277 relations: Aénor de Châtellerault, Adelaide of Maurienne, Adulterine castle, Aimery I, Viscount of Châtellerault, Albigensian Crusade, Alexander II of Scotland, Alexander III of Scotland, Alfonso X of Castile, Alice of Courtenay, Angevin Empire, Anglo-Saxons, Aymer of Angoulême, Battle of Al Mansurah, Battle of Evesham, Battle of Lewes, Battle of Lincoln (1217), Battle of Sandwich (1217), Battle of Taillebourg, Beatrice of England, Beatrice of Savoy, Bedford Castle, Bishop of Lincoln, Bishop of Winchester, Blanche of Castile, Blood libel, Boniface of Savoy (bishop), Brass, Bromholm Priory, Burgundy, Canonization, Canterbury, Canterbury Cathedral, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles I of England, Charles the Simple, Charter of the Forest, Cheshire, Chronica Majora, City of London, Confessor, Corfe Castle, Corolla (chaplet), Counts and dukes of Anjou, County of La Marche, County of Savoy, Crusades, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard, Dante Alighieri, David Carpenter (historian), ..., Degenerative disease, Denmark, Dictum of Kenilworth, Divine Comedy, Dominican Order, Domus Conversorum, Dover Castle, Duchy of Brittany, Duchy of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Earl of Chester, Earl of Kent, Earl of Leicester, Edinburgh Castle, Edmund Crouchback, Edmund of Abingdon, Edmund the Martyr, Edward I of England, Edward the Confessor, Eighth Crusade, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of England, Countess of Leicester, Eleanor of Provence, Empress Matilda, English Channel, English Civil War, Ermengarde, Countess of Maine, Eustace the Monk, Exchequer, Excommunication, Eyre (legal term), F. 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Aénor of Châtellerault (also known as Aénor de Rochefoucauld) Duchess of Aquitaine (born c. 1103 in Châtellerault, died March 1130 in Talmont) was the mother of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who arguably became the most powerful woman in Europe of her generation.
Adelaide of Savoy (or Adelaide of Maurienne) (Adelaide di Savoia or Adelasia di Moriana, Adélaïde or Adèle de Maurienne) (1092 – 18 November 1154) was the second spouse but first Queen consort of Louis VI of France.
Adulterine castles were fortifications built in England during the 12th century without royal approval, particularly during the civil war of the Anarchy between 1139 and 1154.
Aimery I de Rouchefoucould (– 7 November 1151), was the Viscount of Châtellerault and father of Aenor de Châtellerault.
The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.
Alexander II (Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Uilleim; 24 August 11986 July 1249) was King of Scots from 1214 until his death in 1249.
Alexander III (Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair) (4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) was King of Scots from 1249 to his death.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
Alice of Courtenay, Countess of Angoulême (1160 – 12 February 1218) was a French noblewoman of the House of Courtenay.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Aymer (also Aymar, Adhemar, Ademar, or Adomar; c. 1160 – 16 June 1202) was the last Count of Angoulême of the House of Taillefer.
The Battle of Al Mansurah was fought from February 8 to February 11, 1250, between Crusaders led by Louis IX, King of France, and Ayyubid forces led by Emir Fakhr-ad-Din Yusuf, Faris ad-Din Aktai and Baibars al-Bunduqdari.
The Battle of Evesham (4 August 1265) was one of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War.
The Battle of Lewes was one of two main battles of the conflict known as the Second Barons' War.
The Second Battle of Lincoln occurred at Lincoln Castle on Saturday 20 May 1217, during the First Barons' War, between the forces of the future Louis VIII of France and those of King Henry III of England.
The Battle of Sandwich, also called the Battle of Dover took place on 24 August 1217 as part of the First Barons' War.
The Battle of Taillebourg was a 1242 battle between the Capetian troops of Louis IX and his brother Alphonse of Poitiers, against the rebel followers of Hugh X of Lusignan and king Henry III of England.
Beatrice of England (24 June 1242 – 24 March 1275) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the daughter of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.
Beatrice of Savoy (c. 1198 – c. 1267) was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva.
Bedford Castle was a large medieval castle in Bedford, England.
The Bishop of Lincoln is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England.
Blanche of Castile (Blanca; 4 March 1188 – 27 November 1252) was Queen of France by marriage to Louis VIII.
Blood libel (also blood accusation) is an accusationTurvey, Brent E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis, Academic Press, 2008, p. 3.
Boniface of Savoy (c. 1217 – 18 July 1270) was a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Bromholm Priory was a Cluniac priory, situated in a coastal location near the village of Bacton, Norfolk, England.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23.
The Charter of the Forest of 1217 (Carta Foresta) is a charter that re-established for free men rights of access to the royal forest that had been eroded by William the Conqueror and his heirs.
Cheshire (archaically the County Palatine of Chester) is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west.
The Chronica Majora is an important medieval illuminated manuscript chronicle written in Latin by Matthew Paris, a Benedictine monk living in the Abbey of St Albans.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
Confessor is a title used within Christianity in several ways.
Corfe Castle is a fortification standing above the village of the same name on the Isle of Purbeck in the English county of Dorset.
A corolla is an ancient headdress in the form of a small circlet or crown.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
The County of Marche (la Marcha) was a medieval French county, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse.
The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c. March 1212 – 25 February 1246) was Prince of Gwynedd from 1240 to 1246.
Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard (Poitevin: Dangerosa; 1079-1151) was the daughter of Bartholomew of l'Île-Bouchard.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
David Carpenter (born 1947) is an English historian and writer, and Professor of Medieval History at King's College London where he has been working since 1988.
Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Dictum of Kenilworth, issued on 31 October 1266, was a pronouncement designed to reconcile the rebels of the Barons' War with the royal government of England.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
The Domus Conversorum (House of the Converts) was a building and institution in London for Jews who had converted to Christianity.
Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover, Kent, England.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
The Duke of Aquitaine (Duc d'Aquitània, Duc d'Aquitaine) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English, and later French kings.
The Earldom of Chester (Welsh: Iarll Caer) was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England, extending principally over the counties of Cheshire and Flintshire.
The peerage title Earl of Kent has been created eight times in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Earl of Leicester is a title that has been created seven times.
Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock.
Edmund Crouchback (16 January 1245 – 5 June 1296), a member of the House of Plantagenet, was the second surviving son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.
Edmund of Abingdon (circa 1174 – 1240) was a 13th-century Archbishop of Canterbury in England.
Edmund the Martyr (also known as St Edmund or Edmund of East Anglia, died 20 November 869) was king of East Anglia from about 855 until his death.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere, Eduardus Confessor; 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Eleanor of England (also called Eleanor Plantagenet and Eleanor of Leicester) (1215 – 13 April 1275) was the youngest child of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême.
Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 – 24/25 June 1291Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Provence) was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Henry III of England, from 1236 until his death in 1272.
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126.
Eustace the Monk (Eustache le Moine; c. 1170 – 24 August 1217), born Eustace Busket,Knight 1997, "".
In the civil service of the United Kingdom, Her Majesty’s Exchequer, or just the Exchequer, is the accounting process of central government and the government's current account i.e. money held from taxation and other government revenues in the Consolidated Fund.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
An Eyre or Iter was the name of a circuit traveled by an itinerant justice in medieval England (a Justice in Eyre), or the circuit court over which they presided, or the right of the monarch (or justices acting in their name) to visit and inspect the holdings of any vassal.
Sir Frederick Maurice Powicke (16 June 1879 – 19 May 1963) was an English medieval historian.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in the Kingdom of England in which a group of rebellious major landowners (commonly referred to as barons) led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The Flores Historiarum (Flowers of History) is the name of two different (though related) Latin chronicles by medieval English historians that were created in the 13th century, associated originally with the Abbey of St Albans.
The Royal Abbey of Our Lady of Fontevraud or Fontevrault (in French: abbaye de Fontevraud) was a monastery in the village of Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, near Chinon, in Anjou, France.
Maundy (from the Vulgate of John 13:34 mandatum meaning "command"), or the Washing of the Feet, is a religious rite observed by various Christian denominations.
The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Fulk (Fulco, Foulque or Foulques; c. 1089/92 – 13 November 1143), also known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151) — called the Handsome or the Fair (le Bel) and Plantagenet — was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144.
Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1194 – 27 June 1241) was the third son of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke, the daughter of Richard de Clare.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn.
Guala Bicchieri (1150 – 1227) was an Italian diplomat, papal official and cardinal.
Gwynedd is a county in Wales, sharing borders with Powys, Conwy, Anglesey over the Menai Strait, and Ceredigion over the River Dyfi.
Hampshire (abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
This is the history of the English penny from the years 1154 to 1485.
The history of the Jews in England goes back to the reign of William the Conqueror.
A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes also known as a cache.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent (c. 1170 – before 5 May 1243) was Justiciar of England and Ireland and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of King John (1199–1216) and of his infant son and successor King Henry III (1216–1272).
Hugh Bigod (c. 1211 – 1266) was Justiciar of England from 1258 to 1260.
Hugh IX "le Brun" of Lusignan (1163/1168 – 5 November 1219) was the grandson of Hugh VIII.
Hugh X de Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulême (c.
Humphrey (IV) de Bohun (1204 – 24 September 1275) was 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex, as well as Constable of England.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Isabella of Angoulême (Isabelle d'Angoulême,; c. 1186/1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216.
Isabella of England (1214 – 1 December 1241), was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, and Queen consort of Sicily.
The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joan of England (22 July 1210 – 4 March 1238), was Queen consort of Scotland from 1221 until her death.
Joan of Dammartin (Jeanne de Dammartin; c. 1220 – 16 March 1279) was Queen consort of Castile and León by marriage to Ferdinand III of Castile.
John FitzGeoffrey, Lord of Shere and Justiciar of Ireland (1205? in Shere, Surrey, England – 23 November 1258) was an English nobleman.
John A. A. Goodall, (born 1970) is an English historian, author, and Architectural Editor of Country Life magazine.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
In Medieval England and Scotland the Chief Justiciar (later known simply as the Justiciar) was roughly equivalent to a modern Prime Minister as the monarch's chief minister.
Kate Norgate (1853–1935) was a British historian.
Katherine of England (Old English: Katerine; 25 November 12533 May 1257) was the fifth child of Henry III and his wife, Eleanor of Provence.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
Leopold VI (Luitpold VI., 1176 – 28 July 1230Beller 2007, pp. 23.), known as Leopold the Glorious (Luitpold der Glorreiche), was the Duke of Styria from 1194 and the Duke of Austria from 1198 to his death in 1230.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lincoln Castle is a major Norman castle constructed in Lincoln, England during the late 11th century by William the Conqueror on the site of a pre-existing Roman fortress.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
Medieval Irish historical tradition held that Ireland had been ruled by an Ard Rí or High King since ancient times, and compilations like the 11th-century Lebor Gabála Érenn, followed by early modern works like the Annals of the Four Masters and Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, purported to trace the line of High Kings.
This is a list of rulers of the Duchy of Brittany.
The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe.
Hugh of Lincoln (1246 – 27 August 1255) was an English boy whose death was falsely attributed to Jews.
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, also known as Llywelyn the Last (lit), was Prince of Wales (Princeps Wallie; Tywysog Cymru) from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282.
Llywelyn the Great (Llywelyn Fawr), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 117311 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis VI (c.1081 – 1 August 1137), called the Fat (le Gros) or the Fighter (le Batailleur), was King of the Franks from 1108 until his death (1137).
Louis VIII the Lion (Louis VIII le Lion; 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) was King of France from 1223 to 1226.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France (not to be confused with La Maine, the river).
Manfred (Manfredi di Sicilia; 1232 – 26 February 1266) was the King of Sicily from 1258 to 1266.
Margaret of England (29 September 1240 – 26 February 1275) was Queen of Scots by marriage to King Alexander III.
Margaret of Provence (Marguerite; 1221 – 20 December 1295) was Queen of France by marriage to King Louis IX.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
Matilda of Scotland (c. 1080 – 1 May 1118), originally christened Edith, was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry I. She acted as regent of England in the absence of her spouse on several occasions.
Matthew Paris, known as Matthew of Paris (Latin: Matthæus Parisiensis, "Matthew the Parisian"; c. 1200 – 1259), was a Benedictine monk, English chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts and cartographer, based at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire.
Matthew Parker (6 August 1504 – 17 May 1575) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1559 until his death in 1575.
A menagerie is a collection of captive animals, frequently exotic, kept for display; or the place where such a collection is kept, a precursor to the modern zoological garden.
Mendicant orders are, primarily, certain Christian religious orders that have adopted a lifestyle of poverty, traveling, and living in urban areas for purposes of preaching, evangelism, and ministry, especially to the poor.
Merton College Chapel is the church of Merton College, Oxford, England.
Michael T. Clanchy is Professor Emeritus of Medieval History at the Institute of Historical Research, University of London and Fellow of the British Academy.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
The Mise of Amiens was a settlement given by King Louis IX of France on 23 January 1264 in the conflict between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons, led by Simon de Montfort.
Nicholas Trivet (or Trevet, as he himself wrote) (c. 1258 – c. 1328) was an English Anglo-Norman chronicler.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
Owain ap Gruffudd, (also known as Owain Goch (Owain the Red)), (died 1282), was brother to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Dafydd ap Gruffudd and, for a brief period in the late 1240s and early 1250s, ruler of part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd (in modern-day north Wales).
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Pandulf Verraccio (died 16 September 1226), whose first name may also be spelled Pandolph or Pandulph (Pandolfo in Italian), was a Roman ecclesiastical politician, papal legate to England and bishop of Norwich.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
Peter de Montfort (or Piers de Montfort) (c. 1205 – 4 August 1265) of Beaudesert Castle was an English magnate, soldier and diplomat.
Peter des Roches (died 9 June 1238) was bishop of Winchester in the reigns of King John of England and his son Henry III.
Peter I of Courtenay (September 1126 – 10 April 1183) was the youngest son of Louis VI of France and his second wife, Adélaide de Maurienne.
Peter I (Pierre; c. 1187 – 26 May 1250), also known as Peter Mauclerc, was Duke of Brittany jure uxoris from 1213 to 1221, and regent of the duchy for his minor son John I from 1221 to 1237.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philippa (c. 1073 – 28 November 1118) was the sovereign Countess of Toulouse, as well as the duchess consort of Aquitaine by marriage to Duke William IX of Aquitaine.
In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue that may include religious devotion, spirituality, or a mixture of both.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
The Pipe rolls, sometimes called the Great rolls,Brown Governance pp.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Adrian V (Adrianus V; c. 1210/122018 August 1276), born Ottobuono de' Fieschi, was Pope from 11 July to his death on 18 August 1276.
Pope Alexander IV (1199 or ca. 1185 – 25 May 1261) was Pope from 12 December 1254 to his death in 1261.
Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope Urban IV (Urbanus IV; c. 1195 – 2 October 1264), born Jacques Pantaléon,Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean Word in the Later Thirteenth Century, (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 54.
The Provisions of Oxford were constitutional reforms developed in 1258 to resolve a dispute between the English barons and King Henry III.
The Provisions of Westminster of 1259 were part of a series of legislative constitutional reforms that arose out of power struggles between Henry III of England and his barons.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
Ramon Berenguer IV or V (1198 – 19 August 1245), Count of Provence and Forcalquier, was the son of Alfonso II of Provence and Garsenda de Sabran, heiress of Forcalquier.
Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester and 1st Earl of Lincoln (1170–1232), known in some references as the 4th Earl of Chester (in the second lineage of the title after the original family line was broken after the 2nd Earl), was one of the "old school" of Anglo-Norman barons whose loyalty to the Angevin dynasty was consistent but contingent on the receipt of lucrative favours.
Reading is a large, historically important minster town in Berkshire, England, of which it is the county town.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
The Relic of the Holy Blood was a medieval relic, said to contain some of the blood of Jesus Christ.
A number of relics associated with Jesus have been claimed and displayed throughout the history of Christianity.
Religion in England is dominated by the Church of England (Anglicanism), the established church of the state whose Supreme Governor is the Monarch of England.
Renaud de Courtenay, anglicised to Reginald I de Courtenay, of Sutton, Berkshire, was a French nobleman of the House of Courtenay who took up residence in England and founded the English Courtenay family, who became Earls of Devon in 1335.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic brain disorder which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females.
Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Gloucester, 2nd Lord of Glamorgan, 8th Lord of Clare (4 August 1222 – 14 July 1262) was son of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshal.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1191 – 16 April 1234) was the son of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and brother of William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, whom he succeeded to the Earldom of Pembroke and Lord Marshal of England upon his brother's death on 6 April 1231.
Richard (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272), second son of John, King of England, was the nominal Count of Poitou (1225-1243), Earl of Cornwall (from 1225) and King of Germany (from 1257).
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Robert Grosseteste (Robertus Grosseteste; – 9 October 1253) was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.
Roger Bigod (c. 1209–1270) was 4th Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England.
Roger of Wendover (died 6 May 1236), probably a native of Wendover in Buckinghamshire, was an English chronicler of the 13th century.
The royal touch (also known as the king's touch) was a form of laying on of hands, whereby French and English monarchs touched their subjects, regardless of social classes, with the intent to cure them of various diseases and conditions.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité in the River Seine in Paris, France.
The Saintonge War was a feudal dynastic encounter that occurred in 1242 and 1243 between forces of Louis IX of France, Alphonse of Poiters and those of Henry III of England, Hugh X of Lusignan, and Raymond VII of Toulouse.
Sandwich is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son Prince Edward, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts.
In law, sequestration is the act of removing, separating, or seizing anything from the possession of its owner under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state.
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.
Simon of Apulia (died 1223) was a medieval canon lawyer and Bishop of Exeter.
Simon of Dammartin (1180 – 21 September 1239) was a son of Alberic II of Dammartin (Aubry de Dammartin) and his wife Mathildis of Clermont.
Sir Hugh, also known as "The Jew's Daughter" or "The Jew's Garden", is a traditional British folk song, Child ballad # 155, Roud # 73, a folkloric example of a blood libel.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
St Albans Cathedral, sometimes called the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban, and referred to locally as "the Abbey", is a Church of England cathedral in St Albans, England.
The Statute of Jewry was a statute issued by Henry III of England in 1253.
The Statute of Marlborough (52 Hen 3) was a set of laws passed by King Henry III of England in 1267.
Stephen Langton (c. 1150 – 9 July 1228) was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228.
The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Sylvester was a medieval Bishop of Worcester.
Taillebourg is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Thomas Frederick Tout, (28 September 1855 – 23 October 1929) was a 19th- and 20th-century British historian of the medieval period.
Thomas Fuller (1608 – 16 August 1661) was an English churchman and historian.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
Touraine is one of the traditional provinces of France.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Lambeth of 1217, also known as the Treaty of Kingston to distinguish it from the Treaty of Lambeth of 1212, was a peace treaty signed by Prince Louis of France in September 1217 ending the campaign known as the First Barons' War to uphold the claim by Louis to the throne of England.
The Treaty of Montgomery was an Anglo-Cambrian treaty signed on 29 September 1267 in Montgomeryshire by which Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was acknowledged as Prince of Wales by King Henry III of England (r. 1216–1272).
The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on 4 December 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between the Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.
The Treaty of York was an agreement between the kings Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, signed at York on 25 September 1237, which affirmed that Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland were subject to English sovereignty.
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula, scrophula, struma, or the King's evil, refers to a lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis as well as nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacteria.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Northampton was based in Northampton, England, from 1261 to 1265.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Walsingham Priory was a monastery of Augustinian Canons regular in Walsingham, Norfolk, England seized by the crown at the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII.
Walter de Gray or Walter de Grey (died 1 May 1255) was an English prelate and statesman who was Archbishop of York from 1215 to 1255.
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.
The Welsh Marches (Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.
William Hunt (1842 – 1931) was an English clergyman and historian.
William IX (Guilhèm de Peitieus; Guilhem de Poitou Guillaume de Poitiers) (22 October 1071 – 10 February 1127), called the Troubador, was the Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou (as William VII) between 1086 and his death.
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame li Mareschal), was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman.
William of Savoy (died 1239 in Viterbo) was a bishop from the House of Savoy.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Stubbs (21 June 1825 – 22 April 1901) was an English historian and Anglican bishop.
William Torell, also spelled Torel, Torrel, Torrell, Toral etc., (working late 13th century), from a notable family of London goldsmiths, was an English sculptor responsible for the very fine gilded brass funeral effigies of Henry III of England and his son's queen Eleanor of Castile in Westminster Abbey (1291–93); the idealised recumbent figures are set within a tomb of Cosmati work by immigrant craftsmen.
William VI of Angoulême (died 1179) was also known as William Taillefer IV.
William X (Guillém X in Occitan) (1099 – 9 April 1137), called the Saint, was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII) from 1126 to 1137.
Winchester Castle is a medieval building in Hampshire, England.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Wulgrin II (also Vulgrin or Bougrin), called Taillefer or Rudel, was the Count of Angoulême from 1120 to his death on 16 November 1140.
Yellow badges (or yellow patches), also referred to as Jewish badges (Judenstern, lit. Jewry star), are badges that Jews and Christians were ordered to sew on their outer garments to mark them as Jews and Christians in public at certain times in certain countries, serving as a badge of shame.
Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Penthièvre and of Porhoet (late 1218 – 10 October 1272) was a Breton noblewoman and a suo jure Breton countess within the sovereign Duchy of Brittany.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
Cultural depictions of Henry III of England, Hen. 3, Henry III (England), Henry III (of England), Henry III Plantagenet, Henry III of Winchester, Henry III, King of England, King Henry III of England.