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Index Longwave

In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, and commonly abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. [1]

213 relations: Ağrı, Aholming transmitter, Aktobe, Alexanderson alternator, Algeria, Allouis longwave transmitter, Almaty, Altai City, AM broadcasting, Amateur radio operator, Anthorn Radio Station, Arabic, Arkhangelsk, Ashgabat, Atomic clock, Attenuation, Ölgii (city), Baku, Barents Sea, BBC Light Programme, BBC Radio 4, BBC World Service, Beidweiler Longwave Transmitter, Birobidzhan, Bishkek, Blagoveshchensk, Bod Transmitter, Bolshakovo transmitter, BPC (time signal), Brovary, Burg bei Magdeburg, Burghead Transmitting Station, Butterworth-Heinemann, Cage aerial, Call sign, Caltanissetta, Cambridge University Press, China, Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Choibalsan (city), Clarkstown radio transmitter, Colorado, Commonwealth of Independent States, Czech language, Czech Radio, Dalanzadgad, Danish language, Dartford Crossing, DCF77, Deutschlandfunk, ..., Deutschlandfunk Kultur, Diffraction, Digital Radio Mondiale, DR (broadcaster), Droitwich Transmitting Station, Dushanbe, DXing, Earth, Eiðar longwave transmitter, Electromagnetic spectrum, English language, Erzurum, Europe 1, F region, Fail-safe, Fishing fleet, France Inter, Frankfurt, French language, Frequency standard, Gerbrandy Tower, Gorno-Altaysk, Grigoriopol, Grimeton Radio Station, Ground conductivity, Hertz, Horizont (radio), Icelandic language, Index of wave articles, Ingøy radio transmitter, International broadcasting, International Telecommunication Union, Ionosphere, Irkutsk, ITU Region, JJY, Jordan Radio and Television Corporation, Junglinster Longwave Transmitter, Kaliningrad, Kalundborg Transmitter, Karaganda, Kazan, Kénadsa, Kennelly–Heaviside layer, Khabarovsk, Krasny Bor transmitter, Lahti longwave transmitter, Lambertseter, Lintong District, Logroño, Longwave radio mast Hellissandur, Longwave transmitter Europe 1, Low frequency, LowFER, Lviv, Magadan, Medi1 Radio, Medium wave, Mongolia, Mongolian language, Mongolian National Broadcaster, Morocco, Morse code, Murmansk, Nador transmitter, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Navigation, Newnes, New South Wales, Noginsk, Non-directional beacon, Norilsk, Norwegian language, NRK P1, Oranienburg, Orders of magnitude (length), Orenburg, Orlunda radio transmitter, Oslo, Polatlı, Polish language, Polskie Radio, Public Emergency Radio of the United States, Qazaq Radiosy, QSL card, Radio, Radio 5 (Spanish radio station), Radio Algeria, Radio Antena Satelor, Radio clock, Radio direction finder, Radio Mayak, Radio Moldova, Radio propagation, Radio Rossii, Radio Society of Great Britain, Radio spectrum, Radio teleswitch, Radio Ukraine, Radio wave, Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française, Radioropa Info, Radyo 2, Rai Radio 1, Raszyn radio transmitter, Rás 1, Rás 2, Refraction, RMC (France), Romanian language, Roumoules radio transmitter, RTÉ Radio 1, RTL (French radio), Samara, Satellite navigation, Selenginsk, Sender Donebach, Sender Zehlendorf, Shalkar (radio), Shipping Forecast, Shortwave listening, Shortwave radio, Shymkent, Single-frequency network, Skywave, Solec Kujawski radio transmitter, Submarine, Surface wave, Surgut, Sveriges Radio P1, Syktyvkar, Taldom transmitter, Tashkent, TDF time signal, Time from NPL (MSF), Tipaza Longwave Transmitter, Title 47 CFR Part 15, Topolná transmitter, Transmitter, Tripoli, TRT GAP, Turkmen language, Tynda, Tyumen, Ulaanbaatar, United States, Ussuriysk, Vakarel radio transmitter, Van, Turkey, Very low frequency, Voice of Russia, Vorkuta, Warsaw radio mast, Wavelength, Westerglen transmitting station, WGU-20, World Heritage site, World Radio TV Handbook, WWVB, Yafran, Yakutsk, Yekaterinburg, Yelizovo, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Expand index (163 more) »


Ağrı, formerly known as Karaköse (Qerekose) from the early Turkish republican period until 1946, and before that as Karakilise (Karakilisa), is the capital of Ağrı Province at the eastern end of Turkey, near the border with Iran.

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Aholming transmitter

Aholming transmitter is a facility for formerly broadcasting the Program of Deutschlandfunk on 207 kHz with a power of 500 kW at day and 250 kW at night between Aholming and Ottmaring in Bavaria.

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Aktobe (Ақтөбе, Aqtóbe) is a city on the Ilek River in Kazakhstan.

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Alexanderson alternator

An Alexanderson alternator is a rotating machine invented by Ernst Alexanderson in 1904 for the generation of high-frequency alternating current for use as a radio transmitter.

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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Allouis longwave transmitter

The Allouis longwave transmitter has been France's central longwave broadcast transmitter since 1939.

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Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.

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Altai City

The city of Altai (Алтай) is the capital of the Govi-Altai province (aimag) in western Mongolia.

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AM broadcasting

AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.

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Amateur radio operator

An amateur radio operator is someone who uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other amateur operators on radio frequencies assigned to the amateur radio service.

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Anthorn Radio Station

Anthorn Radio Station is located near Anthorn, Cumbria, England, overlooking the Solway Firth, and is operated by Babcock International (with whom former operators VT Communications are now merged).

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.

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Atomic clock

An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.

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In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

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Ölgii (city)

Ölgii (Өлгий cradle) is the capital of the Bayan-Ölgii Aimag (province) of Mongolia, located in the extreme west of the country.

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Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

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Barents Sea

The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.

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BBC Light Programme

The Light Programme was a BBC radio station which broadcast chiefly mainstream light entertainment and music from 1945 until 1967, when it was rebranded as BBC Radio 2.

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BBC Radio 4

BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.

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BBC World Service

The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.

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Beidweiler Longwave Transmitter

The Beidweiler Longwave Transmitter is a high-power broadcasting transmitter for the French-speaking programme of RTL radio on the longwave frequency 234 kHz.

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Birobidzhan (p; ביראָבידזשאַן, Birobidzshan) is a town and the administrative center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia, located on the Trans-Siberian Railway, close to the border with China.

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Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).

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Blagoveshchensk (p, lit. the city of the Annunciation) is a city and the administrative center of Amur Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers, opposite to the Chinese city of Heihe.

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Bod Transmitter

The Bod Transmitter (also known as the Braşov Transmitter) is the name of the transmitter facility for the central longwave radio station near Bod, Romania.

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Bolshakovo transmitter

Bolshakovo transmitter was the most powerful medium-wave broadcasting station in the world, situated near Bolshakovo, Russia.

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BPC (time signal)

BPC is the callsign of a time signal broadcasting from the BPC Shangqiu Low-Frequency Time-Code Radio Station, cooperatively constructed by the National Time Service Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Xi’an Gaohua Technology Co., Ltd.

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Brovary (Бровари, Browary; before 1969 known as Brovari) is a city in Kiev Oblast (Region) in northern Ukraine, an eastern suburb of the country's capital, Kiev.

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Burg bei Magdeburg

Burg bei Magdeburg is a town of about 23,900 inhabitants on the Elbe–Havel Canal in northeastern Germany, northeast of Magdeburg.

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Burghead Transmitting Station

The Burghead transmitting station is a broadcasting facility near Burghead in Scotland for long wave and medium wave radio transmission that started service on 12 October 1936.

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Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.

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Cage aerial

A cage antenna (British cage aerial) is a radio antenna that consists of the top portion of a tower or mast and of several parallel wires, which are radially arranged around the lower part of the mast.

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Call sign

In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign (also known as a call name or call letters—and historically as a call signal—or abbreviated as a call) is a unique designation for a transmitter station.

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Caltanissetta (Nissa or Cartanisetta) is a comune in the central interior of Sicily, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Caltanissetta.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai

Chita (p) is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, east of Irkutsk.

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Choibalsan (city)

Choibalsan (Mongolian: Чойбалсан) is the fourth-largest city in Mongolia after Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Erdenet.

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Clarkstown radio transmitter

The Clarkstown radio transmitter is a longwave radio transmitter in County Meath, Ireland.

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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czech Radio

Český rozhlas (ČRo) is the public radio broadcaster of the Czech Republic, operating since 1923.

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Dalanzadgad (Даланзадгад) is the capital of Ömnögovi Aimag in Mongolia.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Dartford Crossing

The Dartford-Thurrock River Crossing, commonly known as the Dartford Crossing and until 1991 the Dartford Tunnel, is a major road crossing of the River Thames in England, carrying the A282 road between Dartford in Kent to the south with Thurrock in Essex to the north.

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DCF77 is a German longwave time signal and standard-frequency radio station.

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Deutschlandfunk (DLF) is a German public broadcasting radio station, broadcasting national news and current affairs.

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Deutschlandfunk Kultur

Deutschlandfunk Kultur (abbreviated to DLF Kultur or DKultur) is a culture-oriented radio station and part of Deutschlandradio, a set of national radio stations in Germany.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Digital Radio Mondiale

Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM; mondiale being Italian and French for "worldwide") is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for analogue radio broadcasting including AM broadcasting, particularly shortwave, and FM broadcasting.

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DR (broadcaster)

DR (Danmarks Radio), officially Danish Broadcasting Corporation in English, is a Danish public-service radio and television broadcasting company.

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Droitwich Transmitting Station

The Droitwich transmitting station is a large broadcasting facility for long-wave and medium-wave transmissions, established in 1934 in the civil parish of Dodderhill, just outside the village of Wychbold, near Droitwich in Worcestershire, England.

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Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.

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DXing is the hobby of receiving and identifying distant radio or television signals, or making two way radio contact with distant stations in amateur radio, citizens' band radio or other two way radio communications.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eiðar longwave transmitter

The Eiðar longwave transmitter is a facility used by RÚV (The Icelandic National Broadcasting Service) for longwave radio broadcasting on 207 kHz with a power of 100 kW.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).

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Europe 1

Europe 1, formerly known as Europe n° 1, is a privately owned radio station created in 1955.

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F region

The F region of the ionosphere is home to the F layer of ionization, also called the Appleton–Barnett layer, after the English physicist Edward Appleton and New Zealander Miles Barnett.

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A fail-safe in engineering is a design feature or practice that in the event of a specific type of failure, inherently responds in a way that will cause no or minimal harm to other equipment, the environment or to people.

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Fishing fleet

A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels.

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France Inter

France Inter is a major French public radio channel and part of Radio France.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Frequency standard

A frequency standard is a stable oscillator used for frequency calibration or reference.

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Gerbrandy Tower

The Gerbrandy Tower (Gerbrandytoren) is a tower in IJsselstein, the Netherlands.

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Gorno-Altaysk (Го́рно-Алта́йск,; Туулу Алтай, Tuulu Altay) is the capital town of the Altai Republic, Russia.

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Grigoriopol (Moldovan Cyrillic: Григориопол, Grigoriopol, Hryhoriopol) is a town in Transnistria autonomous territorial unit, Moldova.

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Grimeton Radio Station

Grimeton Radio Station in southern Sweden, close to Varberg in Halland, is an early longwave transatlantic wireless telegraphy station built in 1922-1924, that has been preserved as a historical site.

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Ground conductivity

Ground conductivity refers to the electrical conductivity of the subsurface of the earth.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Horizont (radio)

Horizon Radio or Хоризонт (Horizont) in Bulgarian is a state-owned Bulgarian Radio Station, specializing in news coverage from Bulgaria.

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Icelandic language

Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.

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Index of wave articles

This is a list of Wave topics.

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Ingøy radio transmitter

The Ingøy radio transmitter is a longwave transmitter of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation with a frequency of 153 kHz and a power of 100 kW.

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International broadcasting

International broadcasting is broadcasting that is deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience.

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International Telecommunication Union

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.

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The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.

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Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.

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ITU Region

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in its International Radio Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum.

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JJY is the call sign of a low frequency time signal radio station located in Japan.

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Jordan Radio and Television Corporation

Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) is the state broadcaster of Jordan.

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Junglinster Longwave Transmitter

The Junglinster Longwave Transmitter is a longwave broadcasting facility used by RTL near Junglinster, Luxembourg, which went into service in 1932.

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Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

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Kalundborg Transmitter

Kalundborg Radio is a major transmission facility for long- and mediumwave at the harbour of Kalundborg in Denmark.

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Karaganda or Qaraghandy (Qaraǵandy Қарағанды) is the capital of Karaganda Region in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

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Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kénadsa is a town and commune in the Sahara Desert of south-western Algeria, and is the capital of Kénadsa District, Béchar Province.

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Kennelly–Heaviside layer

The Kennelly–Heaviside layer, named after Arthur E. Kennelly and Oliver Heaviside, also known as the E region or simply the Heaviside layer, is a layer of ionised gas occurring between roughly 90–150 km (56–93 mi) above the ground — one of several layers in the Earth's ionosphere.

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Khabarovsk (p;; ᠪᠣᡥᠣᡵᡳ|v.

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Krasny Bor transmitter

Krasny Bor transmitter is a large facility for longwave, mediumwave and shortwave broadcasting at Krasny Bor near Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Lahti longwave transmitter

The Lahti longwave transmitter was a facility for longwave transmission at Lahti, Finland.

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Lambertseter is a suburb of the city of Oslo, Norway, and is part of the borough of Nordstrand.

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Lintong District

Lintong District is one of nine districts of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province, China.

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Logroño is a city in northern Spain, on the Ebro River.

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Longwave radio mast Hellissandur

The Hellissandur longwave radio mast is a 412-metre-high guyed radio mast used for longwave radio transmissions and situated at Gufuskálar, near Hellissandur on the Snæfellsnes peninsula of Iceland.

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Longwave transmitter Europe 1

The Longwave transmitter Europe 1 is the oldest privately owned radio station in Germany, situated between and Berus/Saar, Germany.

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Low frequency

Low frequency (low freq) or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz)–300 kHz.

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LowFER (Low-Frequency Experimental Radio) refers to experimental radio communication practiced by hobbyists on frequencies below 300 kHz, a part of the radio spectrum known as low frequency.

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Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.

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Magadan (p) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.

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Medi1 Radio

Medi1 Radio (مدي 1, also known as Radio Méditerranée Internationale) is a private, commercial Moroccan radio network.

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Medium wave

Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting.

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Mongolian National Broadcaster

The Mongolian National Broadcaster (MNB;;; shortened as МҮОНРТ) is the official, state-funded broadcaster in Mongolia.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Morse code

Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.

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Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.

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Nador transmitter

Nador transmitter is the main transmission facility for longwave and shortwave of Medi 1 Radio, a privately owned broadcasting company of Morocco.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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Newnes, New South Wales

Newnes, an abandoned oil shale mining site of the Wolgan Valley, is located in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia.

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Noginsk (Ноги́нск) is a city and the administrative center of Noginsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located east of the Moscow Ring Road on the Klyazma River.

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Non-directional beacon

A non-directional (radio) beacon (NDB) is a radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid.

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Norilsk (p) is an industrial city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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NRK P1 is one of three nationwide digital radio channels operated by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK).

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Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Orders of magnitude (length)

The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.

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Orenburg (p) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia.

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Orlunda radio transmitter

The Orlunda longwave transmitter was a longwave broadcast facility in central Sweden which broadcast Sveriges Radio Programme 1 from 1962 to 1991.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Polatlı (formerly Ancient Greek: Γορδιον, Gòrdion and Latin: Gordium) is a city and a district in Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, 80 km west of the Turkish capital Ankara, on the road to Eskişehir.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polskie Radio

Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.

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Public Emergency Radio of the United States

The Public Emergency Radio of the United States was a communications system planned during the cold war era in the 1970s, to be activated in anticipation of a nuclear attack.

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Qazaq Radiosy

Qazaq Radiosy is the largest broadcasting network in Kazakhstan.

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QSL card

A QSL card is a written confirmation of either a two-way radiocommunication between two amateur radio stations or a one-way reception of a signal from an AM radio, FM radio, television or shortwave broadcasting station.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Radio 5 (Spanish radio station)

Radio 5 (also known as Radio 5 Información in 2012-2013 and Radio 5 Todo Noticias) is an "all news" radio station operated by Radio Nacional de España, part of Spain's state-owned public broadcasting organization, Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española (RTVE).

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Radio Algeria

The Entreprise nationale de radiodiffusion sonore (ENRS, the National Sound Broadcasting Company, Algerian Radio, or Radio Algérienne; in المؤسسة العمومية للبث الإذاعي) is Algeria's state-owned public radio broadcasting organization., accessed 23 December 2008 Formed in 1986 when the previous Algerian Radio and Television company (established in 1962) was split into four enterprises, it produces three national radio channels.

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Radio Antena Satelor

Radio Antena Satelor (Radio Villages' Antenna) is the fifth state-owned radio station in Romania.

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Radio clock

A radio clock or radio-controlled clock (RCC) is a clock that is automatically synchronized by a time code transmitted by a radio transmitter connected to a time standard such as an atomic clock.

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Radio direction finder

A radio direction finder (RDF) is a device for finding the direction, or ''bearing'', to a radio source.

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Radio Mayak

Radio Mayak is a radio broadcasting company in Russia, owned by VGTRK.

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Radio Moldova

Radio Moldova (Radio Moldova, RM) is the first publicly funded radio broadcaster in Moldova.

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Radio propagation

Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.

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Radio Rossii

Radio Rossii (Радио России, Radio of Russia) is the primary public radio station in Russia.

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Radio Society of Great Britain

The Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), first founded in 1913 as the London Wireless Club, is the United Kingdom's recognised national society for amateur radio operators.

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Radio spectrum

The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies from 3 Hz to 3 000 GHz (3 THz).

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Radio teleswitch

A radio teleswitch is a device used in the United Kingdom to allow electricity suppliers to switch large numbers of electricity meters between different tariff rates, by broadcasting an embedded signal in broadcast radio signals.

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Radio Ukraine

UA:Radio Ukraine (UA:Українське радіо) is the part of UA:PBC of radio broadcasting, which was the publicly funded radio broadcaster in Ukraine which has merged with the country's national broadcaster.

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Radio wave

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

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Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française

Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (RTF – French Radio and Television Broadcasting) was the French national public broadcasting organization established on 9 February 1949 to replace the post-war "''Radiodiffusion Française''" (RDF), which had been founded on 23 March 1945 to replace ''Radiodiffusion Nationale'' (RN), created on 29 July 1939.

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Radioropa Info

Radioropa Info was the name of various German-language privately owned longwave radio stations.

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Radyo 2

Radyo 2 also known as TRT FM is a radio network of Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT).

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Rai Radio 1

Rai Radio 1 (Radio Uno) is an Italian radio channel operated by the state-owned public-broadcasting organization RAI and specializing in news, sports, talk programmes, and popular music.

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Raszyn radio transmitter

The longwave transmitter Raszyn is a longwave broadcasting transmitter near Raszyn, Poland.

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Rás 1

Rás 1 (Channel 1) is an Icelandic radio station belonging to and operated by Ríkisútvarpið (RÚV), Iceland's national public service broadcaster.

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Rás 2

Rás 2 (Channel 2) is an Icelandic radio station belonging to the National Icelandic Broadcasting Service, RÚV.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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RMC (France)

RMC is a private French-Monégasque radio station created in 1943, broadcasting from France with studios in Paris and Monte Carlo.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Roumoules radio transmitter

The Roumoules transmitter is the main broadcasting facility for longwave and mediumwave broadcasting of Radio Monte Carlo near Roumoules, France.

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RTÉ Radio 1

RTÉ Radio 1 (RTÉ Raidió 1) is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926.

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RTL (French radio)

RTL, formerly Radio Luxembourg, is a French commercial radio network owned by the RTL Group.

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Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Selenginsk (Селенги́нск; Сэлэнгын, Selengyn) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Kabansky District of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located at the head of the Selenga River delta about from Lake Baikal and about northwest of Ulan-Ude, the capital of the republic.

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Sender Donebach

The Sender Donebach was a 500-kilowatt long wave radio transmitter operating on 153 kHz and transmitting the program of German public broadcaster Deutschlandfunk.

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Sender Zehlendorf

Sender Zehlendorf is a radio transmission facility which has been in service since 1936, when a short wave transmitter was built in Zehlendorf (a village near Oranienburg) as part of the establishment of permanent radio services.

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Shalkar (radio)

Radio «Shalkar» - a structural unit of Kazakh Radio, which broadcasts only in the state language.

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Shipping Forecast

The Shipping Forecast is a BBC Radio broadcast of weather reports and forecasts for the seas around the coasts of the British Isles.

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Shortwave listening

Shortwave listening, or SWLing, is the hobby of listening to shortwave radio broadcasts located on frequencies between 1700 kHz and 30 MHz.

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Shortwave radio

Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.

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Shymkent (Shymkent, شىمكەنت, known until 1993 as Chimkent (Чимкент, چىمكېنت; Чимкент, Čimkent), is a city in the Republic of Kazakhstan; one of the three cities which have the status equal to that of a region (the city of republican significance). It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with an estimated population of 669,326 in 2012. After joining adjacent areas to the city the population has sharply risen to 858,147 in the beginning of 2015; as by 1 st May of 2018, Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on Statistics estimated the city population to be equal to 988 894. According to the region and city officials, millionth resident of Shymkent was born on 17th May, 2018. Shymkent is a major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the city is also a notable cultural centre, with an international airport. Shymkent is situated west of Almaty and to the north of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

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Single-frequency network

A single-frequency network or SFN is a broadcast network where several transmitters simultaneously send the same signal over the same frequency channel.

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In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere.

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Solec Kujawski radio transmitter

The Longwave transmitter Solec Kujawski is a longwave broadcasting facility of the Polish Radio for the AM-LW (long wave) 225 kHz frequency/1333 meters wavelength.

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A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Surface wave

In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media.

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Surgut (p) is a city in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River near its junction with the Irtysh River.

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Sveriges Radio P1

P1 is a national radio channel produced by the Swedish public broadcaster Sveriges Radio.

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Syktyvkar (p; Сыктывкар) is the capital city of the Komi Republic, Russia.

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Taldom transmitter

Taldom transmitter (переда́тчик Та́лдом) is a large facility for longwave and shortwave broadcasting located near Taldom, Russia.

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Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.

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TDF time signal

TéléDiffusion de France broadcast the TDF time signal, controlled by LNE–SYRTE, from the Allouis longwave transmitter at 162 kHz, with a power of 2 MW.

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Time from NPL (MSF)

The Time from NPL is a radio signal broadcast from the Anthorn Radio Station near Anthorn, Cumbria, which serves as the United Kingdom's national time reference.

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Tipaza Longwave Transmitter

Tipaza Longwave Transmitter is a Broadcast transmitter of Algeria's Entreprise nationale de Radiodiffusion sonore.

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Title 47 CFR Part 15

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions.

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Topolná transmitter

The Topolná transmitter (Czech: RKS Topolná) is the central longwave broadcasting facility of the Czech Republic situated west of the village of Topolná on the Morava River.

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In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.

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Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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TRT GAP, belonging to the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, has been established to enhance the recognition of The Southeastern Anatolia Project, abbreviated as GAP, on a rational ground which serves forming the necessary social, cultural and psychological environment in the region.

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Turkmen language

Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.

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Tynda (Ты́нда) is a town in Amur Oblast, Russia, located northwest of Blagoveshchensk.

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Tyumen (a) is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River east of Moscow.

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Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Ussuriysk (Уссури́йск) is a city in Primorsky Krai, Russia, located in the fertile valley of the Razdolnaya River, north of Vladivostok, the administrative center of the krai, and about from both the China–Russia border and the Pacific Ocean.

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Vakarel radio transmitter

The Vakarel Transmitter is a large broadcasting facility for long- and medium wave near Vakarel, Bulgaria.

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Van, Turkey

Van (Van; Վան; Wan; فان; Εύα, Eua) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.

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Very low frequency

Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz (kHz), corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometers, respectively.

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Voice of Russia

The Voice of Russia (r), commonly abbreviated VOR, was the Russian government's international radio broadcasting service from 1993 until 2014, when it was reorganised as Radio Sputnik.

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Vorkuta (Воркута́; Вӧркута, Vörkuta; Nenets for "the abundance of bears", "bear corner") is a coal-mining town in the Komi Republic, Russia, situated just north of the Arctic Circle in the Pechora coal basin at the Usa River.

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Warsaw radio mast

The Warsaw Radio Mast was the world's tallest structure from 1974 until its collapse on 8 August 1991.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Westerglen transmitting station

The Westerglen transmitting station is a facility for longwave and mediumwave broadcasting established in 1932 at Westerglen Farm, 3 km south west of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland.

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WGU-20, also known as "the last radio station," was operated by the United States Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (one of the two agencies later merged to become the Federal Emergency Management Agency) in the mid-to-late 1970s.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Radio TV Handbook

The World Radio TV Handbook, also known as WRTH, is a directory of virtually every radio and TV station on Earth, published yearly.

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WWVB is a time signal radio station near Fort Collins, Colorado and is operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

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Yafran (يفرن), also spelled Jefren, Yefren, Yifran, Yifrin or Ifrane, is a city in northwestern Libya, in the Jabal al Gharbi District in the western Nafusa Mountains.

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Yakutsk (p; Дьокуускай, D'okuuskay) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about south of the Arctic Circle.

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Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.

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Yelizovo (Е́лизово) is a town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on the Avacha River northwest of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.

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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Ю́жно-Сахали́нск, literally "Southern Sakhalin") is a city in Sakhalin island, and the administrative center of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia.

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Long radio waves, Long wave, Long wave band, Long wave radio, Long-wave, Longwave radio.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longwave

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