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'The Admiralty M-N Scheme' (sometimes given as "Project M-N") was a World War I British plan to close the Strait of Dover in the English Channel to German U-Boats, by means of a chain of either eight or twelve massive towers linked by anti-submarine booms and nets.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Alderney (Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeur'gny) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Anguilla Channel (Canal d'Anguilla) is a strait in the Caribbean Sea.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Aulus Plautius was a Roman politician and general of the mid-1st century.
Auregnais, Aoeur'gnaeux or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (Aurigny, Auregnais: Aoeur'gny or Auregny).
Ælfric (Old English Ælfrīc, Aelfric; Middle English Elfric) is an Anglo-Saxon given name.
Étaples or Étaples-sur-Mer (Dutch: Stapel) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Île Vierge (Breton language: Enez-Werc'h) is a islet lying off the north-west coast of Brittany, opposite the village of Lilia.
Îles Saint-Marcouf are a group of two small uninhabited islands off the coast of Normandy, France.
In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy.
The Battle of Boulogne was the defence of the port of Boulogne-sur-Mer by French, British and Belgian troops, during the Battle of France of the Second World War in 1940.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Second Battle of Dover Strait was a naval battle of the First World War, fought in the Dover Strait in April 1917 and should not be confused with the major Battle of Dover Strait in 1916.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The naval Battle of Goodwin Sands (also known as the Battle of Dover), fought on 19 May 1652 (29 May 1652 Gregorian calendar), was the first engagement of the First Anglo-Dutch War between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The naval Battle of Portland, or Three Days' Battle took place during 18–20 February 1653 (28 February – 2 March 1653 (Gregorian calendar)), during the First Anglo-Dutch War, when the fleet of the Commonwealth of England under General at Sea Robert Blake was attacked by a fleet of the Dutch Republic under Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp escorting merchant shipping through the English Channel. The battle failed to settle supremacy of the English Channel, although both sides claimed victory, and ultimate control over the Channel would only be decided at the Battle of the Gabbard which allowed the English to blockade the Dutch coast until the Battle of Scheveningen, where Admiral Maarten Tromp would meet his fate at the hands of an English musket ball. As such, it can be considered a slight setback for the English nation and another example of Dutch superiority regarding pure seamanship at the time. It also illustrated England's drive to control the seas, which would ultimately allow it to become the prime maritime power of the world.
The Battle of Quiberon Bay (known as Bataille des Cardinaux in French), was a decisive naval engagement fought on 20 November 1759 during the Seven Years' War between the Royal Navy and the French Navy.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 21 October 1639 (New Style), during the Eighty Years' War, and was a decisive defeat of the Spanish, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, by the United Provinces, commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The related naval battles of Barfleur and La Hougue took place between 29 May and 4 June New Style (NS), 1692 (19–24 May in the Old Style (OS) Julian calendar then in use in England).
Bexhill-on-Sea (often simply Bexhill) is a seaside town situated in the county of East Sussex in South East England.
Bognor Regis is a seaside resort in West Sussex on the south coast of England, south-west of London, west of Brighton, south-east of Chichester and east of Portsmouth.
Booze cruise is a British colloquial term for a brief trip from Britain to France or Belgium with the intent of taking advantage of lower prices, and buying personal supplies of (especially) alcohol or tobacco in bulk quantities.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
Bournemouth is a large coastal resort town on the south coast of England to the east of the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site, long.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.
The Bristol Channel (Môr Hafren) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from Devon and Somerset in South West England.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Broad Fourteens on a map by Delisle (1743) The Broad Fourteens is an area of the southern North Sea that is fairly consistently fourteen fathoms (84 feet/26 metres) deep.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
A bull boat is a useful small boat, usually made by American Indians and frontiersmen, made by covering a skeletal wooden frame with a buffalo hide.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Captain Hayward was an English sailor.
Carentan is a small rural town near the north-eastern base of the French Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy in north-western France near the port city of Cherbourg, with a population somewhat over 6,000.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The modern Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'') are a related group of ethnicities who share similar Celtic languages, cultures and artistic histories, and who live in or descend from one of the regions on the western extremities of Europe populated by the Celts.
Chambois is a former commune in the Orne département in north-western France.
The Channel Dash or Unternehmen Zerberus (Operation Cerberus) was a German naval operation during World War II.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham (1536 – 14 December 1624), known as Howard of Effingham, was an English statesman and Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was commander of the English forces during the battles against the Spanish Armada and was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory that saved England from invasion by the Spanish Empire.
Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23.
Chausey is a group of small islands, islets and rocks off the coast of Normandy, in the English Channel.
Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.
Sir Christopher Sydney Cockerell CBE RDI FRS (4 June 1910 – 1 June 1999) was an English engineer, best known as the inventor of the hovercraft.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
A navy has command of the sea (also called control of the sea or sea control) when it is so strong that its rivals cannot attack it directly.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
The coracle is a small, rounded, lightweight boat of the sort traditionally used in Wales, and also in parts of the West Country and in Ireland, particularly the River Boyne, and in Scotland, particularly the River Spey.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cornouaille (Kernev or Kerne) is a historic region of Brittany in northwestern France.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
Cotentinais is the dialect of the Norman language spoken in the Cotentin Peninsula.
Cotgrave is a town and civil parish in the borough of Rushcliffe in Nottinghamshire, England, about 5 miles (8 km) south-east of the centre of Nottingham.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Datsun Truck is a compact pickup truck made by Nissan in Japan from 1955 through 1997.
Deal is a town in Kent, England, which lies on the border of the North Sea and the English Channel, eight miles north-east of Dover and eight miles south of Ramsgate.
Deauville is a commune in the Calvados département in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
The Dieppe Raid was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War.
Dinard (Gallo: Dinard) is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.
Domnonée is the modern French form of Domnonia or Dumnonia (Latin for "Devon"; Domnonea), an historic kingdom in northern Armorica (Brittany) founded by British immigrants from Dumnonia (Sub-Roman Devon) fleeing the Saxon invasions of Britain in the early Middle Ages.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
The Dover Barrage was an underwater blockade of German submarines attempting to use the English Channel during World War I. The barrier consisted of minefields laid between Belgium and Dover at the outbreak of war, followed in February 1915 by steel netting anchored to the sea bed.
Dover Bronze Age boat is one of fewer than 20 Bronze Age boats so far found in Britain.
The Dover Patrol and later known as the Dover Patrol Force was a Royal Navy command of the First World War, notable for its involvement in the Zeebrugge Raid on 22 April 1918.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.
Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of Brighton.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eu is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Amsterdam, Avignon, Brussels, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Paris and Rotterdam.
Eurotunnel Le Shuttle (sometimes shortened to Le Shuttle or The Shuttle) is a railway shuttle service between Coquelles (near Calais) in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France and Cheriton (near Folkestone) in Kent, United Kingdom.
Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 EST).
Exmouth is a port town, civil parish and seaside resort, sited on the east bank of the mouth of the River Exe.
The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.
Falaise is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Falmouth (Aberfala) is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
A fast attack craft (FAC) is a small, fast, agile and offensive warship armed with anti-ship missiles, gun or torpedoes.
Fécamp is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
An oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas (faithfulness), is a pledge of allegiance of one person to another.
The Ferriby Boats are three Bronze Age Britain sewn plank-built boats, parts of which were discovered at North Ferriby in the East Riding of the English county of Yorkshire.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Folkestone is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England.
The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francesco Berlinghieri (1440–1501) was an Italian scholar and humanist who lived during the fifteenth century.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
French Flemish (French Flemish: Fransch vlaemsch, Standard Dutch: Frans-Vlaams, flamand français) is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
The German occupation of the Channel Islands lasted for most of the Second World War, from 30 June 1940 until their liberation on 9 May 1945.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gertrude Caroline Ederle (October 23, 1905 – November 30, 2003) was an American competition swimmer, Olympic champion, and former world record-holder in five events.
The Gibbs Aquada is a high speed amphibious vehicle developed by Gibbs Sports Amphibians.
A glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Gosport is a town in Hampshire on the south coast of England.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Guadeloupe Passage is a strait in the Caribbean.
Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.
The Hanson Log Boat was a bronze age boat found in a gravel pit in Shardlow in Derbyshire.
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Herm (Guernésiais: Haerme, ultimately from Old Norse arms “arm”, due to the shape of the island, or Old French eremite “hermit”) is one of the Channel Islands and part of the Parish of St Peter Port in the Bailiwick of Guernsey.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
Hove is a town in East Sussex, England, immediately west of its larger neighbour Brighton, with which it forms the unitary authority Brighton and Hove.
A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud, ice, and other surfaces.
Human power is work or energy that is produced from the human body.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Hurd's Deep (or Hurd Deep) is a deep underwater valley in the English Channel, northwest of the Channel Islands, at position 49 degrees 30 minutes North, 3 degrees 34 minutes West.
A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water.
Hythe is a small coastal market town on the edge of Romney Marsh, in the district of Folkestone and Hythe on the south coast of Kent.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The Imperial German Navy ("Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
An inflatable boat is a lightweight boat constructed with its sides and bow made of flexible tubes containing pressurised gas.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island, long by wide, in the English Channel.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
James Daniel May (born 16 January 1963) is an English television presenter and journalist.
Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France.
Jean Froissart (Old French, Middle French Jehan, –) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems.
Jean Jolivet (9 January 1925 – 8 March 2018) was a French philosopher and medievalist.
Jean-Pierre Blanchard (4 July 1753 – 7 March 1809) was a French inventor, best known as a pioneer in balloon flight.
Jeremy Charles Robert Clarkson (born 11 April 1960) is an English broadcaster, journalist and writer who specialises in motoring.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher, (25 January 1841 – 10 July 1920), commonly known as Jacky or Jackie Fisher, was a British admiral known for his efforts at naval reform.
John Jeffries (5 February 1745 – 16 September 1819) was a Boston physician, scientist, and a military surgeon with the British Army in Nova Scotia and New York during the American Revolution.
John Norden (1625) was an English cartographer, chorographer and antiquary.
John W. Renshaw (28 December 1877 – 12 October 1955) was a unionist politician in Northern Ireland.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kingsand (Porthruw) and Cawsand are twin villages in southeast Cornwall, United Kingdom.
Lancing is a village and civil parish in the Adur district of West Sussex, England, on the western edge of the Adur Valley.
Land's End (Penn an Wlas or Pedn an Wlas) is a headland and holiday complex in western Cornwall, England.
Lannion is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Le Touquet-Paris-Plage, commonly referred to as Le Touquet, is a commune near Etaples,in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Le Tréport is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in Normandy, France.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
This is a list of firsts in aviation.
This list of naval battles is a chronological list delineating important naval fleet battles.
This is a list of notable successful swims across the English Channel.
Littlehampton is a seaside resort and pleasure harbour, and the most populous civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England.
Louis Charles Joseph Blériot (1 July 1872 – 1 August 1936) was a French aviator, inventor and engineer.
Louis Marie Bernard Dangeard (April 29, 1898 in Poitiers, France to April 15, 1987 in Paris, France) was a French geologist and oceanographer.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
A loyal toast is a salute given to the head of state of the country in which a formal gathering is being given, or by expatriates of that country, whether or not the particular head of state is present.
Lyme Bay is an area of the English Channel situated in the southwest of England between Start Bay in the west and Portland in the east.
Madoc, also spelled Madog, ab Owain Gwynedd was, according to folklore, a Welsh prince who sailed to America in 1170, over three hundred years before Christopher Columbus's voyage in 1492.
The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries primarily in what is now North Dakota.
The Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) is a UK government agency, authorised to investigate all maritime accidents in UK waters and accidents involving UK registered ships worldwide.
The Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom working to prevent the loss of lives at sea and is responsible for implementing British and international maritime law and safety policy.
Captain Matthew Webb (19 January 1848 – 24 July 1883) was the first recorded person to swim the English Channel without the use of artificial aids for sport purpose.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
Mont-Saint-Michel (Norman: Mont Saint Miché) is an island commune in Normandy, France.
Morlaix (Montroulez) is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Studies that estimate and rank the most common words in English examine texts written in English.
MSC Napoli was a United Kingdom-flagged container ship that was deliberately broken up by salvors after she ran into difficulty in the English Channel on 18 January 2007.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
MV Tricolor was a 50,000 tonne Norwegian-flagged vehicle carrier built in 1987, notable for having been involved in three English Channel collisions within a fortnight.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Newhaven is a town in the Lewes District of East Sussex in England.
Nicolaus Germanus was a German cartographer who published an edition of Jacopo d'Angelo's Latin translation of Ptolemy's Geography.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The Norse–Gaels (Gall-Goídil; Irish: Gall-Ghaeil; Gall-Ghàidheil, 'foreigner-Gaels') were a people of mixed Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture.
North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Operation Aerial (also Operation Ariel) was the name given to the World War II evacuation of Allied forces and civilians from ports in western France from 1940, following the military collapse in the Battle of France against Nazi Germany.
Operation Cycle is the name of the evacuation of Allied troops from Le Havre, in the Pays de Caux of Upper Normandy from 1940, towards the end of the Battle of France, during the Second World War.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Ouistreham is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandie region in northwestern France.
In geomorphology, an outburst flood, which is a type of megaflood, is a high-magnitude, low-frequency catastrophic flood involving the sudden release of water.
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water.
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
Pegwell Bay is a shallow inlet in the English Channel coast astride the estuary of the River Stour north of Sandwich bay, between Ramsgate and Sandwich in Kent.
Penryn (Pennrynn, meaning 'promontory') is a civil parish and town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
Penzance (Pennsans) is a town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, in England, United Kingdom.
Perros-Guirec is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Petar Stoychev (Петър Стойчев; born 24 October 1976 in Momchilgrad) is a Bulgarian swimmer who is one of the most successful long distance marathon swimmers of the last decade.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
The Phoenix breakwaters were a set of reinforced concrete caissons built as part of the artificial Mulberry harbours that were assembled as part of the follow-up to the Normandy landings during World War II.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
A French invasion of Great Britain was planned to take place in 1759 during the Seven Years' War, but due to various factors (including naval defeats at the Battle of Lagos and the Battle of Quiberon Bay) was never launched.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
Poole is a large coastal town and seaport in the county of Dorset, on the south coast of England.
The Port of Dover is the cross-channel port situated in Dover, Kent, south-east England.
Portland Harbour is located beside the Isle of Portland, Dorset, on the south coast of England.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
In geology, a proglacial lake is a lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet due to isostatic depression of the crust around the ice.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Race to the Sea took place from about 1914, after the Battle of the Frontiers and the German advance into France, which had been stopped at the First Battle of the Marne and was followed by the First Battle of the Aisne a Franco-British counter-offensive.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Ramsgate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in east Kent, England.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English business magnate, investor and philanthropist.
Richard Mark Hammond (born 19 December 1969) is an English presenter, writer, and journalist, best known for co-hosting the BBC Two car programme Top Gear from 2002 until 2015 with Jeremy Clarkson and James May.
King Richard the Second is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in approximately 1595.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Rollo or Gaange Rolf (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; Rollon; 846 – 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
Roscoff is a commune in the Finistère département of Brittany in northwestern France.
Rosslare Europort (Calafort Ros Láir) is a modern seaport located at Rosslare Harbour in County Wexford, Ireland, near the southeastern-most point of Ireland, handling passenger and freight ferries to and from Wales and France.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Ryde is an English seaside town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight, with a population of 23,999 at the 2011 Census.
St Anne or Saint Anne is the capital and the main town of Alderney in the Channel Islands, located about off the coast of Auderville in the Manche department of the Normandy region of north-western France.
Saint Helier (Saint-Hélier) is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel.
Saint Peter Port is the capital of Guernsey as well as the main port.
Saint-Brieuc (Breton: Sant-Brieg, Gallo: Saent-Berioec) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Saint-Malo (Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a historic French port in Brittany on the Channel coast.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
Sark (Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr or Cerq) is an island in the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Seaford is a coastal town in East Sussex, on the south coast of England.
Sebastian Münster (20 January 1488 – 26 May 1552) was a German cartographer, cosmographer, and a Christian Hebraist scholar.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French (Lé Sèrtchais) is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark (Bailiwick of Guernsey).
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Shipping Forecast is a BBC Radio broadcast of weather reports and forecasts for the seas around the coasts of the British Isles.
The Siege of Calais (1940) was a battle for the port of Calais during the Battle of France in 1940.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
The Solent is the strait that separates the Isle of Wight from the mainland of England.
Sompting is a village and civil parish in the coastal Adur District of West Sussex, England between Lancing and Worthing.
South Foreland Lighthouse is a Victorian lighthouse on the South Foreland in St. Margaret's Bay, Dover, Kent, England, used to warn ships approaching the nearby Goodwin Sands.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small, usually two-seater, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling.
The Saunders-Roe SR.N1 ("Saunders-Roe Nautical 1") was the first practical hovercraft.
The SR.N4 (Saunders-Roe Nautical 4) hovercraft (also known as the Mountbatten-class hovercraft) was a large passenger and vehicle carrying hovercraft built by the British Hovercraft Corporation (BHC).
Chinmoy Kumar Ghose, better known as Sri Chinmoy (27 August 1931 – 11 October 2007), was an Indian spiritual leader who taught meditation in the West after moving to New York City in 1964.
St Austell (S.) is a civil parish and major town in Cornwall, England, UK.
The Élise was the first steamship to cross the English Channel.
A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.
A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.
The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".
Submarine warfare is one of the four divisions of underwater warfare, the others being anti-submarine warfare, mine warfare and mine countermeasures.
Suger (Sugerius; 1081 – 13 January 1151) was a French abbot, statesman, and historian.
Taddeo Crivelli (fl. 1451, died by 1479), also known as Taddeo da Ferrara, was an Italian painter of illuminated manuscripts.
Tatihou is an island of Normandy in France with an area of.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Minch (An Cuan Sgitheanach, An Cuan Sgìth, Cuan na Hearadh, An Cuan Leòdhasach), also called North Minch, is a strait in north-west Scotland, separating the north-west Highlands and the northern Inner Hebrides from Lewis and Harris in the Outer Hebrides.
The Serpentine (also known as the Serpentine River) is a recreational lake in Hyde Park, London, England, created in 1730 at the behest of Queen Caroline.
Top Gear is a British motoring magazine, factual television series, conceived by Jeremy Clarkson and Andy Wilman, launched on 20 October 2002, and broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC Two.
Torbay is a borough in Devon, England, administered by the unitary authority of Torbay Council.
Torquay is a seaside town in Devon, England, part of the unitary authority area of Torbay.
A traffic collision avoidance system or traffic alert and collision avoidance system (both abbreviated as TCAS, and pronounced "tee-kas") is an aircraft collision avoidance system designed to reduce the incidence of mid-air collisions between aircraft.
A Traffic Separation Scheme or TSS is a traffic-management route-system ruled by the International Maritime Organization or IMO.
The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on 4 December 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between the Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.
The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, between Charles the Simple (King Charles III of France) and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, was signed in autumn 911.
Trent Grimsey (born 4 May 1988) is an Australian retired long distance swimmer who set a new record time for crossing the English Channel in 2012.
Trouville-sur-Mer, commonly referred to as Trouville, is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
USS Kearsarge, a Mohican-class sloop-of-war, is best known for her defeat of the Confederate commerce raider during the American Civil War.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula (France), which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Walmer is a town in the district of Dover, Kent in England: located on the coast, the parish of Walmer is six miles (10 km) north-east of Dover.
Water skiing (also waterskiing or water-skiing) is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski.
The Weald–Artois anticline is a large anticline, a geological structure running between the regions of the Weald in southern England and Artois in northeastern France.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
Weymouth is a seaside town in Dorset, England, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast.
William of Newburgh or Newbury (Guilelmus Neubrigensis, Wilhelmus Neubrigensis, or Willelmus de Novoburgo. 1136?–1198?), also known as William Parvus, was a 12th-century English historian and Augustinian canon of Anglo-Saxon descent from Bridlington, Yorkshire.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
Wimereux is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Worthing is a large seaside town in England, with borough status in West Sussex.
The Zeebrugge Raid on 23 April 1918, was an attempt by the Royal Navy to block the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge.
Anglo-French Pond, British Channel, British Sea, Channel Swimming, Dover Traffic Separation System, English Chanel, English channel, EnglishChannel, France–United Kingdom border, La manche, Mor Breizh, Mor Bretannek, Narrow seas, The Channel, The English Channel, United Kingdom–France border.