118 relations: Ab urbe condita, Abraham, Alcuin, Alexandria, Anglo-Saxons, Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius, Annianus of Alexandria, Anno Mundi, Annunciation, Ante Christum natum, Arles, Astronomical year numbering, Bede, Bonnie J. Blackburn, Byzantine calendar, Byzantine Empire, C. R. Cheney, Calendar, Calendar era, Carolingian Empire, Carolingian Renaissance, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Century, Charlemagne, China, Christendom, Christmas, Chronicon (Eusebius), Collins English Dictionary, Common Era, Computus, Constans II, Consul, Coptic Catholic Church, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Crucifixion of Jesus, Dating creation, Denis Pétau, Diocletian, Diocletianic Persecution, Dionysius Exiguus, Dionysius Exiguus' Easter table, Easter, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, End time, English language, Epoch (reference date), Era of the Martyrs, ..., Ethiopia, Ethiopian calendar, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Europe, Eusebius, Fleury Abbey, Florence, Genesis creation narrative, George Syncellus, Greek language, Gregorian calendar, Hegira, Hippolytus of Rome, Holocene calendar, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Incarnation, Incarnation (Christianity), Interfaith dialogue, Islamic calendar, ISO 8601, January 1, Jesus, Johannes Kepler, Julian calendar, Justinian I, Latin, Leo VI the Wise, Leofranc Holford-Strevens, List of Roman consuls, Maximus the Confessor, Medieval Latin, Merriam-Webster, Middle Ages, Millennium, Millennium celebrations, Minguo calendar, Ministry of Jesus, Moveable feast, Nativity of Jesus, Old Testament, Olympiad, Paul L. Maier, Persecution of Christians, Philip II of France, Pisa, Pope, Pope Sixtus IV, Portugal, Probus (consul 525), Recto and verso, Regnal year, Resurrection of the dead, Rowman & Littlefield, Russia, Scythia Minor, Society of Jesus, Spanish era, Taiwan, Tertullian, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Atlantic, The New York Times Magazine, Theology, Theophanes the Confessor, United Nations, Werner Rolevinck, Western Europe, Year zero. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
Ab urbe condita or Anno urbis conditae (abbreviated: A.U.C. or AUC) is a convention that was used in antiquity and by classical historians to refer to a given year in Ancient Rome.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius was a high official of the Eastern Roman Empire and the last ordinary consul of Roman history, holding the office in 541.
Annianus of Alexandria (Annianos) was a monk who flourished in Alexandria during the bishopric of Theophilus of Alexandria around the beginning of the fifth century. He criticized the world history of his contemporary monk Panodorus of Alexandria for relying too much on secular sources rather than biblical sources for his dates. As a result, Annianus developed his own chronology which placed Creation on 25 March 5492 BC. This created the Alexandrian Era whose first day was the first day of the proleptic Alexandrian civil year in progress, 29 August 5493 BC. This year was eleven Paschal cycles of 532 years each before the Alexandrian year beginning 29 August 360, which itself was four 19-year cycles after the epoch of the Diocletian Era on 29 August 284. The former is known as the Era of Grace in the Coptic Church, whereas the latter is known as the Era of Martyrs. He was the first computist to recognize the 532-year cycle of Easters in the Julian calendar. This cycle is often attributed to Victorius of Aquitaine in 457, the first to recognize such a cycle in the West. None of Annianus's writings have survived. He is principally known from the discussion of his works by George Syncellus during the 9th century, though lesser fragments appear elsewhere. Elijah of Nisibis cites him in his 11th-century Chronography.
Anno Mundi (Latin for "in the year of the world"; Hebrew:, "to the creation of the world"), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
The term ante Christum natum (Latin for before Christ (was) born), usually abbreviated to a. Chr. n., a.Ch.n., a.C.n., A.C.N., or ACN, denotes the years before the birth of Jesus.
Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Bonnie Jean Blackburn (born July 15, 1939, Albany, New York) is an American musicologist.
The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World" (Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους, also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου, abbreviated as ε.Κ.), was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Christopher Robert Cheney (20 December 1906 – 19 June 1987) was a medieval historian, noted for his work on the medieval English church and the relations of the papacy with England, particularly in the age of Pope Innocent III.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is a period of 100 years.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christendom has several meanings.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Chronicon or Chronicle (Greek: Παντοδαπὴ ἱστορία Pantodape historia, "Universal history") was a work in two books by Eusebius of Caesarea.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.
Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
The Coptic Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic particular church in full communion with the Catholic Church.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Dating creation is the attempt to provide an estimate of the age of Earth or the age of the universe as understood through the origin myths of various religious traditions.
Denis Pétau (August 21, 1583December 11, 1652), also known as Dionysius Petavius, was a French Jesuit theologian.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The Diocletianic or Great Persecution was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
Dionysius Exiguus (Latin for "Dionysius the Humble"; –) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, in Romania and Bulgaria).
Dionysius Exiguus's Easter table was constructed in the year 525 by Dionysius Exiguus for the years 532–626.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.
The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will reach a final climax.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era.
The Era of the Martyrs (anno martyrum), also known as the Diocletian era (anno Diocletiani), is a method of numbering years used by the Church of Alexandria beginning in the 4th centuryAD and by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria from the 5th century to the present.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian calendar (የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር; yä'Ityoṗṗya zämän aḳoṭaṭär) is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches and Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Fleury Abbey (Floriacum) in Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, Loiret, France, founded about 640, is one of the most celebrated Benedictine monasteries of Western Europe, which possesses the relics of St.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
George Synkellos or Syncellus (Γεώργιος Σύγκελλος; died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.
The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant (AD or CE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh.
In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos (Koine Greek for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh" and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union.
Interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative, constructive, and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions (i.e., "faiths") and/or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
ISO 8601 Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data.
January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher (Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912.
Leofranc Holford-Strevens (born 19 May 1946) is an English classical scholar and polymath, an authority on the works of Aulus Gellius, and a former reader for the Oxford University Press.
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
Maximus the Confessor (Ὁμολογητής), also known as Maximus the Theologian and Maximus of Constantinople (c. 580 – 13 August 662), was a Christian monk, theologian, and scholar.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
The Millennium celebrations were a worldwide, coordinated series of events celebrating New Year's Eve in 1999–2000.
The Republic of China calendar is the method of numbering years currently used in Taiwan by officials and other territories under the control of the Republic of China.
In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples.
A moveable feast or movable feast is an observance in a Christian liturgical calendar that occurs on a different date (relative to the dominant civil or solar calendar) in different years.
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
An Olympiad (Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks.
Paul L. Maier (born May 31, 1930) is a historian and novelist.
The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Flavius Anicius Probus iunior (c. 495 - aft. 525) was a Roman Consul in 525.
The terms recto and verso refer to the text written or printed on the "right" or "front" side and on the "back" side of a leaf of paper in a bound item such as a codex, book, broadsheet, or pamphlet.
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.
Resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead (Koine: ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν, anastasis nekron; literally: "standing up again of the dead"; is a term frequently used in the New Testament and in the writings and doctrine and theology in other religions to describe an event by which a person, or people are resurrected (brought back to life). In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the three common usages for this term pertain to (1) the Christ, rising from the dead; (2) the rising from the dead of all men, at the end of this present age and (3) the resurrection of certain ones in history, who were restored to life. Predominantly in Christian eschatology, the term is used to support the belief that the dead will be brought back to life in connection with end times. Various other forms of this concept can also be found in other eschatologies, namely: Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian eschatology. In some Neopagan views, this refers to reincarnation between the three realms: Life, Death, and the Realm of the Divine; e.g.: Christopaganism. See Christianity and Neopaganism.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Scythia Minor or Lesser Scythia (Mikrá Skythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, roughly corresponding to today's Dobrogea, with a part in Romania, a part in Bulgaria.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Spanish era or era of Caesar was a dating system commonly used in the states of the Iberian peninsula until the 14th–15th centuries, when it was phased out in favour the Anno Domini system.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Saint Theophanes the Confessor (Θεοφάνης Ὁμολογητής; c. 758/760 – March 12, 817/818) was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy, who became a monk and chronicler.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Werner Rolevinck (1425–1502) was a Carthusian monk and historian who wrote about 50 titles.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar.
A. D., A.D, A.D., A.d., AD, AD (era), AD and BC, AD., After Death (era), Anno Domine, Anno Domini nostri lesu Christi, Anno Dominni, Anno Dommini, Anno Donimi, Anno Salutis, Anno domini, Anno domino, Ap.J, BC AD, BC vs AD, BC/AD, Before Christ, Christian Era, Christian era, Dionysian Era, Dionysian era, Era of Christianity, In the year of our Lord, In the year of the Lord, Year of our Lord.