD).

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A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

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Katrina Karkazis

Katrina Alicia Karkazis (born 1970) is a medical anthropologist and bioethicist at the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.

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Las Salinas

Las Salinas is a town in the Barahona province of the Dominican Republic.

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Legal recognition of intersex people

Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies".

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LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

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LGBT rights in India

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people in India face legal and social difficulties not experienced by non-LGBT persons.

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Lurie Children's Hospital

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago (formerly Children's Memorial Hospital) in Chicago, Illinois is a pediatric specialty hospital.

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Malta declaration (International Intersex Forum)

The Malta declaration is the statement of the Third International Intersex Forum, which took place in Valletta, Malta, in 2013.

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Maria José Martínez-Patiño

Maria José Martínez-Patiño (born 10 July 1961) is a Spanish former hurdler, whose dismissal from the Spanish Olympic team in 1986 for failing the gender test is a notable moment in the history of gender verification in sports.

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Mauro Cabral Grinspan

Mauro Cabral Grinspan, also known as Mauro Cabral, is an Argentinian intersex and trans activist, who serves as the executive director of Global Action for Trans* Equality (GATE).

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Müllerian agenesis

Müllerian agenesis, also known as Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome (MRKH) or vaginal agenesis, is a congenital malformation characterized by a failure of the Müllerian duct to develop, resulting in a missing uterus and variable degrees of vaginal hypoplasia of its upper portion.

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Medical necessity

Medical necessity is a United States legal doctrine, related to activities which may be justified as reasonable, necessary, and/or appropriate, based on evidence-based clinical standards of care.

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Medicalization or medicalisation (see spelling differences) is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.

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Mesonephric duct

The mesonephric duct (also known as the Wolffian duct, archinephric duct, Leydig's duct or nephric duct) is a paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Micropenis is an unusually small penis.

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Middlesex (novel)

Middlesex is a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Jeffrey Eugenides published in 2002.

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Milton Diamond

Milton Diamond (born March 6, 1934 in New York City) is a Professor Emeritus of anatomy and reproductive biology at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.

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Morgan Carpenter

Morgan Carpenter is an intersex activist and researcher.

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Morgan Holmes

Morgan Holmes is a Canadian sociologist and a professor at Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario.

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Mosaic (genetics)

In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.

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Moshe Feinstein

Rabbi Moses Feinstein (משה פײַנשטיין Moshe Faynshteyn; March 3, 1895 – March 23, 1986) was a Haredi Orthodox rabbi, scholar, and posek (an authoritative adjudicator of questions related to Jewish law), who was world-renowned for his expertise in Halakha, gentleness, and compassion, and was regarded by many as the de facto supreme halakhic authority for observant Jews in North America.

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National human rights institution

A national human rights institution (NHRI) is an independent institution bestowed with the responsibility to broadly protect, monitor and promote human rights in a given country.

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New York University Press

New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University.

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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OII Europe

Founded in 2012 at the Second International Intersex Forum, Organisation Intersex International - Europe or OII Europe is the first European intersex NGO, and it brings together national and linguistic affiliates from around the European continent.

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An orchidometer (or orchiometer) is a medical instrument used to measure the volume of the testicles.

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Organisation Intersex International

The Organisation Intersex International (OII) is a global advocacy and support group for people with intersex traits.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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An ovotestis is a gonad with both testicular and ovarian aspects.

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Palm Center

The Palm Center is a think tank founded in 1998 at the University of California, Santa Barbara, that produces scholarship designed to improve the quality of public dialogue about critical and controversial public policy issues.

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Paramesonephric duct

Paramesonephric ducts (or Müllerian ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the sinus tubercle in the primitive urogenital sinus.

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Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is a condition that results in the partial inability of the cell to respond to androgens.

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Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.

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A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.

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Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome

Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is the presence of Müllerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus, and/or the upper part of the vagina) in what would be considered a genetically and otherwise physically normal male animal by typical human based standards.

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The Phall-O-meter is a satirical measure that critiques medical standards for normal male and female phalluses.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Prader scale

The Prader scale or Prader staging, named after Dr.

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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) is the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization.

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A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.

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Progestin-induced virilization

Maternal use of androgens or high doses of certain weakly androgenic synthetic progestogens (progestins) structurally related to testosterone can masculinize (virilize) the external genitalia of a female fetus during susceptible times in pregnancy.

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Quigley scale

The Quigley scale is a descriptive, visual system of phenotypic grading that uses seven classes between "fully masculinized" and "fully feminized" genitalia.

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Rebecca Jordan-Young

Rebecca M. Jordan-Young (born 1963), is an American sociomedical scientist whose research focuses on sex, gender and sexuality, as well as the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS.

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Richard Goldschmidt

Richard Benedict Goldschmidt (April 12, 1878 – April 24, 1958) was a German-born American geneticist.

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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Sangam literature

The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.

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Santhi Soundarajan

Santhi Soundarajan (also spelled Shanthi Soundararajan,சாந்தி சௌந்திரராஜன், born April 1981) is an Indian track and field athlete.

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

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Sex assignment

Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.

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Sex chromosome

An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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Sex steroid

Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.

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Sexing the Body

Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality is a 2000 book by the biologist Anne Fausto-Sterling, in which the author explores the social construction of gender, and the social and medical treatment of intersex people.

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Sexual differentiation

Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote.

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Southern Poverty Law Center

The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation.

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Special Broadcasting Service

The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio, online, and television network.

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Stanisława Walasiewicz

Stanisława Walasiewicz (3 April 1911 – 4 December 1980), also known as Stefania Walasiewicz,.

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Sterilization (medicine)

Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is any of a number of medical techniques that intentionally leaves a person unable to reproduce.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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Television works about intersex

Intersex, in humans and other animals, describes variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies".

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Hollywood Reporter

The Hollywood Reporter (THR) is a multi-platform American digital and print magazine founded in 1930 and focusing on the Hollywood film industry, television, and entertainment industries, as well as Hollywood's intersection with fashion, finance, law, technology, lifestyle, and politics.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New York Times Magazine

The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.

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Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.

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Transgender Europe

Transgender Europe (TGEU) is a network of different organizations of transgender, transsexual, gender variant and other like-minded people to combat discrimination and support trans people rights.

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Triple X syndrome

Triple X syndrome, also known as trisomy X and 47,XXX, is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a female.

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True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism, clinically known as ovotesticular disorder of sex development, is a medical term for an intersex condition in which an individual is born with ovarian and testicular tissue.

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Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations special rapporteur

The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.

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Vaginal atresia

Vaginal atresia is a condition in which the vagina is abnormally closed or absent.

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Vas deferens

The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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XX male syndrome

XX male syndrome is a rare congenital condition where an individual with a female genotype has phenotypically male characteristics that can vary between cases.

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XXXY syndrome

XXXY syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a sex chromosome aneuploidy, where males have two extra X chromosomes.

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XXY (film)

XXY is a 2007 Argentine-Spanish-French drama film written and directed by Lucía Puenzo.

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XXYY syndrome

XXYY syndrome is a sex chromosome anomaly in which males have an extra X and Y chromosome.

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XY gonadal dysgenesis

Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a type of hypogonadism in a person whose karyotype is 46,XY.

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XY sex-determination system

The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).

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XYY syndrome

XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Zwischengeschlecht (literally "between sexes") is a human rights advocacy group campaigning on intersex bodily autonomy issues.

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45,X/46,XY mosaicism

45,X/46,XY mosaicism, also known as X0/XY mosaicism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis, "45,X/46,XY including Y chromosome rearrangements".

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49,XXXXY syndrome is an extremely rare aneuploidic sex chromosomal abnormality.

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5α-Reductase deficiency

5α-Reductase deficiency (5-ARD) is an autosomal recessive intersex condition caused by a mutation of the 5α reductase type II gene.

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Ambiguous genitalia, Congenital anomalies of the genitalia, Congenital anomalies of the genitals, Congenital anomaly of the genitalia, Female pseudohermaphroditism, Iintersex, Indeterminate gender, Intersex condition, Intersex conditions, Intersexed, Intersexual, Intersexualism, Intersexuality, Intersexuals, Sex differentiation disorder, Sex differentiation disorders, Vaginal dimple.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intersex

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