603 relations: Aari language, Aba Tenna Dejazmach Yilma International Airport, Abebe Bikila, Abiy Ahmed, Abjad, Abrahamic religions, Abugida, Abyssinian people, Abyssinian–Adal war, Adal Sultanate, Adane Girma, Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway, Addis Fortune, Aethiopia, Afar language, Afar people, Afar Region, African elephant, African Standby Force, African Union, African wild dog, Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic Urheimat, Afromontane, Agaw languages, Agaw people, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Ahmadiyya, Aksumite currency, Al Jazeera English, Alfonso V of Aragon, Ali I of Yejju, Aligaz of Yejju, Almaz Ayana, Amhara Region, Amharas, Amharic, Ammodile, Amnesty International, Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement, Anno Domini, Annunciation, Anuak language, Anuak people, ..., Arabic, Archaeology of Ethiopia, Ardi, Ardipithecus, Argobba language, Armah, Armenia, Asaita, Asosa, Association football, Atbara, Australopithecus, Australopithecus afarensis, Awasa, Awash River, Awash, Ethiopia, Awash–Weldiya Railway, Axum, Bahir Dar, Bailey's shrew, Bakri Sapalo, Balance of payments, Bale shrew, Barack Obama, Basketball, Baton (military), Battle of Adwa, Battle of Gallabat, Battle of Gura, BBC, BBC News, Begemder, Beira (antelope), Bench language, Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Berhane Adere, Beta Israel, Beyene Petros, Bicyclus anynana, Birth rate, Birtukan Mideksa, Black rhinoceros, Blue Nile, Bolivia, Book of Aksum, Borana calendar, Bride kidnapping, British Empire, British Expedition to Abyssinia, Bulcha Demeksa, Business Anti-Corruption Portal, Capital (Ethiopia), Carter Center, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Ethiopia, Cattle, Caucasian Albania, Central Africa, Central Statistical Agency, Cereal, Charter city, Cheetah, Christian denomination, Christianity, Circumcision, Civil service, CNN, Coalition for Unity and Democracy, Coffea, Colonialism, 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Aari (also rendered Ari, Ara, Aro, Aarai) is an Omotic language of a tribe of Ethiopia.
Aba Tenna Dejazmach Yilma International Airport (Ge'ez: አባ ጤና ደጃዝማች ይልማ ዓለም አቀፍ የአየር ማረፊያ ābbā ṭēnā dejāzmāč yilmā ʿālem aqef ye-āyyer mārefīyā), also known as Dire Dawa International Airport, is an international airport serving Dire Dawa, a city in eastern Ethiopia.
Abebe Bikila (አበበ ቢቂላ; August 7, 1932 – October 25, 1973) was an Ethiopian double Olympic marathon champion.
Abiy Ahmed Ali (አብይ አህመድ አሊ, Abiyyi Ahimad Alii; born 15 August 1976) is an Ethiopian politician appointed as 12th Prime Minister of Ethiopia on 2 April 2018.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
Abyssinian people (ሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Adane Girma (ዓዳነ ግርማ, born 25 June 1985) is an Ethiopian footballer.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Addis Ababa Bole International Airport based the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Addis Ababa University (አዲስ አበባ ዩኒቨርሲቲ) is a state university in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.
The Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway is a new standard gauge international railway that serves as the backbone of the new Ethiopian National Railway Network.
Addis Fortune (also known as Fortune) is a private and independent newspaper based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ancient Aethiopia (Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Afar language (Qafaraf) (also known as ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Qafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Afar (Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
The Afar Regional State (Qafar; አፋር ክልል) is one of the nine regional states (kililoch) of Ethiopia, and is the homeland of the Afar people.
African elephants are elephants of the genus Loxodonta.
The African Standby Force (ASF) (French: Force africaine en attente) is an international, continental African, and multidisciplinary peacekeeping force with military, police and civilian contingents that acts under the direction of the African Union.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), also known as African hunting dog, African painted dog, painted hunting dog, or painted wolf, is a canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages.
The Afromontane regions are subregions of the Afrotropical realm, one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms, covering the plant and animal species found in the mountains of Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula.
The Agaw or Central Cushitic languages are spoken by small groups in Ethiopia and, in one case, Eritrea.
The Agaw (አገው Agäw, modern Agew) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Aksumite currency was coinage produced and used within the Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum) centered in present-day Eritrea and the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Alfonso the Magnanimous KG (also Alphonso; Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death.
Ali I of Yejju (died 18 June 1788) was a Ras of Begemder, and following the death of Ras Mikael Sehul, Regent of the Emperor of Ethiopia.
Aligaz of Yejju (died 1803) was a Ras of Begemder, and Inderase (regent) of the Emperor of Ethiopia.
Almaz Ayana Eba (born 21 November 1991) is an Ethiopian female long-distance runner who competes in the 3000 metres, 5000 metres, and 10,000 metres events.
Amhara (Amharic: አማራ) is one of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia, containing the homeland of the Amhara people.
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
The ammodile, walo or Somali gerbil (Ammodillus imbellis) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri is a companion of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement was a joint effort between Ethiopia and the United Kingdom at reestablishing Ethiopian independent statehood following the ousting of Italian troops by combined British and Ethiopian forces in 1941 during World War II.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
Anuak or Anywa is a Nilotic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family.
The Anuak, also known as the Anyuak, Agnwak and Anywaa, are a Luo Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting parts of East Africa.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ethiopia offers a greater richness in archaeological finds and historical buildings than any other country in Sub-Saharan Africa (including Sudan).
Ardi (ARA-VP-6/500) is the designation of the fossilized skeletal remains of an Ardipithecus ramidus, believed to be an early human-like female anthropoid 4.4 million years old.
Ardipithecus is a genus of an extinct hominine that lived during Late Miocene and Early Pliocene in Afar Depression, Ethiopia.
Argobba is an Ethiopian Semitic language spoken in an area north-east of Addis Ababa by the Argobba people.
Armah (reigned 614–631), known in some Muslim sources as Al-Najashi (النجاشي), was a Christian king of the Kingdom of Aksum.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Asaita (አሳይታ - Asayəta), also known as Aussa, is a town in northeastern Ethiopia, and before 2007, it was the capital of the Afar Region of Ethiopia.
Asosa is a town in western Ethiopia and the capital of the Benishangul-Gumuz Region (or kilil) of Ethiopia.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atbara (sometimes Atbarah) (عطبرة ʿAṭbarah) is a city of 111,399 (2007) located in River Nile State in northeastern Sudan.
Australopithecus (informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus) is an extinct genus of hominins.
Australopithecus afarensis (Latin: "Southern ape from Afar") is an extinct hominin that lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago in Africa and possibly Europe.
Hawassa (አዋሳ, also spelled Awassa or Hawassa) is a city in Ethiopia, on the shores of Lake Awasa in the Great Rift Valley.
The Awash (sometimes spelled Hawash; Amharic: አዋሽ; Afar We'ayot; Somali: Webiga Dir) is a major river of Ethiopia.
Awash is a market town in central Ethiopia.
The Awash–Weldiya Railway is a standard gauge railway under construction, that will serve as a northward extension of the new Ethiopian National Railway Network.
Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
Bahir Dar (Amharic: ባሕር ዳር,, "sea shore") is the former capital of Gojjam province and the current capital of the Amhara Regional State.
The Bailey's shrew (Crocidura baileyi) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
Sheikh Bakri Sapalo (born Abubakar Garad Usman; November 1895 - 5 April 1980) was an Oromo scholar, poet and religious teacher.
The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
The Bale shrew (Crocidura bottegoides) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The ceremonial baton is a short, thick stick-like object, typically in wood or metal, that is traditionally the sign of a field marshal or a similar very high-ranking military officer, and carried as a piece of their uniform.
The Battle of Adwa (Amharic: አድዋ; Amharic translated: Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was fought on 1 March 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray.
The Battle of Gallabat (also called the Battle of Metemma) was fought 9–10 March 1889 between the Mahdist Sudanese and Ethiopian forces.
The Battle of Gura was fought on March 7–9, 1876 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Khedivate of Egypt near the town of Gura in Eritrea.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Begemder (Amharic: በጌምድር) (also Gondar or Gonder after its 20th century capital) was a province in the northwestern part of Ethiopia.
The beira (Dorcatragus megalotis) is a small arid adapted antelope that inhabits arid regions of the Horn of Africa.
Bench (Bencnon, Shenon or Mernon, formerly called Gimira Rapold 2006) is a Northern Omotic language of the "Gimojan" subgroup, spoken by about 174,000 people (in 1998) in the Bench Maji Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, in southern Ethiopia, around the towns of Mizan Teferi and Shewa Gimira.
Benishangul-Gumuz (Amharic: ቤንሻንጉል ጉሙዝ), also known as Benshangul/Gumuz, is one of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia.
Berhane Adere Debala (Ge'ez: ብርሀኔ አደሬ born 21 July 1973 in Shewa) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner who specialises in the 10,000 metres and the half marathon.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Beyene Petros (Ph.D.) is a professor of Biology at Addis Ababa University and a former member of the Ethiopian House of People's Representatives, representing an electoral district in Badawacho of Hadiya Zone.
Bicyclus anynana (squinting bush brown) is a small brown butterfly in the family Nymphalidae, the most globally diverse family of butterflies.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Birtukan Mideksa (also spelled Birtukan Midekssa; Ge'ez: ብርቱካን ሚደቅሳ; born 1974) is an Ethiopian politician and former judge who is the founder and leader of the opposition party, the Unity for Democracy and Justice (UDJ) party from 2008 – 2010.
The black rhinoceros or hook-lipped rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is a species of rhinoceros, native to eastern and southern Africa including Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
The Blue Nile is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Book of Aksum or Mats'hafa Aksum (Ge'ez መጽሐፈ ፡ አክሱም maṣḥafa aksūm, meṣhafe aksūm, meṣḥafe aksūm, Liber Axumae) is the name accepted since the time of James Bruce for a collection of documents from St. Mary's Cathedral of Aksum providing information on Ethiopian history.
The Borana calendar is a calendrical system once thought to have been used by the Borana Oromo, a people living in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a rescue mission and punitive expedition carried out in 1868 by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire.
Bulcha Demeksa (born 1930) is an outspoken Ethiopian politician and businessman.
The Business Anti-Corruption Portal (BACP) is a one-stop shop for business anti-corruption information offering tools on how to mitigate risks and costs of corruption when doing business abroad.
Capital (also known as Capital Ethiopia) is an Ethiopian weekly business newspaper published and distributed by Crown Publishing Plc.
The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Ethiopia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA; Amharic: ማዕከላዊ ስታቲስቲክስ ኤጀንሲ) is an agency of the government of Ethiopia designated to provide all surveys and censuses for that country used to monitor economic and social growth, as well as to act as an official training center in that field.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
In the United States, a charter city is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by general law.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Coalition for Unity and Democracy (Ge'ez: ቅንጅት ለአንድነት እና ዴሞክራሲ), commonly referred to by its English abbreviation CUD, or occasionally CDU; its Amharic abbreviation, used in Ethiopia, is Qinijit, in English writing often referred to as Kinijit) is a coalition of four existing political parties of Ethiopia which combined to compete for seats in the Ethiopian General Elections held on May 15, 2005. Its leader was Dr. Hailu Shawul.
Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is a liturgical calendar that was used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and is still used in Egypt.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cush, also spelled as Kush (Biblical: כּוּשׁ Kûš), was, according to the Bible, the eldest son of Ham, who was a son of Noah.
The cushioned gerbil (Gerbillus pulvinatus) is distributed mainly in Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Dallol (Amharic: ዳሎል) is a locality in the Dallol woreda of northern Ethiopia.
The Danakil Depression is the northern part of the Afar Triangle or Afar Depression in Ethiopia, a geological depression that has resulted from the divergence of three tectonic plates in the Horn of Africa.
Dawit II (ዳዊት), also known as Wanag Segad (wanag sagad, 'to whom lions bow'), better known by his birth name Lebna Dengel (ልብነ ድንግል; 1501 – September 2, 1540), was nəgusä nägäst (1508–1540) of the Ethiopian Empire.
Debre Tabor (ደብረ ታቦር, lit. "Mount Tabor") is a town and a woreda in north-central Ethiopia.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
The demographics of Ethiopia encompass the demographic features of Ethiopia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, languages, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Derartu Tulu (Amharic: ደራርቱ ቱሉ; Afaan Oromo:Daraartuu Tulluu; born March 21, 1972) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who competed in track, cross country running, and road running up to the marathon distance.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
Dervla Murphy (born 28 November 1931) is an Irish touring cyclist and author of adventure travel books for over 40 years.
Dessie (ደሴ) (also spelled Dese or Dessye), is a city and a Zone in north-central Ethiopia.
Dʿmt (South Arabian alphabet: 𐩩𐩣𐩲𐩵; Unvocalized Ge'ez: ደዐመተ, DʿMT theoretically vocalized as ዳዓማት Daʿamat or ዳዕማት Daʿəmat) was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed during the 10th to 5th centuries BC.
The dibatag (Ammodorcas clarkei), or Clarke's gazelle, is a medium-sized slender antelope native to Ethiopia and Somalia.
Dime or Dima is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in the northern part of the Selamago district in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region of Ethiopia, around Mount Smith.
Dire Dawa (ድሬ ዳዋ, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", Dir Dhabe, meaning "where Dir hit his spear into the ground", ديري داوا) is one of two chartered cities (astedader akabibi) in Ethiopia (the other being the capital, Addis Ababa).
Districts, or woreda (ወረዳ) (also spelled wereda), are the third-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia.
Dizin (often called “Dizi” or “Maji” in the literature) is an Omotic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by the Dizi people, primarily in the Maji woreda of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, located in southwestern Ethiopia.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Djibouti City (also called Djibouti; مدينة جيبوتي, Ville de Djibouti, Magaalada Jabuuti, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti.
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.
Donald Carl Johanson (born June 28, 1943) is an American paleoanthropologist.
The dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas), also known as the ariel gazelle, is a small and common gazelle.
In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout most or all of a piece.
Dumpling is a broad classification for a dish that consists of pieces of dough (made from a variety of starch sources) wrapped around a filling or of dough with no filling.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
The economy of Ethiopia is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector. The Ethiopian government is in the process of privatizing many of the state-owned businesses and moving toward a market economy. However, the banking, telecommunication and transportation sectors of the economy are dominated by government-owned companies. Ethiopia has one of the fastest-growing economies in the world and is Africa’s second most populous country. Many properties owned by the government during the previous regime have now been privatized and are in the process of privatization. However, certain sectors such as telecommunications, financial and insurance services, air and land transportation services, and retail, are considered as strategic sectors and are expected to remain under state control for the foreseeable future. Almost 50% of Ethiopia's population is under the age of 18, and even though education enrollment at primary and tertiary level has increased significantly, job creation has not caught up with the increased output from educational institutes. The country must create hundreds of thousands of jobs every year just to keep up with population growth. The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage, sell, or own it. Various groups and political parties have sought for full privatization of land, while other opposition parties are against privatization and favor communal ownership. The current government has embarked on a program of economic reform, including privatization of state enterprises and rationalization of government regulation. While the process is still ongoing, the reforms have begun to attract much-needed foreign investment.
The ecumene (US) or oecumene (UK; οἰκουμένη, oikouménē, "inhabited") was an ancient Greek term for the known world, the inhabited world, or the habitable world.
The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day year.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
The Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (EAe) is a basic Encyclopaedia for Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Lij Endelkachew Makonnen (September 8, 1927 – November 23, 1974) was an Ethiopian politician.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Energy in Ethiopia is energy and electricity production, consumption, transport, exportation and importation in Ethiopia.
Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea.
The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, both before and during the Ethiopian Civil War.
The Eritrean–Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, one of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa.
Ethio telecom, previously known as the Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation (ETC), is an integrated telecommunications services provider in Ethiopia, providing internet and telephone services.
The Ethiopia national basketball team represents Ethiopia in international competitions.
A State of Emergency was declared on Sunday, October 9, 2016 by Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, although the state of emergency reportedly took effect on Saturday, October 8, 2016.
Ethiopian Airlines (የኢትዮጵያ አየር መንገድ (Yäitəyop̣əya äyärə mänəgädə); የኢትዮጵያ (Yäitəyop̣əya) in short), formerly Ethiopian Air Lines (EAL) and often referred to as simply Ethiopian, is Ethiopia's flag carrier and is wholly owned by the country's government.
The birr (ብር) is the unit of currency in Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation (EBC) is an Ethiopian public service broadcaster.
The Ethiopian calendar (የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር; yä'Ityoṗṗya zämän aḳoṭaṭär) is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches and Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern particular church within the Catholic Church.
The Ethiopian Civil War began on 12 September 1974 when the Marxist-Leninist Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie.
Ethiopian cuisine (የኢትዮጵያ ምግብ) characteristically consists of vegetable and often very spicy meat dishes.
The Ethiopian Democratic Party is a political party in Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
General elections were held in Ethiopia on 7 and 18 May 1995 for seats in its Council of People's Representatives; elections in the Afar, Somali, and Harari Regions were delayed until 28 June to assign experienced personnel who could solve possible conflicts and irregularities.
Ethiopia held general elections on 14 May and 31 August 2000 for seats in both its national House of Peoples' Representatives and several regional government councils.
Ethiopia held general elections on May 15, 2005, for seats in both its national House of Peoples' Representatives and in four regional government councils.
A parliamentary election was held in Ethiopia on May 23, 2010.
Parliamentary elections were held in Ethiopia on 24 May 2015 to elect officials to the House of Peoples' Representatives.
Ethiopian Herald is a Government owned English Language newspaper is published by the Ethiopian Press Agency.Jan Hoy Simpson an Englishman was its first editor and was followed by American editors.
The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.
The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) is the military of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር; abbreviated EPRDF but commonly known as Ehadig) is the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian striped mouse or striped-back mouse (Muriculus imberbis) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is a canid native to the Ethiopian Highlands.
The Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands ecoregion is a semi-desert strip on or near the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden coasts in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia.
Ethiopic Extended is a Unicode block containing Ge'ez characters for the Me'en, Blin, and Sebatbeit languages.
Ethiopic Extended-A is a Unicode block containing Ge'ez characters for the Gamo-Gofa-Dawro, Basketo, and Gumuz languages of Ethiopia.
Ethiopic Supplement is a Unicode block containing extra Ge'ez characters for writing the Sebatbeit language, and Ethiopic tone marks.
Ethnic federalism is a federal system of national government in which the federated units are defined according to ethnicity.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The Etymologicum Genuinum (standard abbreviation E Gen) is the conventional modern title given to a lexical encyclopedia compiled at Constantinople in the mid ninth century.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah in Hisma took place in October, 628AD, 6th month of 7AH of the Islamic calendar.
‘Ezana of Axum (ዔዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 CE) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan.
Fairfield House, in Newbridge, Bath, England is a Grade II listed building.
Subjectively the Economy of Ethiopia was based on subsistence agriculture, with an aristocracy that consumed the surplus.
Fasil Ghebbi (Royal Enclosure) is the remains of a fortress-city within Gondar, Ethiopia.
Fasilides (Ge'ez: ፋሲልደስ Fāsīladas, modern Fāsīledes; 20 November 1603 – 18 October 1667), also known as Fasil or Basilide, was emperor of Ethiopia from 1632 to 18 October 1667, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
February 29, also known as leap day or leap year day, is a date added to most years that are divisible by 4, such as 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020, and 2024.
The Parliament of Ethiopia consists of two chambers.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Finicha'a (also transliterated Finchawa) is a town in western Ethiopia.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
A flatbread is a bread made with flour, water and salt, and then thoroughly rolled into flattened dough.
Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Saint Frumentius (ፍሬምናጦስ Fremnāṭos; born in Tyre, Eastern Roman Empire, in the early fourth century, died circa 383, Kingdom of Aksum) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
Gambela or Gambella, (ጋምቤላ) also officialy known as Gambela Peoples' Region, is one of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia.
Gambela (ጋምቤላ) is a city and separate woreda in Ethiopia and the capital of the Gambela Region or kilil.
Gamo is the name of the Ethiopian ethnic group who speak the Gamo language.
Gamo-Gofa-Dawro is an Omotic language of the Afroasiatic family spoken in the Dawro, Gamo Gofa and Wolayita Zones of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region in Ethiopia.
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The gelada (Theropithecus gelada, translit), sometimes called the bleeding-heart monkey or the gelada baboon, is a species of Old World monkey found only in the Ethiopian Highlands, with large populations in the Semien Mountains.
Gelawdewos (ገላውዴዎስ galāwdēwōs, modern gelāwdēwōs, "Claudius"; 1521/1522 – 23 March 1559) was Emperor (throne name Asnaf Sagad I (አጽናፍ ሰገድ aṣnāf sagad, modern āṣnāf seged, "to whom the horizon bows" or "the remotest regions submit "; September 3, 1540 – March 23, 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was a younger son of Dawit II by Sabla Wengel.
Gelete Burka Bati (sometimes misspelled Burika, Oromo: Galate Burqaa Baati, Amharic: ገለቴ ቡርቃ; born 23 January 1986) is an Ethiopian middle-distance and long-distance runner.
Genzebe Dibaba Keneni (Amharic: ገንዘቤ ዲባባ ቀነኒ; born 8 February 1991) is an Ethiopian middle- and long-distance runner.
Gideon Force was a small British and African special force, which acted as a Corps d'Elite amongst the Sudan Defence Force, Ethiopian regular forces and Arbegnoch (Patriots) fighting the Italian occupation in Ethiopia, during the East African Campaign of World War II.
The Gilgel Gibe III Dam is a 243 m high roller-compacted concrete dam with an associated hydroelectric power plant on the Omo River in Ethiopia.
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Glass's shrew (Crocidura glassi) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
Ras Gobena Dache (Ge'ez: ራስ፡ ጎበና Goobanaa Daaccee, 1821 - July, 1889) was an ethnic Oromo member of the Shewan aristocrats of central Ethiopia in the mid-19th century.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The government of Ethiopia is structured in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government.
The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD or Taehige; ታላቁ የኢትዮጵያ ሕዳሴ ግድብ), formerly known as the Millennium Dam and sometimes referred to as Hidase Dam, is a gravity dam on the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia that has been under construction since 2011.
The Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), also known as the imperial zebra, is the largest living wild equid and the largest and most threatened of the three species of zebra, the other two being the plains zebra and the mountain zebra.
The Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia, (or Main Ethiopian Rift or Ethiopian Rift Valley) is a branch of the East African Rift that runs through Ethiopia in a southwest direction from the Afar Triple Junction.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
Gugsa of Yejju (died 23 May 1825) was a Ras of Begemder (circa 1798 until his death), and Inderase (regent) of the Emperor of Ethiopia.
The Gurage languages (ጉራጌ Guragē, also known as Guragie) are a group of South Ethiopic languages, which belong to the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family.
The Guraghe people are an Ethiopian Semitic-speaking ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia.
The Guramba shrew (Crocidura phaeura) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
Hadiya (ሃድያ: Hadiya or Hadiyya) is the Ethiopian ethnic group of people who speak the Hadiyya language.
Hadiyya (speakers call it Hadiyyisa, others sometimes call it Hadiyigna, Adiya, Adea, Adiye, Hadia, Hadiya, Hadya) is the Afroasiatic language of the Hadiya people of Ethiopia.
Haile Gebrselassie (ኃይሌ ገብረ ሥላሴ, haylē gebre silassē; born 18 April 1973) is a retired Ethiopian long-distance track and road running athlete.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Hailemariam Desalegn Boshe (ኃይለማሪያም ደሳለኝ ቦሼ; born 19 July 1965) is an Ethiopian politician who served as Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 2012 to 2018.
The Hamar (also spelled Hamer) are an Omotic community inhabiting southwestern Ethiopia.
Hamer or Hamer-Banna is a language within the South Omotic branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Hara Gebeya is a town in north-eastern Ethiopia.
Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
Harari is the language of the Harari people of Ethiopia.
Harari (ሓረሪ; Harari: ሐረሪ), officially Harari People's National Regional State (የሓረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል, Harari: ዚሐረሪ ኡምመት መሐዲያ ሑስኒ), is one of the nine ethnically-based regional states (kililoch) of Ethiopia, covering the homeland of the Harari people.
The Harenna shrew (Crocidura harenna) is a white-toothed shrew found only in one location in the Bale Mountains in southern Ethiopia.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
In music, heterophony is a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line.
This article covers the prehistory & history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Homo sapiens idaltu (Idaltu; "elder" or "first born"), also called Herto Man, is the name given to a number of hominin fossils found in 1997 in Herto Bouri, Ethiopia.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The House of Federation (Amharic language የፌዴሬሽን ምክር ቤት Yefedereshn Mekir Bet) is the upper house of the bicameral Federal Parliamentary Assembly, the parliament of Ethiopia.
The House of Peoples' Representatives (ተጋሩ የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት, yehizbtewekayoch mekir bet) is the lower chamber of the Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary Assembly, the House of Federation being the upper chamber.
A human rights group, or human rights organization, is a non-governmental organization which advocates for human rights through identification of their violation, collecting incident data, its analysis and publication, promotion of public awareness while conducting institutional advocacy, and lobbying to halt these violations.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
The Imamate of Aussa also spelled Imamate of Awsa was a medieval imamate in present-day eastern Ethiopia.
Imitation (from Latin imitatio, "a copying, imitation") is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Ethiopia include.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Injera (Amharic: ənǧära እንጀራ; sometimes transliterated as enjera; or "taita"; Tigrinya: ጣይታ; Somali: Canjeero) is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second largest religion in Ethiopia (after Christianity) over 35%-40% practices it, and in terms of land or regions Muslims occupies 80% of the land.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
The Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was a conflict fought from the summer of 1941 to the autumn of 1943 by remnants of Italian troops in Ethiopia, in what had been the short-lived attempt to incorporate Ethiopia as part of Italian East Africa.
Lij Iyasu, or Iyasu V (ኢያሱ፭ኛ, the Ethiopian version of Joshua), also known as Lij Iyasu (ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935), was the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia (1913–16).
Jebel Irhoud (žbəl iġud) is an archaeological site located just north of the locality known as Tlet Ighoud, about south-east of the city of Safi in Morocco.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jijiga (Jigjiga) is a city in eastern Ethiopia and the capital of the Somali Region of the country.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kana TV is a private commercial satellite television channel currently operating in Ethiopia. Kana TV owned and incorporated within Moby Media Group. It was co-founded by three Ethiopian entrepreneurs in combination with Moby Group and was officially launched in April 2016. The channel targets wide variety of serial dramas around the world. Most often, it broadcasts Turkish television dramas which arouse public attention toward the channel. It is currently Ethiopia's most popular television channel. Kana TV is broadcast throughout the region by satellite (NileSat). The channel operates solely in the Amharic language with part of the content being locally produced and the other half being dubbed foreign content. The source of its popularity is the multitude dubbed foreign TV dramas it broadcasts. Among the most famous are Turkish dramas such as 'Kuzey Güney' (North South) and 'Kara Para Aşk' (Black Money Love) It has offices located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with plans to expand its studios to make room for locally produced content.
Kandake, kadake or kentake, often Latinised as Candace (Κανδάκη), was the Meroitic language term for "queen" or possibly "royal woman".
Karo (also Cherre, Kere, Kerre) is an Omotic language spoken in the Debub (South) Omo Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region in Ethiopia.
A kebele (ቀበሌ, qäbäle, "neighbourhood") is the smallest administrative unit of Ethiopia, similar to a ward, a neighbourhood or a localized and delimited group of people.
Kenenisa Bekele (ቀነኒሳ በቀለ; born 13 June 1982) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner and the current world record and Olympic record holder in both the 5,000 metre and 10,000 metre events.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
Kitfo (ክትፎ), sometimes spelled ketfo, is a traditional dish found in Ethiopian cuisine.
Kombolcha (Amharic: ኮምቦልቻ) is a city and woreda in north-central Ethiopia.
Lake Tana (also spelled T'ana, ጣና ሀይቅ,,; an older variant is Tsana, Ge'ez: ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called "Dembiya" after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia.
Lalibela (ላሊበላ) is a town in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia famous for monolithic rock-cut churches.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals.
Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) is defined by the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat as a "greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use such as settlements and commercial uses, land-use change, and forestry activities." LULUCF has impacts on the global carbon cycle and as such, these activities can add or remove carbon dioxide (or, more generally, carbon) from the atmosphere, influencing climate.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The languages of Ethiopia refers to the various spoken forms of communication in Ethiopia.
The large-eared free-tailed bat (Otomops martiensseni) is a species of bat in the family Molossidae found in Angola, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, and possibly Madagascar.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros), is a type of European bat related to but smaller than its cousin, the greater horseshoe bat.
Lidetu Ayalew (Ge'ez: ልደቱ አያለዉ) is an Ethiopian opposition politician who was the President of the Ethiopian Democratic Party.
Link Ethiopia was started as GondarLink in 1996, and was originally a single link between Dr Challoner's Grammar School in Amersham, UK and Fasiledes Comprehensive Secondary School in Gondar, Ethiopia.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of ethnic groups in Ethiopia that are officially recognized by the government.
The list of non-Arab Sahaba includes non-Arabs among the original Sahaba of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
This article lists political parties in Ethiopia.
This is a list of Presidents of Ethiopia and also a list of Heads of State after the fall of the Ethiopian Empire in 1974.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has designated 135 World Heritage Sites in Africa.
The regions of Ethiopia are administratively divided into 68 or more zones (ዞን, zonə).
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least eight kilometres (5 miles).
The Lucina's shrew (Crocidura lucina) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
Lucy is the common name of AL 288-1, several hundred pieces of bone fossils representing 40 percent of the skeleton of a female of the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis.
Maale (also spelled Male), is an Omotic language spoken in the Omo Region of Ethiopia by the Maale people.
The MacMillan's shrew (Crocidura macmillani) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
The Mahdist War (الثورة المهدية ath-Thawra al-Mahdī; 1881–99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the "Guided One"), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain.
The Mail & Guardian is a South African weekly newspaper, published by M&G Media in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Majang language is spoken by the Majangir people of Ethiopia.
Degaga "Mamo" Wolde (Maammo Woldee, ደጋጋ ("ማሞ") ወልዴ; June 12, 1932 – May 26, 2002) was an Ethiopian long distance runner who competed in track, cross-country, and road running events.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia (ወደፊት ገስግሺ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ) is the national anthem of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Me'en (also Mekan, Mie'en, Mieken, Meqan, Men) is a Nilo-Saharan language (Eastern Sudanic, Surmic, Southeast Surmic) spoken in Ethiopia by the Me'en people.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medrek መድረክ (officially the "Forum for Democratic Dialogue in Ethiopia") is an Ethiopian opposition political coalition founded in 2008 which contested the Ethiopian general election, 2010.
Mekelle (መቐለ, mäqälle), formerly the capital of Enderta awraja in Tigray, is today the capital city of Tigray National Regional state.
Meles Zenawi Asres (Ge'ez: መለስ ዜናዊ አስረስ mäläs zenawi asräs;; birth name Legesse Meles Zenawi Asres 9 May 1955 – 20 August 2012) was the Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 to his death in 2012.
Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ), baptised as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus of Shewa (1866–89), then Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.
Meseret Defar Tola (Amharic: መሰረት ደፋር; born 19 November 1983) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner who competes chiefly in the 3000 metres and 5000 metres events.
Miaphysitism is a Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.
The Middle Awash is an archaeological site along the Awash River in Ethiopia's Afar Depression.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Migration to Abyssinia (الهجرة إلى الحبشة, al-hijra ʾilā al-habaša), also known as the First Hegira (هِجْرَة hijrah), was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad's first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca.
Mikael Sehul (Tigrinya "Mikael the Astute" – his name at birth was Blatta Mikael; c. 1691 – 23 June 1779) was a Ras or governor of Tigray 1748–71 and again from 1772 until his death.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The military history of Ethiopia dates back to the foundation of early Ethiopian Kingdoms in 980 BC.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Mingi is the traditional belief among the Omotic-speaking Karo and Hamar tribes in southern Ethiopia that adults and children with physical abnormalities are ritually impure.
Miruts Yifter (Amharic: ምሩፅ ይፍጠር, affectionately known as "Yifter the Shifter") (15 May 1944 – 22 December 2016) was an Ethiopian athlete and winner of two gold medals at the 1980 Summer Olympics.
In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Many changes were made during the reign of Haile Selassie I toward the modernization of Ethiopia upon his accession as Emperor (King of Kings) on November 2, 1930, as well as before, beginning from the time he effectively controlled Ethiopia in 1916 as Regent Plenipotentiary, Ras Tafari.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
The Monumentum Adulitanum was an ancient bilingual inscription in Ge'ez and Greek depicting the military campaigns of an Adulite king.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Morris's bat (Myotis morrisi) is a species of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Mount Entoto (እንጦጦ) is the highest peak on the Entoto Mountains, which overlook the city of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.
The mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) or balbok is an antelope found in high altitude woodland in a small part of central Ethiopia.
Mouse-tailed bats are a group of insectivorous bats of the family Rhinopomatidae with only three to six species, all contained in the single genus Rhinopoma.
The Mudaito Dynasty (Modaytó Dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of the Sultanate of Aussa (Sultanate of Awsa) in Ethiopia.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mulatu Teshome Wirtu (Ge'ez: ሙላቱ ተሾመ, born 1 January 1955) is an Ethiopian politician who has been President of Ethiopia since 7 October 2013.
Mursi (also Dama, Merdu, Meritu, Murzi, Murzu) is a Nilo-Saharan Eastern Sudanic language spoken by the Mursi people, in the central Omo region of southwest Ethiopia.
The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of Ethiopia's ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Natal free-tailed bat (Mormopterus acetabulosus) is a species of bat in the family Molossidae, the free-tailed bats.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Negash is a village in the Tigray Region (or kilil) of Ethiopia, which straddles the Adigrat-Mekele road (Ethiopian Highway 2) north of Wukro.
Negasso Gidada Solon (ነጋሶ ጊዳዳ Nägaso Gidada; born 3 September 1943) was the 6th President of Ethiopia from 1995 until 2001.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nikolaus's mouse (Megadendromus nikolausi) is a species of rodent in the family Nesomyidae.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
The Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) is a desert-dwelling goat species found in mountainous areas of Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen.
The Nuer language (Thok Naath) is a Nilo-Saharan language of the Western Nilotic group.
The Nuer people are a Nilotic ethnic group primarily inhabiting the Nile Valley.
Nyangatom (also Inyangatom, Donyiro, Dongiro, Idongiro) is a Nilo-Saharan language (Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic) spoken in Ethiopia by the Nyangatom people.
The Oakland Institute is a progressive think tank founded in 2004 by Anuradha Mittal, the former co-director of Food First.
Obstetric fistula is a medical condition in which a hole develops in the birth canal as a result of childbirth.
Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn; Ogaadeen) is the unofficial name of the Somali Region, the territory comprising the eastern portion of Ethiopia.
The Ogaden War was a Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden starting with the Somali Democratic Republic's invasion of Ethiopia.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Omo Kibish Formation or simply Kibish Formation is a rock formation in southern Ethiopia.
The Omo remains are a collection of homininThis article quotes historic texts that use the terms 'hominid' and 'hominin' with meanings that may be different from their modern usages.
The Omo River (also called Omo-Bottego) in southern Ethiopia is the largest Ethiopian river outside the Nile Basin.
The Omotic languages are group of languages spoken in southwestern Ethiopia.
Operation Moses (מִבְצָע מֹשֶׁה, Mivtza Moshe) refers to the covert evacuation of Ethiopian Jews (known as the "Beta Israel" community or "Falashas") from Sudan during a civil war that caused a famine in 1984.
Operation Solomon (מבצע שלמה, Mivtza Shlomo) was a covert Israeli military operation to airlift Ethiopian Jews to Israel from May 24 to May 25, 1991.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Oromia (spelled Oromiyaa in the Oromo language; ኦሮሚያ) is one of the nine ethnically based regional states of Ethiopia, covering 284,538 square kilometers.
The Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (የኦሮሞ ፌደራሊስት ዴሞክራቲክ ንቅናቄ, Warraaqsa Federaalistii Uummata Oromoo, OFDM) is a political party in Ethiopia, created to further the interests of the Oromo people.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
The Oromo Liberation Front (Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo, abbreviated ABO; English abbreviation OLF) is an organisation established in 1973 by Oromo nationalists to promote self-determination for the Oromo people against perceived Abyssinian colonial rule.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
The Oromo People's Congress (OPC) is a major opposition political party in Ethiopia.
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ethiopia is a landlocked sovereign country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
P'ent'ay (from ጴንጤ, also transliterated as Pentay or Pente) is an Amharic and Tigrinya language term for a Christian of a Protestant denomination, widely used in Ethiopia and among Ethiopians and Eritreans living abroad.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PACCI) is a business support body representing national Chambers of Commerce and private businesses from across the continent.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Patrizi's trident leaf-nosed bat (Asellia patrizii) is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae.
A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five notes per octave, in contrast to the more familiar heptatonic scale that has seven notes per octave (such as the major scale and minor scale).
The People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) was the official name of Ethiopia from 1987 to 1991, as established by the Communist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam and the Workers' Party of Ethiopia (WPE).
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Saint Philip the Evangelist (Φίλιππος, Philippos) appears several times in the Acts of the Apostles.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
The Port of Djibouti is a port in Djibouti City, the capital of Djibouti.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
The Prime Minister of Ethiopia is the head of the Ethiopian government and the most powerful figure in Ethiopian politics.
Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by Peter Benenson in a 28 May 1961 article ("The Forgotten Prisoners") for the London Observer newspaper.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Ethiopia was divided into provinces, further subdivided into awrajjas or districts, until they were replaced by regions (''kililoch'') and chartered cities in 1992.
Qey Shibir (also Key Shibbir; Amharic: ቀይ ሽብር ḳäy šəbbər; 1977–1978) or the Ethiopian Red Terror, was a violent political campaign against competing Marxist-Leninist groups in Ethiopia and Eritrea that most visibly took place after Mengistu Haile Mariam achieved control of the Derg, the military junta, on 3 February 1977.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
Qwara, or Qwareña (called "Falasha" (Hwarasa) in some older sources), was one of two Agaw dialects, spoken by a subgroup of the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews) of the Qwara area.
Qwara (Amharic: ቋራ) (also spelled K'wara) was a province in Ethiopia, located between Lake Tana and the frontier with Sudan, and stretching from Agawmeder in the south as far north as Metemma.
Rail transport in Ethiopia is done within the National Railway Network of Ethiopia, which is mostly in planning and construction stage and currently consists of four electrified standard gauge railway lines: the Addis Ababa Light Rail, the Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway, the Awash–Weldiya Railway and the Weldiya–Mekelle Railway.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
The red-fronted gazelle (Eudorcas rufifrons) is widely but unevenly distributed gazelle across the middle of Africa from Senegal to northeastern Ethiopia.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
Ethiopia is a federal state subdivided into ethno-linguistically based regional states (plural: kililoch; singular: kilil) and chartered cities (plural: astedader akababiwach; singular: astedader akabibi).
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Resettlement and villagization in Ethiopia has been an issue from the late nineteenth century up to the present, due to the overcrowded population of the Ethiopian highlands.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rupp's mouse or Rupp's stenocephalemys (Stenocephalemys ruppi) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
Sabaean (Sabaic), also sometimes incorrectly known as Ḥimyarite (Himyaritic), was an Old South Arabian language spoken in Yemen between c. 1000 BC and the 6th century AD, by the Sabaeans.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Salah El Din Ahmed Said (ሳላዲን ሰይድ, born 29 October 1988), also known as Salhadin Said or Saladin Said, is an Ethiopian footballer who plays for Ethiopian club Saint George FC and the Ethiopian national team.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Scott's mouse-eared bat (Myotis scotti) is a species of vesper bat.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
Semera or Samera (Ge'ez: ሰመራ) is a new town on the Awash–Asseb highway in north-east Ethiopia, planned to replace Asaita as the capital of the Afar Region.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
Shewa (ሸዋ, Šawā; Šewā), formerly romanized as Shoa (Scioà in Italian), is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Sidama people (Ge'ez: ሲዳማ) are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the Sidama Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR) in Ethiopia.
Sidaama or Sidaamu Afoo is an Afro-Asiatic language, belonging to the Highland East Cushitic branch of the Cushitic family.
Silt'e (ስልጥኘ or የስልጤ አፍ) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in central Ethiopia.
The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.
Simien Mountains National Park is one of the national parks of Ethiopia.
Slavery in Ethiopia existed for centuries.
The Sobat River is a river of the Greater Upper Nile region in northeastern South Sudan, Africa.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Soemmerring's gazelle (Nanger soemmerringii, formerly Gazella soemmerringii), also known as Abyssinian mohr, is a gazelle species native to the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and South Sudan).
Sof Omar Cave is the longest cave in Ethiopia at long; sources claim it is the longest system of caves in Africa.
The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Ethiopian Somali State (Dawlada Deegaanka Soomaalida Itoobiya, الدولة الاثيوبية المنطقة الصومالية) is the easternmost of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.
South Arabia is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.
South Semitic is a putative branch of the Semitic languages.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.
The Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition is a political party in Ethiopia.
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (often abbreviated as SNNPR; የደቡብ ብሔር ብሔረሰቦችና ህዝቦች ክልል) is one of the nine ethnically based regional states (kililoch) of Ethiopia.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Speke's gazelle (Gazella spekei) is the smallest of the gazelle species.
The spotted-necked otter (Hydrictis maculicollis), or speckle-throated otter, is an otter native to sub-Saharan Africa.
A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Sultanate of Aussa (alternate spelling: Awsa, also known as the Afar Sultanate) was a kingdom that existed in the Afar Region of eastern Ethiopia in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Sultanate of Harar was an ancient kingdom centered in Harar, Ethiopia.
The Sultanate of Showa (Sultanate of Shewa) was a Muslim kingdom situated in the territory of present-day Ethiopia.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Suri (Churi, Dhuri, Shuri, Shuro), is a Nilo-Saharan Eastern Sudanic language, of the Surmic grouping.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Susenyos I (also Sisinios, in Greek, Ge'ez ሱስንዮስ sūsinyōs; throne name Malak Sagad III, Ge'ez መልአክ ሰገድ, mal'ak sagad, Amh. mel'āk seged, "to whom the angel bows"; 1572 – 1632) was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1606 to 1632.
Tariku Bekele (Amharic: ታሪኩ በቀለ; born 28 February 1987) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who specializes in the 5000 metres and has moved up to 10000 metres as well.
Tekle Giyorgis II (Ge'ez: ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ, "Plant of Saint George" born Wagshum Gobeze ዋግሹም ጎበዜ lit. "Governor of Wag, my courageous one"; died 1873) was nəgusä nägäst (Emperor) of Ethiopia from 1868 to 1871.
Téwodros II (ቴዎድሮስ, baptized as Sahle Dingil, and often referred to in English by the equivalent Theodore II) (c. 1818 – April 13, 1868) was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death.
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.
The Reporter (Ethiopia), also known as The Ethiopian Reporter (Amharic: ሪፖርተር), is a private newspaper published in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Tigray was a province of the Ethiopian Empire and of the PDRE until 1995.
Tigray Region (Geez: ክልል ትግራይ, kilil Tigrāy; Official name: Geez:ብሔራዊ ከልላቂ መንግሥቲ ትግራይ, Bəh̩erawi Kəllelawi Mängəśti Təgray, "Tigray National Regional State") is the northernmost of the nine regions (kililat) of Ethiopia.
The Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) (Ge'ez: ህወሓት), known more commonly and sometimes as Weyane or Second Weyane (Ge'ez: ወያነ/ ካልኣይ ወያነ) (Ge'ez: ህዝባዊ ወያነ ሓርነት ትግራይ, ህዝባዊ ወያነ ሓርነት ትግራይ (ሕወሓት), "Popular revolution (for) the freedom of Tigray") is a political party in Tigray, Ethiopia.
Tigrayans (ተጋሩ) also called Agazian, are an ethnolinguistic group primarily inhabiting the Eritrean highlands and the northern Tigray region of Ethiopia.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
Erba Tiki Gelana (ኧርባ ቲኪ ገላና; born 22 October 1987) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner who competes in marathon races.
Tim D. White (born August 24, 1950) is an American paleoanthropologist and Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.
The time zone in Ethiopia is East Africa Time (EAT) (UTC+03).
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
This is a timeline showing the dates when countries or polities made Christianity the official state religion, generally accompanying the baptism of the governing monarch.
Tirunesh Dibaba, also known as Tirunesh Dibaba Kenene, (Amharic: ጥሩነሽ ዲባባ ቀነኒ; born 1 June 1985) is an Ethiopian athlete who competes in long distance track events and international road races.
Tiya is a town in central Ethiopia.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) was established immediately after the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) seized power from the Communist-led People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) in 1991 and it continued until 1995, when it transitioned into the reconstituted Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, which continues to this time.
Twin cities are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (የኢትዮጵያ ዴሞክራሲዊ ኃይሎቸ ሕብረት) is a coalition of several political parties in Ethiopia which combined to compete for seats in the Ethiopian General Elections held on May 15, 2005.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council to encourage economic cooperation among its member states (the nations of the African continent) following a recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
The Unity for Democracy and Justice is an Ethiopian political party.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Villagization (sometimes also spelled villagisation) is the (usually compulsory) resettlement of people into designated villages by government or military authorities.
A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve.
The Walashma dynasty was a medieval Muslim dynasty of the Horn of Africa.
The walia ibex (Capra walie, Ge'ez: ዋልያ wālyā) is an endangered species of ibex.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Wat, we̠t’, wot (ወጥ) or tsebhi (ጸብሒ) is an Ethiopian and Eritrean stew or curry that may be prepared with chicken, beef, lamb, a variety of vegetables, spice mixtures such as berbere, and niter kibbeh, a seasoned clarified butter.
The Nile river is subject to political interactions.
Wolayta (also spelled Wolaitta) (Ge'ez: ወላይታ Wolaytta) is the name of an ethnic group and its former kingdom, located in southern Ethiopia.
Weldiya (Amharic: ወልደ,wäldiya, "Son") is the capital of the Semien Wollo Zone, and woreda in northern Ethiopia.
Welkait is a woreda and region in northwestern Ethiopia, part of the West Zone of Tigray Region.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wolaytta is a North Omotic language of the Ometo group spoken in the Wolayita Zone and some other parts of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia.
Wolde Selassie (Geez: ዎልደስላሴ; c.1745 - 28 May 1816) was a Ras of Ethiopia and warlord of Tigray.
A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supranational company, society, state or other body or organization as its primary means of communication.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
A world record is usually the best global performance ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill or sport.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Wukro (Ge'ez: ውቕሮ) (also known as Wukro Kilte Awulaelo; Ge'ez: ውቕሮ ክልተ ኣውላዕሎ) (also transliterated Wuqro; formerly known as Dongolo (Ge'ez: ዶንጎሎ) is a town and separate woreda in northern Ethiopia. It's located in the Misraqawi (Eastern) zone of the Tigray region on the Asmara-Addis Ababa highway (Ethiopian Highway 2). Wukro is surrounded by Kilte Awulaelo woreda. The rock-hewn churches around Wukro are the town's most distinctive landmarks; in the early 20th century the town's name was changed from "Dongolo" (Ge'ez: ዶንጎሎ) to the Tigrigna word for a structure carved from the living rock, Wukro.
Yeha (ይሐ yiḥa, older ESA 𐩥𐩢 ḤW) is a town in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the northern Tigray Region in Ethiopia.
Yejju Oromo belong to the Barentu branch of Oromo people.
Yekatit 12 is a date in the Ethiopian calendar, equivalent to 19 February in the Gregorian calendar, which is commonly used to refer to the indiscriminate massacre, known as the Addis Ababa massacre, and imprisonment of Ethiopians by elements of the Italian occupation forces following an attempted assassination of Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli, Viceroy of Italian East Africa, on 19 February 1937.
Yeshaq I or Isaac (Ge'ez ይሥሓቅ, yisḥāḳ; throne name: Gabra Masqal II ገብረ መስቀል, gabra masḳal) was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1414–29) of Ethiopia.
Yohannes IV (Ge'ez: ፬ኛ ዮሓንስ, Āratenya Yōḥānnis; horse name "Abba Bezba"; 11 July 1837 – 10 March 1889), born Lij Kaśa Mercha and contemporaneously also known in English as Johannes or John IV, was ruler of Tigray 1867-71, and Emperor of Ethiopia ("King of Zion" and "King of Kings" of Ethiopia) 1872-89 is remembered as one of the leading architects of the modern state of Ethiopia.
The Zagwe dynasty (ዛጉዌ ሥርወ መንግስት) was the ruling dynasty of a Medieval kingdom in present-day northern Ethiopia.
The Zemene Mesafint (ዘመነ መሳፍንት zamana masāfint, modern zemene mesāfint, variously translated "Era of Judges," "Era of the Princes," "Age of Princes," etc.; named after the Book of Judges) was a period in Ethiopian history between the mid-18th and mid-19th centuries when the country was de facto divided within itself into several regions with no effective central authority.
Zewditu (also spelled Zawditu or Zauditu or Zäwditu; ዘውዲቱ; 29 April 1876 – 2 April 1930) was Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 to 1930.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
.et is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Ethiopia.
The 15th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 15 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
A widespread famine affected Ethiopia from 1983 to 1985.
The current Constitution of Ethiopia, which is the supreme law of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, came into force on 21 August 1995.
The Ethiopian police massacre refers to the killing of innocent people by government forces during June and November 2005 which led to the deaths of 193 protesters and injury of 763 others, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, following the May 2005 elections in Ethiopia.
Between July 2011 and mid-2012, a severe drought affected the entire East Africa region.
Protests erupted in Ethiopia on 5 August 2016 following calls by opposition groups.
The meridian 33° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 3rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 3 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 48° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Madagascar, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
AEthiopia, Abbysinnia, Abissinia, Abysinna, Etheopia, Ethiopai, Ethiopean, Ethiopian, Ethiopioa, Ethopian, Etiopia, Etymology of Ethiopia, FDRE, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Federal Republic of Ethiopia, Habeshistan, ISO 3166-1:ET, Ityop'ia, Ityop'iya, Ityop'pya, Ityoppya, Ityoṗṗya, Name of Ethiopia, Names of Ethiopia, Prehistory of Ethiopia, The Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia, YeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk, Æthiopia, Ītyōṗṗyā, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, ኢትዮጵያ.