334 relations: Aénor de Châtellerault, Abaqa Khan, Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Aberystwyth, Abuse of power, Acre, Israel, Aleppo, Alexander III of Scotland, Alfonso II of Aragon, Alfonso II, Count of Provence, Alfonso X of Castile, Alice of Courtenay, Alms, Alphonso, Earl of Chester, Amesbury, Andrew Moray, Anglesey, Anglo-French War (1294–1303), Archbishop of Canterbury, Arrowslit, Assassination, Auld Alliance, Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Aymer of Angoulême, Bahri dynasty, Baibars, Baron, Barons' Letter of 1301, Battle of Dunbar (1296), Battle of Evesham, Battle of Falkirk, Battle of Lewes, Battle of Llandeilo Fawr, Battle of Loudoun Hill, Battle of Methven, Battle of Moel-y-don, Battle of Orewin Bridge, Battle of Stirling Bridge, Beatrice of Savoy, Beatrice of Viennois, Beaumaris Castle, Berwick Castle, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Boniface of Savoy (bishop), Braveheart, Burgh by Sands, Bury St Edmunds Abbey, Byzantine Empire, Caerlaverock Castle, Caernarfon Castle, ..., Capetian House of Anjou, Carlisle, Cumbria, Castile (historical region), Castle, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles I of Anjou, Charles II of Naples, Charter of the Forest, Chronicle, Cinque Ports, Clericis laicos, Common law, Competitors for the Crown of Scotland, Concentric castle, Conquest of Wales by Edward I of England, Constitutional monarchy, Conwy Castle, Coronation Chair, Count of Ponthieu, Coup d'état, Crusades, Cumberland, Dafydd ap Gruffydd, David Powel, De donis conditionalibus, Dean of St Paul's, Dictum of Kenilworth, Dover, Duchy of Aquitaine, Duchy of Gascony, Duke of Aquitaine, Duty (economics), Dysentery, Earl Marshal, Earl of Chester, Edict of Expulsion, Edmund Crouchback, Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, Edward, Edward Coke, Edward II of England, Edward the Confessor, Effigy, Eighth Crusade, Eleanor cross, Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Castile, Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar, Eleanor of Provence, Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, Empress Matilda, English expedition to Flanders (1297–98), English law, English people, Epithet, Escheat, Etsi de statu, Eyre (legal term), F. M. Powicke, Fee tail, Feudalism, First War of Scottish Independence, Flint, Flintshire, Florence, Frescobaldi, G. W. S. Barrow, Garsenda, Countess of Forcalquier, Gascony, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Germanic name, Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, Glastonbury Abbey, Gloucester, Godfrey Giffard, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, Guinevere, Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, Hailes Abbey, Hanged, drawn and quartered, Harlech Castle, Heir apparent, Henry de Bracton, Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln, Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy, Henry II of England, Henry III of England, Henry III, Count of Bar, Henry of Almain, Henry, son of Edward I, High sheriff, High Sheriff of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, History of the Jews in England, Holy Land, House of Lusignan, House of Plantagenet, Hugh de Cressingham, Hugh III of Cyprus, Hugh X of Lusignan, Humbert III, Count of Savoy, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, Hundred (county division), Hundred Rolls, Ilkhanate, Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, Isabella of Angoulême, Isabella of France, Isle of Axholme, James of Saint George, Jerusalem, Joan of Acre, Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, John Balliol, John de Menteith, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, John Feckenham, John I, Count of Holland, John I, Duke of Brittany, John II, Duke of Brabant, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, John Peckham, John, King of England, Justinian I, Kenilworth Castle, Kenneth O. Morgan, King Arthur, King of Jerusalem, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kingdom of Powys, Kingdom of Scotland, La Rochelle, Laity, Latin, Liberty (division), License, List of English monarchs, List of monarchs of Sicily, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, London, Lord Chancellor, Lord High Constable of England, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, Lordship of Ireland, Louis IX of France, Lucca, Luke de Tany, Madog ap Llywelyn, Magna Carta, Magnate, Maltolt, Marc Morris, Marcher Lord, Margaret of England, Duchess of Brabant, Margaret of France, Queen of England, Margaret of Geneva, Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell, Margaret, Maid of Norway, Marjorie Bruce, Mark (currency), Mary Bruce, Mary of Woodstock, Máel Coluim II, Earl of Fife, Methods of coin debasement, Michael Prestwich, Middle Ages, Mise of Amiens, Mise of Lewes, Moneylender, Mongol invasions of the Levant, Mongols, Nigel de Brus, Ninth Crusade, Norman conquest of England, Northampton, Oliver Cromwell, Order of Saint Benedict, Orkney, Otto de Grandson, Outlaw, Palace of Westminster, Papal election, 1292–94, Parliament, Parliament of England, Personal union, Peter I of Courtenay, Peter II, Count of Savoy, Peter III of Aragon, Philip I, Count of Savoy, Philip II of France, Philip III of France, Philip IV of France, Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall, Pontoon bridge, Pope Boniface VIII, Pope Clement V, Pope Gregory X, Primogeniture, Prince of Wales, Principality of Wales, Provisions of Oxford, Punitive expedition, Purbeck Marble, Purveyance, Qaqun, Quia Emptores, Quo warranto, Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, Regnal number, Remonstrances, Rhuddlan, Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Gloucester, Richard I of England, Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, Robert Burnell, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby, Robert the Bruce, Robert Winchelsey, Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer, Roman Empire, Roxburgh Castle, Royal forest, Royal prerogative, Saint-Georges-d'Espéranche, Sancha of Castile, Queen of Aragon, Sarcophagus, Savoy, Scotland, Second Barons' War, Shrewsbury, Sicilian Vespers, Siege of Acre (1291), Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, Simon VI de Montfort, Society of Antiquaries of London, St John's College, Oxford, Statute, Statute merchant, Statute of Gloucester, Statute of Marlborough, Statute of Rhuddlan, Statute of the Jewry, Statute of Westminster 1275, Statute of Westminster 1285, Statutes of Mortmain, Stirling Castle, Stone of Scone, Subinfeudation, Suzerainty, Tax, Thomas Frederick Tout, Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Thomas, Count of Savoy, Tower of London, Town, Treaty of Aberconwy, Treaty of Birgham, Treaty of Montgomery, Tunis, Tunisia, Typhus, Usury, Wales, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Walter of Guisborough, Westminster, Westminster Abbey, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick, William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke, William I of Geneva, William Stubbs, William VI of Angoulême, William Wallace, William X, Duke of Aquitaine, Winchelsea, Windsor Castle, Worcester. 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Aénor of Châtellerault (also known as Aénor de Rochefoucauld) Duchess of Aquitaine (born c. 1103 in Châtellerault, died March 1130 in Talmont) was the mother of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who arguably became the most powerful woman in Europe of her generation.
Abaqa Khan (1234–1282, ᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (Traditional script), "paternal uncle", also transliterated Abaġa), was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate.
The Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas is a monastery of Cistercian nuns located approximately 1.5 km west of the city of Burgos in Spain.
Aberystwyth (Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre, and holiday resort within Ceredigion, West Wales, often colloquially known as Aber.
Abuse of power, in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official misconduct," is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander III (Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair) (4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) was King of Scots from 1249 to his death.
Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995),, p. 630-631; in Hidalguía. XLIII (252) pp. 619–632."Alfonso II el Casto, hijo de Petronila y Ramón Berenguer IV, nació en Huesca en 1157;". Cfr. Josefina Mateu Ibars, María Dolores Mateu Ibars (1980).. Universitat Barcelona, p. 546.,.Antonio Ubieto Arteta (1987).. Zaragoza: Anúbar, § "El nacimiento y nombre de Alfonso II de Aragón".. – 25 April 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and, as Alfons I, the Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death.
Alfonso II (1180 – February 1209) was the second son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
Alice of Courtenay, Countess of Angoulême (1160 – 12 February 1218) was a French noblewoman of the House of Courtenay.
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.
Alphonso or Alfonso (24 November 1273 – 19 August 1284), also called Alphonsus and Alphonse and styled Earl of Chester, was an heir apparent to the English throne who never became king.
Amesbury is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England.
Andrew Moray (Norman French: Andreu de Moray; Andreas de Moravia), also known as Andrew de Moray, Andrew of Moray, or Andrew Murray, an esquire, was prominent in the Scottish Wars of Independence.
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
The Anglo-French War (in French: Guerre de Guyenne) was a conflict between 1294–98 and 1300–03 revolved around Gascony.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
An arrowslit (often also referred to as an arrow loop, loophole or loop hole, and sometimes a balistraria) is a narrow vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance") was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.
Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (c. 1275 – 23 June 1324) was a Franco-English nobleman.
Aymer (also Aymar, Adhemar, Ademar, or Adomar; c. 1160 – 16 June 1202) was the last Count of Angoulême of the House of Taillefer.
The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
The Barons' Letter of 1301 was written by seven English earls and 96 English barons to Pope Boniface VIII as a repudiation of his claim of feudal overlordship of Scotland (expressed in the Bull Scimus Fili), and as a defence of the rights of King Edward I of England as overlord of Scotland.
The Battle of Dunbar was the only significant field action in the campaign of 1296.
The Battle of Evesham (4 August 1265) was one of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War.
The Battle of Falkirk (Blàr na h-Eaglaise Brice in Gaelic), which took place on 22 July 1298, was one of the major battles in the First War of Scottish Independence.
The Battle of Lewes was one of two main battles of the conflict known as the Second Barons' War.
The Battle of Llandeilo Fawr was a battle that took place during the conquest of Wales by Edward I, at Llandeilo between an English army led by Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford and a south Welsh army.
The Battle of Loudoun Hill was fought in May 1307 between a Scots force led by Robert Bruce and the English commanded by Aymer de Valence.
The Battle of Methven took place at Methven, Scotland on 19 June 1306, during the Wars of Scottish Independence.
The Battle of Moel-y-don was a battle fought in 1282 war during the conquest of Wales by Edward I.
The Battle of Orewin Bridge (also known as the Battle of Irfon Bridge) was fought between English (led by the Marcher Lords) and Welsh armies on 11 December 1282 near Builth Wells in mid-Wales.
The Battle of Stirling Bridge was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence.
Beatrice of Savoy (c. 1198 – c. 1267) was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva.
Beatrice of Vienne (1160–1230) was a Countess of Savoy by marriage to Humbert III, Count of Savoy.
Beaumaris Castle (Castell Biwmares), located in the town of the same name on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, was built as part of Edward I's campaign to conquer the north of Wales after 1282.
Berwick Castle is a ruined castle in Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland, England.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
Boniface of Savoy (c. 1217 – 18 July 1270) was a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England.
Braveheart is a 1995 American epic war film directed by Mel Gibson, who stars as William Wallace, a late 13th-century Scottish warrior who led the Scots in the First War of Scottish Independence against King Edward I of England.
Burgh by Sands ("Brough") is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England, situated near the Solway Firth.
The Abbey of Bury St Edmunds was once among the richest Benedictine monasteries in England, until the Dissolution of the monasteries in 1539.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caerlaverock Castle (from "caer laverock", "lark castle") is a moated triangular castle first built in the 13th century.
Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon), often anglicized as Carnarvon Castle, is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Government's historic environment service.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
Carlisle (or from Cumbric: Caer Luel Cathair Luail) is the county town of Cumbria.
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.
Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (Charles le Boiteux; Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285.
The Charter of the Forest of 1217 (Carta Foresta) is a charter that re-established for free men rights of access to the royal forest that had been eroded by William the Conqueror and his heirs.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
The Confederation of Cinque Ports is a historic series of coastal towns in Kent and Sussex.
Clericis laicos was a Papal bull issued on February 5, 1296 by Pope Boniface VIII in an attempt to prevent the secular states of Europe, in particular France and England, from appropriating church revenues without the express prior permission of the pope.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
With the death of King Alexander III in 1286, the crown of Scotland passed to his only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway.
A concentric castle is a castle with two or more concentric curtain walls, such that the inner wall is higher than the outer and can be defended from it.
The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales,Examples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, first published in 1911, and Professor R.R. Davies, the leading modern scholar of the period, in his works including The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063–1415, published 2000.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Conwy Castle (Castell Conwy, Conway Castle) is a medieval fortification in Conwy, on the north coast of Wales.
The Coronation Chair, known historically as St Edward's Chair or King Edward's Chair, is an ancient wooden chair on which British monarchs sit when they are invested with regalia and crowned at their coronations.
The County of Ponthieu, centered on the mouth of the Somme, became a member of the Norman group of vassal states when Count Guy submitted to William of Normandy after the battle of Mortemer.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
Dafydd ap Gruffydd (or Dafydd ap Gruffudd, angl. David, son of Gruffydd) (11 July (?) 1238 – 3 October 1283) was Prince of Wales from 11 December 1282 until his execution on 3 October 1283 by King Edward I of England.
David Powel (1549/52 – 1598) was a Welsh Church of England clergyman and historian who published the first printed history of Wales in 1584.
De donis conditionalibus is the chapter of the English Statutes of Westminster (1285).
The Dean of St Paul's is a member of, and chairman of the Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral in London in the Church of England.
The Dictum of Kenilworth, issued on 31 October 1266, was a pronouncement designed to reconcile the rebels of the Barons' War with the royal government of England.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia (Baskoniako dukerria; ducat de Gasconha; duché de Gascogne, duché de Vasconie) was a duchy in present southwestern France and northeastern Spain, part corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824.
The Duke of Aquitaine (Duc d'Aquitània, Duc d'Aquitaine) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English, and later French kings.
In economics, a duty is a kind of tax levied by a state.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal, Marischal or Marshall) is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England (then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom).
The Earldom of Chester (Welsh: Iarll Caer) was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England, extending principally over the counties of Cheshire and Flintshire.
The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290, expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England.
Edmund Crouchback (16 January 1245 – 5 June 1296), a member of the House of Plantagenet, was the second surviving son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (5 August 1301 – 19 March 1330) was the sixth son of Edward I of England, and a younger half-brother of Edward II.
Edward is an English given name.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere, Eduardus Confessor; 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.
An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium.
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270.
The Eleanor crosses were a series of twelve lavishly decorated stone monuments topped with tall crosses, of which three survive nearly intact, in a line down part of the east of England.
Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales and Lady of Snowdon (1252 – 19 June 1282) was an English noble.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was an English queen, the first wife of Edward I, whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over Gascony.
Eleanor of England (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298) was an English princess, the eldest surviving daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Queen Eleanor of Castile.
Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 – 24/25 June 1291Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Provence) was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Henry III of England, from 1236 until his death in 1272.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (7 August 1282 – 5 May 1316) was the eighth and youngest daughter of King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castile.
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
The English expedition to Flanders (1297–98) was an English expedition to Flanders that lasted from August 1297 until March 1298.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
Escheat is a common law doctrine that transfers the real property of a person who died without heirs to the Crown or state.
Etsi de statu was a papal bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII in July 1297.
An Eyre or Iter was the name of a circuit traveled by an itinerant justice in medieval England (a Justice in Eyre), or the circuit court over which they presided, or the right of the monarch (or justices acting in their name) to visit and inspect the holdings of any vassal.
Sir Frederick Maurice Powicke (16 June 1879 – 19 May 1963) was an English medieval historian.
In English common law, fee tail or entail is a form of trust established by deed or settlement which restricts the sale or inheritance of an estate in real property and prevents the property from being sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the tenant-in-possession, and instead causes it to pass automatically by operation of law to an heir pre-determined by the settlement deed.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First War of Scottish Independence was the initial chapter of engagements in a series of warring periods between English and Scottish forces lasting from the invasion by England in 1296 until the de jure restoration of Scottish independence with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328.
Flint (Y Fflint) is a town in Flintshire, Wales, lying on the estuary of the River Dee.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The Frescobaldi are a prominent Florentine noble family that have been involved in the political, sociological, and economic history of Tuscany since the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow FBA, FRSE, (28 November 1924 – 14 December 2013), was a Scottish historian and academic.
Garsenda (Garsende de Sabran; c. 1180 – c. 1242) was the Countess of Provence as the wife of Alfonso II from 1193 and the Countess of Forcalquier in her own right from 1209.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151) — called the Handsome or the Fair (le Bel) and Plantagenet — was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144.
Germanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix and a suffix.
Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 3rd Lord of Glamorgan, 9th Lord of Clare (2 September 1243 – 7 December 1295) was a powerful English noble.
Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
Godfrey Giffard (c. 12351302) was Chancellor of the Exchequer of England, Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Worcester.
Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn (died c. 1286) was a Welsh prince who was lord of the part of Powys known as Powys Wenwynwyn and sided with Edward I in his conquest of Wales of 1277 to 1283.
Guinevere (Gwenhwyfar; Gwenivar), often written as Guenevere or Gwenevere, is the wife of King Arthur in Arthurian legend.
Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick (c. 1272 – 12 August 1315) was an English magnate, and one of the principal opponents of King Edward II and his favourite, Piers Gaveston.
Hailes Abbey is two miles northeast of Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, England.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).
Harlech Castle (Castell Harlech), located in Harlech, Gwynedd, Wales, is a medieval fortification, constructed atop a spur of rock close to the Irish Sea.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henry of Bracton, also Henry de Bracton, also Henricus Bracton, or Henry Bratton also Henry Bretton (c. 1210 – c. 1268) was an English cleric and jurist.
Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln, Baron of Pontefract (c.1251 – February 1311) was an English nobleman and confidant of King Edward I 'Longshanks'.
Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick (25 March 1273 – October 1314) was a medieval English magnate. He fought under King Edward I of England in Wales and Scotland and was granted extensive estates in Scotland, which were later retaken by the Scots under King Robert I of Scotland. He added Alnwick to the family estates in England, founding a dynasty of northern warlords. He rebelled against King Edward II over the issue of Piers Gaveston and was imprisoned for a few months. After his release, he declined to fight under Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn, remaining at Alnwick, where he died a few months later, aged 41.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Henry III of Bar (Henri III de Bar; Heinrich III von Bar 1259 – Naples, September 1302) was Count of Bar from 1291 to 1302.
Henry of Almain (Anglo-Norman French: Henri d'Almayne) (2 November 1235 – 13 March 1271) was the son of Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall and his first wife Isabel Marshal.
Henry of England (6 May 1268 – 14 October 1274 in Merton, Surrey) was the fifth child and second son of Edward I of England by his first wife, Eleanor of Castile.
A high sheriff is a ceremonial officer for each shrieval county of England and Wales and Northern Ireland or the chief sheriff of a number of paid sheriffs in U.S. states who outranks and commands the others in their court-related functions.
This is a list of High Sheriffs of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire.
The history of the Jews in England goes back to the reign of William the Conqueror.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
Sir Hugh de Cressingham (died 11 September 1297) was the treasurer of the English administration in Scotland from 1296 to 1297.
Hugh III of Cyprus (1235 – 24 March 1284), born Hugues de Poitiers, later Hugues de Lusignan (he adopted his mother's surname de Lusignan in 1267), called the Great, was the King of Cyprus from 1267 and King of Jerusalem from 1268 (as Hugh I of Jerusalem).
Hugh X de Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulême (c.
Umberto III (1136, Avigliana, Piedmont – 4 March 1188, Chambéry, Savoy), surnamed the Blessed, was Count of Savoy from 1148 to 1188.
Humphrey (VI) de Bohun (c. 1249He was reported to be 18 ½ years old in the 51st year of the reign of Henry III, and 24 or 26 after the death of his grandfather in 1275. Cokayne (1910–59), pp. 463–6. – 31 December 1298), 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex, was an English nobleman known primarily for his opposition to King Edward I over the Confirmatio Cartarum.Fritze and Robison, (2002).
Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 – 16 March 1322) was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses.
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region.
The Hundred Rolls are a census of England and parts of what is now Wales taken in the late thirteenth century.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan (probably died c. 1314) was a significant figure in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
Isabella of Angoulême (Isabelle d'Angoulême,; c. 1186/1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216.
Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330.
The Isle of Axholme is a geographical area of North Lincolnshire, England.
Master James of Saint George (c. 1230 – 1309), also known as Master James of Savoy and in French Maitre Jacques de Saint-Georges d'Espéranche, was an architect from Savoy, described by historian Marc Morris as "one of the greatest architects of the European Middle Ages".
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Joan of Acre (April 1272 – 23 April 1307) was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile.
Joan of Dammartin (Jeanne de Dammartin; c. 1220 – 16 March 1279) was Queen consort of Castile and León by marriage to Ferdinand III of Castile.
John Balliol (– late 1314), known derisively as Toom Tabard (meaning "empty coat") was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296.
Sir John Menteith of Ruskie and Knapdale (c. 1275 – c. 1329) was a Scottish nobleman during the Wars of Scottish Independence.
John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (1231 – c. 29 September 1304) was a prominent English nobleman and military commander during the reigns of Henry III of England and Edward I of England.
John Feckenham (c. 1515 – October, 1584), also known as John Howman of Feckingham and later John de Feckenham or John Fecknam, was an English churchman, the last abbot of Westminster.
John I (1284 – 10 November 1299) was Count of Holland and son of Count Floris V. John inherited the county in 1296 after the murder of his father.
John I (Yann, Jean; c. 1217/18 – 8 October 1286), known as John the Red due to the colour of his beard, was Duke of Brittany from 1221 to his death and 2nd Earl of Richmond in 1268.
John II van Brabant (September 27, 1275 – October 27, 1312, Tervuren), also called John the Peaceful, was Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1294–1312).
John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Lord of Lochaber, also known simply as the Red Comyn (c. 1269 – 10 February 1306), was a Scottish nobleman who was an important figure in the First War of Scottish Independence, and was Guardian of Scotland during the Second Interregnum (1296–1306).
John Peckham (c. 1230 – 8 December 1292) was Archbishop of Canterbury in the years 1279–1292.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kenilworth Castle is located in the town of the same name in Warwickshire, England.
Kenneth Owen Morgan, Baron Morgan, (born 16 May 1934) is a Welsh historian and author, known especially for his writings on modern British history and politics and on Welsh history.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A liberty was an English unit originating in the Middle Ages, traditionally defined as an area in which regalian right was revoked and where the land was held by a mesne lord (i.e. an area in which rights reserved to the king had been devolved into private hands).
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the County of Sicily in 1071 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, also known as Llywelyn the Last (lit), was Prince of Wales (Princeps Wallie; Tywysog Cymru) from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lord High Constable of England is the seventh of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Great Chamberlain and above the Earl Marshal.
The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Luke de Tany (died 1282) was a high-ranking Norman lord.
Madog ap Llywelyn (died after 1312) was the leader of the Welsh revolt of 1294–95 against English rule.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, 'great', designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities.
Maltolt or "bad tax" (in Norman-French) was the name given to the new taxes on wool in England of 1294-7.
Marc Morris (born 14 September 1973) is a historian, who has also presented a television series, Castle, on Channel 4 in the United Kingdom, and wrote the book that accompanied the series.
A Marcher Lord was a noble appointed by the King of England to guard the border (known as the Welsh Marches) between England and Wales.
Margaret of England (15 March 1275 – after 1333) was the tenth child and seventh daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile.
Margaret of France (c. 1279 – 14 February 1318) was Queen of England as the second wife of King Edward I. She was a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant.
Margaret of Geneva (1180?-1252), countess of Savoy, was the daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, and Beatrice de Faucigny (1160-1196).
Margaret Wake, suo jure 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell and Countess of Kent (c. 1297 – 29 September 1349) was the wife of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, the youngest surviving son of Edward I of England and Margaret of France.
Margaret, Maid of Norway (9 April 1283 – 26 September 1290) was a Norwegian princess who was recognised as Queen of Scots following the death of her grandfather, King Alexander III, in March 1286.
Marjorie Bruce or Marjorie de Brus (probably 1296–1316) was the eldest daughter of Robert the Bruce, King of Scots by his first wife, Isabella of Mar.
The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations.
Mary Bruce (1282 – 1323) was the younger sister of Robert the Bruce, King of Scots.
Mary of Woodstock (11 March 1279 – c. 1332) was the seventh named daughter of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile.
Máel Coluim II (or Maol Choluim II, usually anglicized as Malcolm II), was a 13th-century Mormaer of Fife who ruled the mormaerdom or earldom of Fife between 1228 and 1266.
Coin debasement is the act of decreasing the amount of precious metal in a coin, while continuing to circulate it at face value.
Michael Charles Prestwich OBE (born 30 January 1943) is an English historian, specialising on the history of medieval England, in particular the reign of Edward I. He is retired, having been Professor of History at Durham University, and Head of the Department of History until 2007.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mise of Amiens was a settlement given by King Louis IX of France on 23 January 1264 in the conflict between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons, led by Simon de Montfort.
The Mise of Lewes was a settlement made on 14 May 1264 between King Henry III of England and his rebellious barons, led by Simon de Montfort.
A moneylender is a person or group who typically offers small personal loans at high rates of interest and is different from banks and financial institutions that typically provide such loans.
Starting in the 1240s, the Mongols made repeated invasions of Syria or attempts thereof.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Nigel de Brus (c. 1279 – September 1306) was a younger brother of King Robert I. Born at Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland, he was a son of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and Margaret, Countess Of Carrick.
The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Otto de Grandson, also spelled Otton, Othon or Otho (c. 1238–1328), was the most prominent of the Savoyard knights in the service of Edward I, King of England.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The papal election of 1292–94 (from April 5, 1292 to July 5, 1294), was the last papal election which did not take the form of a papal conclave (in which the electors are locked in seclusion cum clave—Latin for "with a key"—and not permitted to leave until a new Bishop of Rome has been elected).
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter I of Courtenay (September 1126 – 10 April 1183) was the youngest son of Louis VI of France and his second wife, Adélaide de Maurienne.
Peter II (120315 May 1268), called the Little Charlemagne, held the Honour of Richmond, Yorkshire (but not the Earldom) from April 1240 until his death and was Count of Savoy from 1263 until his death.
Peter the Great (Pere el Gran, Pero lo Gran; 1239 – 11 November 1285) was the King of Aragon (as Peter III) of Valencia (as Peter I), and Count of Barcelona (as Peter II) from 1276 to his death, (this union of kingdoms was called the Crown of Aragon).
Philip I (1207 – 16 August 1285) was the Count of Savoy from 1268 to 1285.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (le Hardi), was King of France from 1270 to 1285, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall (c. 1284 – 19 June 1312) was an English nobleman of Gascon origin, and the favourite of King Edward II of England.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.
Pope Clement V (Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314.
Pope Gregory X (Gregorius X; – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
The Principality of Wales (Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277.
The Provisions of Oxford were constitutional reforms developed in 1258 to resolve a dispute between the English barons and King Henry III.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
Purbeck Marble is a fossiliferous limestone found in the Isle of Purbeck, a peninsula in south-east Dorset, England.
Purveyance is the right of the Crown to requisition goods and services for royal use, and was developed in England over the course of the late eleventh through the fourteenth centuries.
Qaqun (قاقون) was a Palestinian Arab village located northwest of the city of Tulkarm at the only entrance to Mount Nablus from the coastal Sharon plain.
Quia Emptores is a statute passed in the reign of Edward I of England in 1290 that prevented tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants who wished to alienate their land to do so by substitution.
In British and American common law, quo warranto (Medieval Latin for "by what warrant?") is a prerogative writ requiring the person to whom it is directed to show what authority they have for exercising some right, power, or franchise they claim to hold.
Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, Earl of Gloucester, Hertford, and Atholl (c. 1270 – 5 April 1325) was an English nobleman, who was the son-in-law of King Edward I. His clandestine marriage to the King's widowed daughter Joan greatly offended her father, but he was quickly persuaded to pardon Ralph.
Ramon Berenguer IV or V (1198 – 19 August 1245), Count of Provence and Forcalquier, was the son of Alfonso II of Provence and Garsenda de Sabran, heiress of Forcalquier.
Regnal numbers are ordinal numbers used to distinguish among persons with the same name who held the same office.
The Remonstrances (sometimes written in the original Anglo-Norman: Monstraunces) were a set of complaints presented by a group of nobles in 1297, against the government of King Edward I of England.
Rhuddlan (approximately "RHITH-lan") is a town, community and electoral ward in the county of Denbighshire within the historic boundaries of Flintshire, on the north coast of Wales.
Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Gloucester, 2nd Lord of Glamorgan, 8th Lord of Clare (4 August 1222 – 14 July 1262) was son of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshal.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272), second son of John, King of England, was the nominal Count of Poitou (1225-1243), Earl of Cornwall (from 1225) and King of Germany (from 1257).
Robert Burnell (sometimes spelled Robert Burnel;Harding England in the Thirteenth Century p. 159 c. 1239 – 25 October 1292) was an English bishop who served as Lord Chancellor of England from 1274 to 1292.
Robert V de Brus (Robert de Brus), 5th Lord of Annandale (ca. 1215 – 31 March or 3 May 1295), was a feudal lord, Justice and Constable of Scotland and England, a Regent of Scotland, and a competitor for the Scottish throne in 1290/92 in the Great Cause. His grandson Robert the Bruce eventually became King of Scots.
Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford (1 April 1274 - 24 June 1314), of Appleby Castle, Westmorland, feudal baron of Appleby and feudal baron of Skipton in Yorkshire, was an English soldier who became 1st Lord Warden of the Marches, responsible for defending the English border with Scotland.
Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby (1239–1279) was an English nobleman.
Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; Early Scots: Robert Brus; Robertus Brussius), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Robert Winchelsey (or Winchelsea; c. 1245–11 May 1313) was an English Catholic theologian and Archbishop of Canterbury.
Roger Bigod (c. 1245 – bf. 6 December 1306) was 5th Earl of Norfolk.
Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer (1231 – 27 October 1282), of Wigmore Castle in Herefordshire, was a marcher lord who was a loyal ally of King Henry III of England and at times an enemy, at times an ally, of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roxburgh Castle is a ruined royal castle that overlooks the junction of the rivers Tweed and Teviot, in the Borders region of Scotland.
A royal forest, occasionally "Kingswood", is an area of land with different definitions in England, Wales, and Scotland.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
Saint-Georges-d'Espéranche is a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France.
Sancha of Castile (21 September 1154/5 – 9 November 1208) was the only surviving child of King Alfonso VII of Castile by his second wife, Richeza of Poland.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son Prince Edward, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts.
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.
The Sicilian Vespers (Vespri siciliani; Vespiri siciliani) is the name given to the successful rebellion on the island of Sicily that broke out at Easter, 1282 against the rule of the French-born king Charles I, who had ruled the Kingdom of Sicily since 1266.
The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader-controlled city of Acre to the Mamluks.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.
Simon de Montfort "the younger" or Simon VI de Montfort (April 1240 – 1271) was the second son of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England.
The Society of Antiquaries of London (SAL) is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with 'the encouragement, advancement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, Piccadilly, London (a building owned by the UK government), and is a registered charity.
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Statute merchant and statute staple are two old forms of security, long obsolete in English practice, though references to them still occur in some modern statutes.
The Statute of Gloucester (6 Edw 1) is a piece of legislation enacted in the Parliament of England during the reign of Edward I. The Statute, proclaimed at Gloucester in August 1278, was crucial to the development of English law.
The Statute of Marlborough (52 Hen 3) was a set of laws passed by King Henry III of England in 1267.
The Statute of Rhuddlan (Statud Rhuddlan), also known as the Statutes of Wales (Statuta Vallie) or as the Statute of Wales (Statutum Vallie or Statutum Valliae), provided the constitutional basis for the government of the Principality of North Wales from 1284 until 1536.
The Statute of the Jewry was a statute issued by Edward I of England in 1275.
The Statute of Westminster of 1275 (3 Edw. I), also known as the Statute of Westminster I, codified the existing law in England, in 51 chapters.
The Statute of Westminster of 1285 (13 Edw. I, St. 1), also known as the Statute of Westminster II, like the Statute of Westminster 1275, is a code in itself, and contains the famous clause De donis conditionalibus (still in force in England and Wales), one of the fundamental institutes of the medieval land law of England.
The Statutes of Mortmain were two enactments, in 1279 and 1290, by Edward I of England aimed at preserving the kingdom's revenues by preventing land from passing into the possession of the Church.
Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles in Scotland, both historically and architecturally.
File:Replica of the Stone of Scone, Scone Palace, Scotland (8924541883).jpg The Stone of Scone (An Lia Fàil, Stane o Scuin)—also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that was used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland, and later the monarchs of England and those of the United Kingdom.
In English law, subinfeudation is the practice by which tenants, holding land under the king or other superior lord, carved out new and distinct tenures in their turn by sub-letting or alienating a part of their lands.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Thomas Frederick Tout, (28 September 1855 – 23 October 1929) was a 19th- and 20th-century British historian of the medieval period.
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1 June 1300 – 4 August 1338), was the fifth son of King Edward I of England (1272-1307), and the eldest child by his second wife, Margaret of France, the daughter of King Philip III of France.
Thomas (Tommaso I; 1178 – 1 March 1233) was Count of Savoy from 1189 to 1233.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
A town is a human settlement.
The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside.
The Treaty of Birgham, also referred to as the Treaty of Salisbury, comprised two treaties intended to secure the independence of Scotland after the death of Alexander III and accession of his granddaughter Margaret in 1286.
The Treaty of Montgomery was an Anglo-Cambrian treaty signed on 29 September 1267 in Montgomeryshire by which Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was acknowledged as Prince of Wales by King Henry III of England (r. 1216–1272).
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wallingford is an ancient market town and civil parish in the upper Thames Valley in England.
Walter of Guisborough was a canon regular of the Augustinian Gisborough Priory, Yorkshire and English chronicler of the fourteenth century.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick (1237–1298) was an English nobleman and soldier, described as a “vigorous and innovative military commander." He was active in the field against the Welsh for many years, and at the end of his life campaigned against the Scots.
William de Valence (died 18 May 1296), born Guillaume de Lusignan, was a French nobleman and knight who became important in English politics due to his relationship to Henry III.
William I of Geneva (– 25 July 1195) was Count of Geneva from 1178 to 1195, in succession to his father, Count Amadeus I of Geneva.
William Stubbs (21 June 1825 – 22 April 1901) was an English historian and Anglican bishop.
William VI of Angoulême (died 1179) was also known as William Taillefer IV.
Sir William Wallace (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; Norman French: William le Waleys; died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.
William X (Guillém X in Occitan) (1099 – 9 April 1137), called the Saint, was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII) from 1126 to 1137.
Winchelsea is a small town in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex, within the historic County of Sussex, England, located between the High Weald and the Romney Marsh, approximately south west of Rye and north east of Hastings.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, southwest of Birmingham, west-northwest of London, north of Gloucester and northeast of Hereford.
Edw. 1, Edward 1, Edward I, Edward I (England), Edward I Longshanks, Edward I Longshanks of England, Edward I Plantagenet, Edward I, King of England, Edward I, King of the English, Edward Longshanks, Edward Longshanks, Hammer of the Scots, Edward i of england, Edward the First, Edward the Longshanks, Hammer of the Scots, Hammer of the scots, King Edward 1st, King Edward I, King Edward I of England, Longshanks, Lord Paramount of Scotland, Malleus Scotorum, Overlord of Scotland, The Lord Edward.