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Index Abortion

Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus. [1]

228 relations: Abortifacient, Abortion, Abortion and Christianity, Abortion and mental health, Abortion clinic, Abortion debate, Abortion in Nicaragua, Abortion law, Abortion-rights movements, Abortion–breast cancer hypothesis, Actaea racemosa, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Medical Association, American Psychological Association, Amniocentesis, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Angkor Wat, Animal husbandry, Ann Hibner Koblitz, Anti-abortion movements, Antiprogestogen, Aristotle, Assassination of George Tiller, Asymptomatic, Barnett Slepian, Birth control, Birth defect, Bruce effect, Brucellosis, Buddhism, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Caesarean section, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Campylobacter, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cervical cancer, Cervix, Childbirth, Chromosome abnormality, Churchill Livingstone, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Condom, Curettage, Curette, Current Opinion (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), David Gunn (doctor), Definitions of abortion, Developed country, ..., Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dilation and curettage, Dilation and evacuation, Doe v. Bolton, Dominant white, Doxing, Doxycycline, Ebers Papyrus, Elective surgery, Embryo, EMedicine, Encarta, Endometritis, Eric Rudolph, Ethics in religion, Evangelicalism, Family planning, Fetal rights, Fetal viability, Feticide, Fetus, Frederick J. Taussig, Frieze, Fundal massage, Garson Romalis, Gemeprost, General anaesthesia, George Tiller, Gestational age, Gray (unit), Gray langur, Guttmacher Institute, Gynaecology, Harvard University Press, Health, Hinduism, Hippocratic Corpus, Hippocratic Oath, Histogram, History of abortion, Hysterectomy, Hysterotomy abortion, In utero, Incest, Injury, Instillation abortion, Intact dilation and extraction, Intellectual disability, Intelligence quotient, International Conference on Population and Development, Intrauterine device, Ipas (organization), Islam and abortion, John Britton (doctor), John M. Riddle, John Wiley & Sons, Jon F. Merz, Juvenal, Labor induction, Late termination of pregnancy, Legal protection of access to abortion, Lethal white syndrome, Library of Congress, Linda Gordon, Live birth (human), Local anesthesia, Lumpectomy, Lymph node, Madame Restell, Maternal death, Medical abortion, Medical ethics, Medical tourism, Medical ultrasound, MENA, Menstrual extraction, Mental health, Mentha pulegium, Methotrexate, Metronidazole, Microcephaly, Microsoft, Mid-level practitioner, Mifepristone, Minors and abortion, Miscarriage, Misoprostol, Morality, Mortality rate, Mosby (imprint), Multiple birth, Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, Murder, National Abortion Federation, National Cancer Institute, National Conference of State Legislatures, National Institute of Statistics (Romania), Neoadjuvant therapy, Nepal, Obstetrics, Obstetrics and gynaecology, One-child policy, Oxford, Oxford Bibliographies Online, Oxford University Press, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Paternal rights and abortion, Paul Jennings Hill, Personhood, Philosophical aspects of the abortion debate, Pine, Placenta, Planned Parenthood, Plastic surgery, Politics (Aristotle), Pope Sixtus V, Population control, Pregnancy, Prenatal development, Preterm birth, Primary care, Prostaglandin, Prostaglandin analogue, Protestantism, Quickening, Radiation therapy, Radical mastectomy, Relief, Reproductive health, Reproductive rights, Rickie Solinger, Right to life, Roe v. Wade, Romania, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Rubella, S&P Global, Scribonius Largus, Security of person, Selective reduction, Self-induced abortion, Sepsis, Sex-selective abortion, Shelley Shannon, Shennong, Sherri Finkbine, Silphium, Socioeconomic status, Soranus of Ephesus, Stillbirth, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Tansy, Teratology, Thalidomide, The Lancet, Therapeutic abortion, Traditional medicine, Trap–neuter–return, Underworld, UNICEF, Unintended pregnancy, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Population Fund, University of Michigan, Unsafe abortion, Uterine perforation, Uterus, Vacuum aspiration, Value (ethics), Vascular disease, WebMD, Westport, Connecticut, Women on Waves, Women's rights, World Health Organization, World Medical Association. Expand index (178 more) »


An abortifacient ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion.

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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

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Abortion and Christianity

Christianity and abortion has a long and complex history, and there are a variety of positions taken by contemporary Christian denominations on the topic.

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Abortion and mental health

The relationship between induced abortion and mental health is an area of political controversy.

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Abortion clinic

An abortion clinic is a medical facility that provides abortions.

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Abortion debate

The abortion debate is the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral, legal, and religious status of induced abortion.

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Abortion in Nicaragua

Abortion in Nicaragua is completely illegal.

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Abortion law

Abortion law permits, prohibits, restricts, or otherwise regulates the availability of abortion.

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Abortion-rights movements

Abortion-rights movements, also referred to as pro-choice movements, advocate for legal access to induced abortion services.

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Abortion–breast cancer hypothesis

The abortion–breast cancer hypothesis posits that having an induced abortion can increase the risk of getting breast cancer.

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Actaea racemosa

Actaea racemosa (black cohosh, black bugbane, black snakeroot, fairy candle; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a species of flowering plant of the family Ranunculaceae.

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American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.

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American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, and also for sex determination, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and then the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Angkor Wat

Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Ann Hibner Koblitz

Ann Hibner Koblitz (born 1952) is Professor Emerita of Women and Gender Studies at Arizona State University and was a pioneer in studying the history of women in science.

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Anti-abortion movements

Anti-abortion movements, also referred to as pro-life movements, are involved in the abortion debate advocating against the practice of abortion and its legality.

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Antiprogestogens, or antiprogestins, also known as progesterone antagonists or progesterone blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent progestogens like progesterone from mediating their biological effects in the body.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Assassination of George Tiller

On May 31, 2009, George Tiller, a physician from Wichita, Kansas who was nationally known for being one of the few doctors in the United States to perform late-term abortions, was murdered by Scott Roeder, an anti-abortion extremist.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Barnett Slepian

Barnett Abba Slepian (April 23, 1946 – October 23, 1998) was an American physician and abortion provider who was murdered in his home by James Charles Kopp.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Bruce effect

The Bruce effect, or pregnancy block, is the tendency for female rodents to terminate their pregnancies following exposure to the scent of an unfamiliar male.

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Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The Bulletin of the World Health Organization is a monthly public health journal published by the World Health Organization that was established in 1947.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

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Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.

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The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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Chromosome abnormality

A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.

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Churchill Livingstone

Churchill Livingstone is an academic publisher.

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Combined oral contraceptive pill

The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.

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A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

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Curettage, in medical procedures, is the use of a curette (French, meaning scoop) to remove tissue by scraping or scooping.

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A curette is a surgical instrument designed for scraping or debriding biological tissue or debris in a biopsy, excision, or cleaning procedure.

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Current Opinion (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

Current Opinion is a series of medical journals published by Wolters Kluwer imprint Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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David Gunn (doctor)

David Gunn (November 16, 1945 – March 10, 1993) was an American physician.

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Definitions of abortion

Definitions of abortion vary from one source to another.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dilation and curettage

Dilation (or dilatation) and curettage (D&C) refers to the dilation (widening/opening) of the cervix and surgical removal of part of the lining of the uterus and/or contents of the uterus by scraping and scooping (curettage).

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Dilation and evacuation

In methods of abortion, dilation and evacuation (D&E also sometimes called dilation and extraction) is the dilation of the cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents of the uterus.

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Doe v. Bolton

Doe v. Bolton,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court overturning the abortion law of Georgia.

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Dominant white

Dominant white is a group of genetically related coat color conditions in the horse, best known for producing an all-white coat, but also for producing some forms of white spotting and white markings.

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Doxing (from dox, abbreviation of documents) or doxxing is the Internet-based practice of researching and broadcasting private or identifiable information (especially personally identifiable information) about an individual or organization.

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Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.

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Elective surgery

Elective surgery or elective procedure (from the eligere, meaning to choose) is surgery that is scheduled in advance because it does not involve a medical emergency.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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eMedicine.com, Incorporated is an online clinical medical knowledge base founded in 1996 by two medical doctors, Scott Plantz and Jonathan Adler, and by Jeffrey Berezin, a computer engineer.

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Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

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Endometritis is inflammation of the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus.

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Eric Rudolph

Eric Robert Rudolph (born September 19, 1966), also known as the Olympic Park Bomber, is an American domestic terrorist convicted for a series of anti-abortion and anti-gay-motivated bombings across the southern United States between 1996 and 1998, which killed two people and injured over 120 others.

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Ethics in religion

Ethics involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.

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Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Family planning

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".

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Fetal rights

Fetal rights are the moral rights or legal rights of the human fetus under natural and civil law.

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Fetal viability

Fetal viability or foetal viability is the ability of a fetus to survive outside the uterus.

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Feticide (or foeticide) is an act that causes the death of a fetus.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Frederick J. Taussig

Frederick J. Taussig (1872-1943) was an American gynecologist and professor of clinical obstetrics at Washington University School of Medicine.

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In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.

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Fundal massage

Fundal massage, also called uterine massage, is a technique used to reduce bleeding and cramping of the uterus after childbirth or after an abortion.

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Garson Romalis

Garson Romalis (October 23, 1937 – January 31, 2014) was a Canadian gynecologist who specialized in providing abortions.

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Gemeprost (16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta2 PGE1 methyl ester) is an analogue of prostaglandin E1.

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General anaesthesia

General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.

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George Tiller

George Richard Tiller (August 8, 1941 – May 31, 2009) was an American physician from Wichita, Kansas.

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Gestational age

Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.

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Gray (unit)

The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).

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Gray langur

Gray langurs or Hanuman langurs, the most widespread langurs of the Indian Subcontinent, are a group of Old World monkeys constituting the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus (from Ancient Greek σεμνός semnós, “revered, august, holy”, and πίθηκος píthēkos, “ape, monkey”).

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Guttmacher Institute

The Guttmacher Institute is a research and policy organization committed to advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in the United States and globally.

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Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hippocratic Corpus

The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.

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Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.

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A histogram is an accurate representation of the distribution of numerical data.

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History of abortion

The practice of abortion—the termination of a pregnancy—has been known since ancient times.

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Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.

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Hysterotomy abortion

Hysterotomy abortion is a form of abortion in which the uterus is opened through an abdominal incision and the fetus is removed, similar to a caesarean section, but requiring a smaller incision.

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In utero

In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".

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Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.

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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Instillation abortion

Instillation abortion is a rarely used method of late term abortion, performed by injecting a solution into the uterus.

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Intact dilation and extraction

Intact dilation and extraction (Intact D&E) is a surgical procedure that removes an intact fetus from the uterus.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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International Conference on Population and Development

The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt, on 5–13 September 1994.

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Intrauterine device

An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil, is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.

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Ipas (organization)

Ipas is a global non-profit organization that works to increase women's ability to exercise their sexual and reproductive rights, and to end deaths and injuries from unsafe abortion.

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Islam and abortion

Muslim views on abortion are shaped by the Hadith as well as by the opinions of legal and religious scholars and commentators.

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John Britton (doctor)

John Bayard Britton (May 6, 1925 – July 29, 1994) was an American physician.

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John M. Riddle

John M. Riddle (born 1937) is an Alumni Distinguished Professor emeritus of History at North Carolina State University and a specialist in the history of medicine.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Jon F. Merz

Jon F. Merz is a U.S. author, former soldier, and ex-government employee best known for the Lawson Vampire series, the third entry of which won the 2001 National Novel Writing Month competition.

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Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman poet active in the late first and early second century AD.

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Labor induction

Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery.

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Late termination of pregnancy

Late termination of pregnancy (TOP), also known as postviability abortion, induced termination of pregnancy (ITOP), or simply abortion is a termination of pregnancy that is performed during a later stage of pregnancy.

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Legal protection of access to abortion

Governments sometimes take measures designed to afford legal protection of access to abortion.

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Lethal white syndrome

Lethal white syndrome (LWS), also called overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS), lethal white overo (LWO), and overo lethal white foal syndrome (OLWFS), is an autosomal genetic disorder most prevalent in the American Paint Horse.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Linda Gordon

Linda Gordon is an American feminist and historian.

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Live birth (human)

In human reproduction, a live birth occurs when a fetus, whatever its gestational age, exits the maternal body and subsequently shows any sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, for however brief a time and regardless of whether the umbilical cord or placenta are intact.

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Local anesthesia

Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well.

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Lumpectomy (sometimes known as a tylectomy) is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast, usually in the treatment of malignant tumor or breast cancer.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Madame Restell

Ann Trow Lohman (May 6, 1812 – April 1, 1878), better known as Madame Restell, was a 19th-century abortionist who practiced in New York City.

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Maternal death

Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".

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Medical abortion

A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical abortion in which medication is used to bring about abortion.

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Medical ethics

Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.

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Medical tourism

Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.

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Menstrual extraction

Menstrual extraction is a form of vacuum aspiration, used to empty the uterus.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Mentha pulegium

Mentha pulegium, commonly (European) pennyroyal, or pennyrile, also called squaw mint, mosquito plant and pudding grass, is a species of flowering plant in the Lamiaceae family, or mint family, native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.

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Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.

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Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.

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Microcephaly is a medical condition in which the brain does not develop properly resulting in a smaller than normal head.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Mid-level practitioner

Mid-level practitioners, also called assistant practice clinicians, are health care providers who have received different training and have a more restricted scope of practice than physicians and other health professionals in some states, but who do have a formal certificate and accreditation through the licensing bodies in their jurisdictions.

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Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, is a medication typically used in combination with misoprostol, to bring about an abortion.

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Minors and abortion

Many jurisdictions have laws applying to minors and abortion.

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Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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Misoprostol, sold under the brandname Cytotec among others, is a medication used to start labor, cause an abortion, prevent and treat stomach ulcers, and treat postpartum bleeding due to poor contraction of the uterus.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Mosby (imprint)

Mosby is an academic publisher of textbooks and academic journals based in the United States.

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Multiple birth

A multiple birth is the culmination of one multiple pregnancy, wherein the mother delivers two or more offspring.

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Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), also known as multiple organ failure (MOF), total organ failure (TOF) or multisystem organ failure (MSOF), is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to achieve homeostasis.

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Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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National Abortion Federation

The National Abortion Federation (NAF) is an organization of abortion providers.

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National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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National Conference of State Legislatures

The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) is a bipartisan non-governmental organization (NGO) established in 1975 to serve the members and staff of state legislatures of the United States (states, commonwealths, and territories).

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National Institute of Statistics (Romania)

The National Institute of Statistics (Institutul Naţional de Statistică (INS)) is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national statistics, in fields such as geography, the economy, demographics and society.

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Neoadjuvant therapy

Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Obstetrics and gynaecology

Obstetrics and gynecology (commonly known as OB-GYN, OBG, O&G or obs and gynae in the USA, and referred to as gynae in the UK) is the medical specialty that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (obstetrics) and the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts (gynecology).

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One-child policy

The one-child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population planning policy of China.

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Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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Oxford Bibliographies Online

Oxford Bibliographies Online (OBO), also known as Oxford Bibliographies, is a web-based compendium of peer-reviewed annotated bibliographies and short encyclopedia entries maintained by Oxford University Press.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.

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Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act

The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 ((HTML); *, from the U.S. Government Printing Office (PDF) PBA Ban) is a United States law prohibiting a form of late termination of pregnancy called "partial-birth abortion," referred to in medical literature by as intact dilation and extraction.

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Paternal rights and abortion

The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the abortion debate and the fathers' rights movement.

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Paul Jennings Hill

Paul Jennings Hill (February 6, 1954 – September 3, 2003) was a convicted American murderer.

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Personhood is the status of being a person.

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Philosophical aspects of the abortion debate

The philosophical aspects of the abortion debate are logical arguments that can be made either in support of or in opposition to abortion.

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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Planned Parenthood

Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. (PPFA), or Planned Parenthood, is a nonprofit organization that provides reproductive health care in the United States and globally.

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Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.

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Politics (Aristotle)

Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.

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Pope Sixtus V

Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590.

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Population control

Population control is the practice of artificially maintaining the size of any population.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Primary care

Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.

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The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.

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Prostaglandin analogue

Prostaglandin analogues are a class of drugs that bind to a prostaglandin receptor.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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In pregnancy terms, quickening is the moment in pregnancy when the pregnant woman starts to feel or perceive fetal movements in the uterus.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Radical mastectomy

Radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of breast, underlying chest muscle (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), and lymph nodes of the axilla as a treatment for breast cancer.

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Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Reproductive health

Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.

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Reproductive rights

Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.

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Rickie Solinger

Rickie Solinger (born 1947) is an independent historian, curator, and lecturer whose work focuses on reproductive politics, welfare politics, politics of incarceration, race and class, and motherhood.

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Right to life

The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another human being.

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Roe v. Wade

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) is professional association based in London, United Kingdom.

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Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.

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S&P Global

S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.

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Scribonius Largus

Scribonius Largus (c. 1-c. 50) was the court physician to the Roman emperor Claudius.

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Security of person

Security of the person is a basic entitlement guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948.

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Selective reduction

Selective reduction, multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR), or selective termination is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multifetal pregnancy, say quadruplets, to a twin or singleton pregnancy.

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Self-induced abortion

A self-induced abortion (or self-induced miscarriage) is an abortion performed by the pregnant woman herself or with the help of other, non-medical assistance.

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Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Sex-selective abortion

Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the infant.

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Shelley Shannon

Rachelle Ranae "Shelley" Shannon (born March 31, 1956) is an American violent criminal best known in U.S. media reports as being an anti-abortion extremist.

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Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.

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Sherri Finkbine

Sherri Finkbine (born Sherri Chessen in 1932) is an American former children's television host.

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Silphium (also known as silphion, laserwort, or laser) was a plant that was used in classical antiquity as a seasoning and as a medicine.

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Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

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Soranus of Ephesus

Soranus of Ephesus (Σωρανός ὁ Ἑφέσιος; 1st/2nd century AD) was a Greek physician.

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Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.

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Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant of the aster family, native to temperate Europe and Asia.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Thalidomide, sold under the brand name Immunoprin, among others, is an immunomodulatory drug and the prototype of the thalidomide class of drugs.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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Therapeutic abortion

Therapeutic abortion is abortion induced following a diagnosis of medical necessity.

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Traditional medicine

Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.

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Trap–neuter–return (TNR) is a type of program through which free-roaming cats are trapped, spayed and neutered, then returned to the outdoor locations where they were found.

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The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living.

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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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Unintended pregnancy

Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception.

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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.

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United Nations Population Fund

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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Unsafe abortion

An unsafe abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by people lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking minimal medical standards, or both.

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Uterine perforation

Uterine perforation is a potential complication of any intrauterine procedure.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Vacuum aspiration

Vacuum or suction aspiration uses aspiration to remove uterine contents through the cervix.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Vascular disease

Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body.

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WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.

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Westport, Connecticut

Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.

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Women on Waves

Women on Waves (WoW) is a Dutch pro-choice nongovernmental organization (NGO) created in 1999 by Dutch physician Rebecca Gomperts, in order to bring reproductive health services, particularly non-surgical abortion services and education, to women in countries with restrictive abortion laws.

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Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Medical Association

The World Medical Association (WMA) is an international and independent confederation of free professional medical associations, therefore representing physicians worldwide.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion

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