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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
`Abd al Mu'min (c. 1094–1163) (عبد المؤمن بن علي or عبد المومن الــكـومي; full name: Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAlwī ibn Yaʿlā al-Kūmī) was a prominent member of the Almohad movement.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika, GColIH (عبد العزيز بوتفليقة ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Būtaflīqa; born 2 March 1937) is an Algerian politician who has been the fifth President of Algeria since 1999.
Abdelhamid Ben Badis (عبد الحميد بن باديس, Ben Badis; December 4, 1889 – April 17, 1940) was an emblematic figure of the Islamic Reform movement in Algeria.
Abdelkhader Houamel (born 1936) is an Algerian painter.
Abu Madyan (1126–1198), also known as Abu Madyan Shu'ayb Al-Ghawth, or Abū Madyan, or Sidi Bou-Mediene, or Sidi Abu Madyan Shuayb ibn al-Hussein al-Ansari, was an influential Andalusian mystic and a great Sufi master.
Abu Zayd Ibn Rizq Al-Hilali was an 11th-century Arab leader and hero of the 'Amirid tribe of Banu Hilal.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
The African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) is the leopard nominate subspecies native to many countries in Africa.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agha, also Aga (Ottoman Turkish:, آقا āghā "chief, master, lord"), as an honorific title for a civilian or military officer, or often part of such title, and was placed after the name of certain civilian or military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire.
The Aghlabids (الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.
A considerable amount of cotton was grown during the early 1860s because of the American Civil War in the United States, but the industry declined afterwards.
Ahlem Mosteghanemi (أحلام مستغانمي), alternatively written Ahlam Mosteghanemi (born in Tunisia in 1953) is an Algerian writer who has been called "the world's best-known arabophone woman novelist".
Shams al-Ma'arif al-Kubra, a manuscript copy, beginning of 17th century Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Buni (أحمد البوني), his complete name is Sharaf al-Din or Shihab al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Yusuf al-Buni al-Maliki al-ifriqi (born in Annaba, Algeria died 1225) was a well known Sufi and writer on the esoteric value of letters and topics relating to mathematics, sihr (sorcery) and spirituality, but very little is known about him.
Ahmed Ben Bella (أحمد بن بلّة; 25 December 1916 – 11 April 2012) was an Algerian socialist soldier and revolutionary who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.
Ahmed Ouyahia (أحمد أويحيى) (born 2 July 1952) is an Algerian politician who has been Prime Minister of Algeria since 2017; previously he was Prime Minister from 1995 to 1998, from 2003 to 2006, and from 2008, Jeune Afrique, 9 June 2009.
Air France Flight 8969 was an Air France flight that was hijacked on 24 December 1994 by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA) at Houari Boumedienne Airport, Algiers, Algeria.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Tanẓīm al-Qā‘idah fī Bilād al-Maghrib al-Islāmī), or AQIM, is an Islamist militant organization (of al-Qaeda) which aims to overthrow the Algerian government and institute an Islamic state.
Alain Mimoun (1 January 1921 – 27 June 2013) was an Algerian-born French long-distance runner who competed in track events, cross-country running and the marathon.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
The East-West Highway (الطريق السيار شرق-غرب), also referred to as the A1 Highway, is a motorway construction project in Algeria, with most construction completed by 2015.
The Algeria national football team represents Algeria in association football and is controlled by the Algerian Football Federation.
Algeria Press Service (APS; Algérie Presse Service; وكالـة الأنبــاء الجزائريـة; ⵜⴰⵡⴰⴽⵍⴰ ⵉⵙⴰⵍⵏ ⵏ ⵍⵣⴰⵢⵔ) is a news agency based in Algeria.
The Algerian Air Force (AAF) (القوات الجوية الجزائرية,; Armée de l'air algérienne), is the aerial arm of the Algerian People's Military.
Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.
A referendum on the Civil Concord Law was held in Algeria on 16 September 1999.
The dinar (دينار, Berber language: Dinar or Menkuc, French 'Dinar'; sign: DA; code: DZD) is the monetary currency of Algeria and it is subdivided into 100 centimes which are now obsolete due the extreme low value of the single currency unit of "one dinar".
The Algerian Football Federation (الإتحادية الجزائرية لكرة القدم, Fédération algérienne de football) is the governing body of football in Algeria.
An independence referendum was held in French Algeria on 1 July 1962.
Parliamentary elections were held in Algeria on 26 December 1991.
A legislative election was held in Algeria on 10 May 2012.
The Algerian National Navy (ANN; القوات البحرية الجزائرية) is the naval branch of the Military of Algeria.
The 2005 Algerian national reconciliation referendum took place in Algeria on 29 September 2005.
The 1999 Algerian presidential election took place on 15 April 1999 to elect the President of Algeria.
Presidential elections were held in Algeria on 8 April 2004.
A presidential election was held in Algeria on 9 April 2009.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Algiers (ولاية الجزائر, Wilaya d'Alger) is a province (wilayah) in Algeria, named after its capital, Algiers, which is also the national capital.
Sir Alistair Allan Horne (9 November 1925 – 25 May 2017) was a British journalist, biographer and historian of Europe, especially of 19th and 20th century France.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andalusian classical music (طرب أندَلُسي, trans. ṭarab andalusi, música andalusí) is a style of Arabic music found in different styles across the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and to a lesser degree in Tunisia and Libya in the form of the Ma'luf style).
Angelfire is an Internet service that offers free and paid website services.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU); اتحاد المغرب العربي) is a trade agreement aiming for economic and future political unity among Arab countries of the Maghreb in North Africa. Its members are the nations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The Union has been unable to achieve tangible progress on its goals due to deep economic and political disagreements between Morocco and Algeria regarding, among others, the issue of Western Sahara. No high level meetings have taken place since 3 July 2008 and commentators regard the Union as largely dormant.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arab-Berbers (العرب والبربر; Arabo-berbères) are an ethnic group native to Maghreb, a North African region along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from Groupe Islamique Armé; الجماعة الإسلامية المسلّحة) was one of the two main Islamist insurgents groups that fought the Algerian government and army in the Algerian Civil War.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Fatima-Zohra Imalayen (30 June 1936 – 6 February 2015), known by her pen name Assia Djebar (آسيا جبار), was an Algerian novelist, translator and filmmaker.
The Aterian is a Middle Stone Age (or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool industry centered in North Africa, but also possibly found in Oman and the Thar Desert.
The names Atlas bear and African bearBryden, H. A. (ed.) (1899).
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
The Aures Mountains (ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ, Aurasium, Jibāl al-Awrās) are an eastern prolongation of the Atlas Mountain System that lies to the east of the Saharan Atlas in northeastern Algeria, North Africa.
Aures (Amazigh: ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ / Awras, Awrās) is an Amazigh language-speaking natural region located in the mountainous area of the Aurès range in eastern Algeria.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The Évian Accords comprise a treaty which was signed on 18 March 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, the government-in-exile of FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) which sought Algeria's independence from France.
Bachir Yellès (بشير يلس, born September 12, 1921Bloom and Blair, p.. "Bachir Yelles (b. 1921) and Muhammad Bouzid (b. 1929) explored Cubism, Fauvism and Expressionism while maintaining local themes.") is an Algerian painter.
Baladiyah is a type of Arabic administrative division that can be translated as "district", "sub-district" or "municipality".
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.
The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (بنو يفرن, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.
The Banu Sulaym (بنو سليم) were an Arab tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz in the pre-Islamic era.
The Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) is the nominate lion subspecies in North Africa.
The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), also known as Barbary ape or magot, is a species of macaque unique for its distribution outside Asia.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Barbary stag (Cervus elaphus barbarus) or Atlas deer is a subspecies of red deer that is native to North Africa.
The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy.
Béjaïa (بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Bedouin music is the music of nomadic Bedouin tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, Sudan and the Levant.
Benedict F. "Ben" Kiernan (born 1953 in Melbourne) is the Whitney Griswold Professor of History, Professor of International and Area Studies and Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University.
Beni Hammad Fort, also called Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (قلعة بني حماد) is a fortified palatine city in Algeria.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (بكلربكی; "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bir el Ater (بئر العاتر) is a city located in far eastern Algeria.
The Bombardment of Algiers (27 August 1816) was an attempt by Britain and the Netherlands to end the slavery practices of Omar Agha, the Dey of Algiers.
Boualem Sansal (born 15 October 1949) is an Algerian author.
Ahmed Boughèra El Ouafi (أحمد بوغيرا العوافي) (October 15, 1898 – October 18, 1959) was an Algerian athlete during the time Algeria was part of France.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Hurst Publishers (C. Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd) is an independent non-fiction publisher based in the Bloomsbury area of London.
The Cabinet of Algeria is the chief executive body of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Castilians (Spanish: castellanos) are certain inhabitants in regions of central Spain including at least the eastern part of Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha excluding Albacete, and the Community of Madrid, who are the source of the Spanish language (Castilian) among other aspects of cultural identity.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cedrus (common English name cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae (subfamily Abietoideae).
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chaabi is a traditional music of Algiers (Algeria), formalized by El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chadli Bendjedid (الشاذلي بن جديد; ALA-LC: ash-Shādhilī bin Jadīd; 14 April 1929 – 6 October 2012) was the third President of Algeria; his presidential term of office ran from 9 February 1979 to 11 January 1992.
The Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation was a charter proposed by Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, in an attempt to bring closure to the Algerian Civil War by offering an amnesty for most violence committed in it.
The Chenouis (in Berber: Icenwiyen) are a Berber-speaking population native to Algeria.
Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chorba is one of various kinds of soup or stew found in national cuisines across the Balkans, North Africa, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christianity came to North Africa in the Roman era.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Chronicle of the Years of Fire (waqāʾiʿu sinīna l-jamri; Chronique des Années de Braise) is a 1975 Algerian drama historical film directed by Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina.
Cinema of Algeria refers to the film industry based in the north African country of Algeria.
City Journal is a quarterly magazine published by the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, a conservative think tank based in New York City.
Ciutadella de Menorca or simply Ciutadella is a town and a municipality in the western end of Menorca, one of the Balearic Islands (Spain).
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The municipalities of Algeria (Arabic: baladiyah (singular); French: commune) form the second level of administrative subdivisions of Algeria.
The Université Constantine 1, formerly the University of Mentouri, is a university located in Constantine, Algeria.
Not to be confused with Constantinople, the historical city from 330 to 1453 in Thrace, now Istanbul, Turkey. Constantine (قسنطينة, ⵇⵙⴻⵏⵟⵉⵏⴰ), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.
An Algerian Constitution was first adopted by a referendum in 1963, following the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62); originally, it was to be drafted by a constitutional assembly led by Ferhat Abbas, but this body was sidelined by Algeria's first President, Ahmed Ben Bella.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Council of the Nation (majlis al'umm) is the upper house of the Algerian Parliament.
Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
A daïra or daerah (circle; plural dawaïr) is an administrative division of a wilaya in Algeria, and in Western Sahara.
Days of Glory (Indigènes - "Natives"; بلديون) is a 2006 French film directed by Rachid Bouchareb.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dey (Arabic: داي, from Turkish dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli,Bertarelli (1929), p. 203.
The provinces of Algeria are divided into 553 districts (daïras).
A divan or diwan (دیوان, dīvān) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or its chief official (see dewan).
Djamel Zidane (born 28 April 1955 in Algiers, Algeria) is a retired footballer.
Djanet (جانت) is an oasis city, and capital of Djanet District, in Illizi Province, southeast Algeria.
Djémila (جميلة, the Beautiful one, Cuicul or Curculum), formerly Cuicul, is a small mountain village in Algeria, near the northern coast east of Algiers, where some of the best preserved Berbero-Roman ruins in North Africa are found.
Djelfa (ولاية الجلفة) is a province (wilaya) of Algeria.
The Djurdjura or Jurjura Range (جبال جرجرة, Jabal Jurjura; Berber Adrar n Jerjer) is a mountain range of the Tell Atlas, part of the Atlas Mountain System.
Dragut (Turgut Reis; 1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a famed, respected, and feared Muslim Ottoman Naval Commander of Greek descent.
Draughts (British English) or checkers (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Admiral Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, GCB (19 April 1757 – 23 January 1833) was a British naval officer.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka (الـحــاج مــحــمــد الـعــنـقــة,Berber ⴻⵍ ⵂⴰⴵ ⵎ'ⵂⴰⵎⴻⴷ ⴻⵍ ⴰⵏⴾⴰ), (May 20, 1907 in Algiers – November 23, 1978 in Algiers) also known as Hadj Muhammed Al Anka, El-Hadj M'Hamed El Anka (and various other combinations), was considered a Grand Master of Andalusian classical music and Algerian chaâbi music.
Abdelkader ibn Muhieddine (6 September 1808 – 26 May 1883; عبد القادر ابن محيي الدين), known as the Emir Abdelkader or Abdelkader El Djezairi, was an Algerian religious and military leader who led a struggle against the French colonial invasion in the mid-19th century.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.
Entente Sportive de Sétif (الوفاق الرياضي السطايفي), commonly referred to as ES Sétif or ESS for short, is an Algerian professional football club based in Sétif currently playing in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is drawn out from beneath the earth's surface location.
Fantasia is a traditional exhibition of horsemanship in the Maghreb performed during cultural festivals and to close Maghrebi wedding celebrations.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
The fennec fox or fennec (Vulpes zerda) is a small nocturnal fox found in the Sahara of North Africa, the Sinai Peninsula, South West Israel (Arava desert) Encyclopedia of Zoology, Ynet and the Arabian desert.
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitanian War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars, in which the United States and Sweden fought against the four North African states known collectively as the "Barbary States".
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
In archaeology, a flake tool is a type of stone tool that was used during the Stone Age that was created by striking a flake from a prepared stone core.
Football in Algeria is the country's most popular sport.
Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.
Formentera is the smaller and more southerly island of the Pityusic Islands group (comprising Ibiza and Formentera, as well as various small islets), which belongs to the Balearic Islands autonomous community (Spain).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frantz Fanon (20 July 1925 – 6 December 1961) was a Martinican psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The French conquest of Algeria took place between 1830 and 1847.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Gabès Governorate is one of the 24 governorates of Tunisia and in south-eastern Tunisia.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
Genseric (c. 400 – 25 January 477), also known as Gaiseric or Geiseric (Gaisericus; reconstructed Vandalic: *Gaisarīks), was King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghardaïa (غرداية, Mzab-Berber: Taɣerdayt) is the capital city of Ghardaïa Province, Algeria.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Gozo (Għawdex,, formerly Gaulos) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Greater Morocco is a label historically used by some Moroccan nationalist political leaders protesting against Spanish, Portuguese, Algerian and French rule, to refer to wider territories historically associated with the Moroccan sultan.
The Green Algeria Alliance (Alliance de l'Algérie verte), short Green Alliance was an Islamist coalition of political parties, created on 7 March 2012 for the Algerian legislative election, 2012.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1947.
Hacène Lalmas (حسان لالماس) (born March 12, 1943) is an Algerian former footballer.
The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.
The Hammadid dynasty was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Harki (adjective from the Arabic harka, standard Arabic haraka حركة, "war party" or "movement", i.e., a group of volunteers, especially soldiers) is the generic term for native Muslim Algerians who served as auxiliaries in the French Army during the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 to 1962.
Hasan Pasha (c. 1517-1572) was the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and three-times Beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers.
Hassiba Boulmerka (حسيبة بولمرقة, born July 10, 1968) is a former Algerian middle distance athlete.
Hayreddin Barbarossa (Arabic: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus خير الدين بربروس), (Ariadenus Barbarussa), or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Barbaros Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (Turkish: Hızır; c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
The High Council of State in Algeria was a collective presidency set up by the military on 14 January 1992 following the annulled elections in December 1991.
Hippo Regius (also known as Hippo or Hippone) is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, in Algeria.
Much of the history of Algeria has taken place on the fertile coastal plain of North Africa, which is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib).
The History of the Jews in Algeria refers to the history of the Jewish community of Algeria, which dates to the 1st century CE.
The Hoggar Mountains (جبال هقار, Berber: idurar n Ahaggar, Tuareg: Idurar Uhaggar), also known as the Ahaggar Mountains, are a highland region in the central Sahara, southern Algeria, along the Tropic of Cancer.
Houara (Berber: Ihuwwaren), also spelled Hawwara, is a large Berber tribe spread widely in the Maghreb (Tamazgha) and has descendants in Upper Egypt.
Houari Boumédiène, also transcribed Boumediene, Boumedienne etc., (هواري بومدين; ALA-LC: Hawārī Bū-Madyan; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978) served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death on 27 December 1978.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
The Iberomaurusian ("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Ibn Manẓūr (Arabic: ابن منظور) (June–July 1233 – December 1311/January 1312) was a North African lexicographer of the Arabic language and author of a large dictionary called Lisān al-ʿArab (the tongue of the Arabs).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Algeria include.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France, ruled by Charles X, invaded and conquered the Ottoman Regency of Algiers.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Islam is the majority religion in Algeria.
The Islamic Salvation Front (Arabic: الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ, al-Jabhah al-Islāmiyah lil-Inqādh; Front Islamique du Salut) was a Sunni Islamist political party in Algeria.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The jerboa (from جربوع) forms the bulk of the membership of the family Dipodidae.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Jeunesse Sportive de Kabylie (Tamazight: Ilemẓiyen Inaddalen n Leqbayel, Arabic: شبيبة القبائل), known as JS Kabylie or JSK (transliterated ⵊⵙⴽ in Tifinagh), is an Algerian football club based in Tizi Ouzou.
Judah ibn Kuraish (יהודה אבן קריש, يهوذا بن قريش), was a North African Jewish grammarian and lexicographer.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.
The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.
Kabylie, or Kabylia (Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
A kasbah (qaṣbah, "central part of a town or citadel"; also known as qasaba, gasaba and quasabeh, in older English casbah or qasbah, in India qassabah and in Spanish alcazaba (remains of the Moorish Spain)) is a type of medina or fortress (citadel).
Kassaman or Qassaman (قَسَمًا, "we pledge"; Tagallit, "the oath" or "we swear") is the national anthem of Algeria.
Kateb Yacine ((August 2, 1929 or August 6, 1929 – October 28, 1989) was an Franco-Algerian writer notable for his novels and plays, both in French and Algerian Arabic dialect, and his advocacy of the Berber cause.
Kenza Farah (born July 8, 1986) is a Franco-Algerian singer-songwriter.
Khalifa al-Zanati (Arabic: خليفة الزناتي) one of the main characters in the Bani Hilal epic, where he appears as the Berber king of Tunis.
The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a naval diesel-electric attack submarine that is made in Russia.
The Kingdom of Tlemcen or Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen (ⵉⵣⵉⴰⵏⵉⴻⵏ, الزيانيون) was a Berber kingdom in what is now the northwest of Algeria.
The Kutama (Berber: Iktamen) were a major Berber Tribe in northern Algeria classified among the Berber Confederation of the Bavares.
Laghouat (Laghwat Laghouat الأغواط) is the capital city of the Laghouat Province, Algeria, 400 km south of the Algerian capital Algiers.
Lakhdar Belloumi (لخضر بلومي Lakhḍar Ballūmī; born 29 December 1958) is a former Algerian football player and manager.
Leïla Sebbar (born 1941) is a French-Algerian author.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Algeria face legal challenges and discrimination not experienced by non-LGBT citizens.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Lipari (Lìpari, Lipara, Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina.
A This is a list of notable Algerian writers.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by external debt, which is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.
This is a list of countries by natural gas exports mostly based on The World Factbook.
This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given).
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of countries by proven oil reserves.
During the Algerian Civil War of the 1990s, many massacres occurred.
Live oak or evergreen oak is any of a number of oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that share the characteristic of evergreen foliage.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
M'hamed Issiakhem (17 June 1928–1 December 1985) is one of the founders of the modern Algerian painting.
The M'zab or Mzab, (Mozabite Aghlan, مزاب), is a natural region of the northern Sahara Desert in Ghardaïa Province, Algeria.
Madauros (Madaurus, Madaura) was a Roman-Berber city and a former diocese of the Catholic Church in the old state of Numidia.
The Maghrawa or Meghrawa (Berber: imeghrawen) were a large Zenata Berber tribe originating from what is now north of Algeria(mainly to the mountainous Dahra region to western Algeria).
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Malek Bennabi (1905–1973) (مالك بن نبي) was an Algerian writer and philosopher, who wrote about human society, particularly Muslim society with a focus on the reasons behind the fall of Muslim civilization.
Malek Haddad (born in Constantine, Algeria on 5 July 1927; died in Algiers on 2 June 1978) was an Algerian poet and writer in the French language.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Low Maquis in Corsica High ''macchia'' in Sardinia Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl. c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.
Masinissa, or Masensen, (Berber: Masensen, ⵎⵙⵏⵙⵏ; c.238 BC – 148 BC)—also spelled Massinissa and Massena—was the first King of Numidia.
The Masmuda is a Berber tribal confederacy of Morocco and one of the largest in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meknes (məknas; amknas; Meknès) is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco, located in northern central Morocco and the sixth largest city by population in the kingdom.
The Mercenary War (240 BC – 238 BC), also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius, was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.
Merguez (مركس) is a red, spicy mutton- or beef-based fresh sausage from Maghrebi cuisine.
Mers El Kébir (المرسى الكبير, "The Great Harbor") is a port on the Mediterranean Sea, near Oran in Oran Province, northwest Algeria.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
Middle-distance running events are track races longer than sprints, up to 3000 metres.
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
General Mohamed Mediène (الجنرال محمد مدين), also known as Toufik (توفيق), was head of the Algerian secret services, the Intelligence and Security Department (Département du renseignement et de la sécurité, DRS), from 1990 to 2015.
Mohamed Tahar Fergani (9 May 1928 – 7 December 2016) was an Algerian singer, violinist and composer, nicknamed the Nightingale of Constantine.
Mohamed Temam or Mohamed Temmam (23 February 1915 Algiers – 15 July 1988 Algiers) was Algerian miniaturist painter and illuminator.
Professor Mohammed Arkoun (محمد أركون; 1 February 1928 – 14 September 2010) was an Algerian scholar and thinker.
Mohammed Dib (محمد ديب; 21 July 1920 – 2 May 2003) was an Algerian author.
Mohammed Khadda (محمد الخدة; 14 March 1930, Mostaganem, French Algeria – 4 May 1991, Algiers, Algeria) was an Algerian painter, sculptor, and writer.
The monitor lizards are large lizards in the genus Varanus.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mostaganem (Mustɣanem; مستغانم) is a port city in and capital of Mostaganem province, in the northwest of Algeria.
Moufdi Zakaria (born Zekri Cheikh; 12 June 1908 – 17 August 1977) was an Algerian activist, poet and writer.
Mouloud Feraoun (8 March 1913 – 15 March 1962) was an Algerian writer and martyr of the Algerian revolution born in Tizi Hibel, Kabylie.
Mouloud Kacem Naît Belkacem (6 January 1927 in Belaâyane, Ighil Ali - 27 August 1992) was an Algerian politician, philosopher, historian, and writer.
Mouloud Mammeri was a Berber writer, anthropologist and linguist.
The Moulouya River (Berber: iɣẓer en Melwect) is a 520 kilometers long river in Morocco.
Mount Tahat (جبل تاهات) is the highest mountain peak in Algeria.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National Liberation Army or ALN (Arabic, جيش التحرير الوطني الجزائري Djaïche Al-Tehrir Al-Ouatani Al-Djezaïr; French, Armée de libération nationale) was the armed wing of the nationalist Front de Libération National (FLN) during the Algerian War.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
The National Office of Statistics (NOS, Office National des Statistiques, ONS, الديوان الوطني للإحصائيات) is the Algerian ministry charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population, and society of Algeria at national and local levels.
The National Rally for Democracy (التجمع الوطني الديمقراطي, Rassemblement National Démocratique, thus RND) is a political party in Algeria.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nonius Marcellus was a Roman grammarian of the 4th or 5th century AD.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Northwest African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki), also known as the Saharan cheetah, is a cheetah subspecies native to the Sahara desert and the Sahel.
Noureddine Morceli (نور الدين مرسلي, Nūr ud-Dīn Mursilī; born February 28, 1970) is a retired Algerian middle-distance runner.
Nouria Merah-Benida (نورية مراح بنيدة) (born October 19, 1970 in Algiers) is a former Algerian middle distance runner.
Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
Ojaq (اجاق, also Romanized as Ojāq; also known as Ojagh and Ūchāq) is a village in Sardrud-e Olya Rural District, Sardrud District, Razan County, Hamadan Province, Iran.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
The Oran massacre of 1962 (July 5 - July 7, 1962) was an internecine slaughter of Pied-Noir and European expatriates living in Algeria.
Oruç Reis (Oruç Reis; عروج ريس; Arrudye; 1474–1518) was an Ottoman bey (governor) of Algiers and beylerbey (chief governor) of the West Mediterranean, and the elder brother of Hayreddin Barbarossa.
The regency of Algiers' (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Ouarsenis or Ouanchariss (Berber language: Warsnis, meaning "nothing higher", الونشريس) is a mountain range and inhabited region in northwestern Algeria.
The location of Algeria An enlargeable relief map of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Algeria: Algeria – former French colony and the largest country in Africa, located in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.
Outside the Law (Hors-la-loi, خارجون عن القانون) is a 2010 drama film directed by Rachid Bouchareb, starring Jamel Debbouze, Roschdy Zem and Sami Bouajila.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
The Parliament of Algeria consists of two chambers.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
The Armée Nationale Populaire (ANP) (in Arabic: الجيش الوطني الشعبي) is the land force of the Military of Algeria.
The People's National Assembly (al-Majlis al-Sha'abi al-Watani), abbreviated APN, is the lower house of the Algerian Parliament.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pinus halepensis, commonly known as the Aleppo pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The President of Algeria is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian People's National Armed Forces.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
A presidio (from the Spanish, presidio, meaning "jail" or "fortification") is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence.
The Prime Minister of Algeria is the head of government of Algeria.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Algeria is divided into 48 wilayas (provinces) and 1541 baladiyahs (municipalities, in French: commune).
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
Raï (راي), sometimes written rai, is a form of Algerian folk music that dates back to the 1920s.
Rabah "Mustapha" Madjer (born 15 December 1958) is an Algerian former footballer who played as a striker.
Rashid Boudjedra (رشيد بوجدرة) (b. September 5, 1941 in Aïn Beïda, Algeria) is an Algerian poet, novelist, playwright and critic.
Rachid Mekhloufi (رشيد مخلوفي; born 12 August 1936 in Sétif, French Algeria) is a French-Algerian former football striker.
Rachid Mimouni (In Arabic:رشيد ميموني) (November 20, 1945 – February 12, 1995) was an Algerian writer, teacher and human rights activist.
Radio France Internationale generally referred to by its acronym RFI, is a French public radio service that broadcasts in Paris and all over the world.
Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, and journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
JSC Rosoboronexport (AO Рособоронэкспорт, Rosoboroneksport) is the sole state intermediary agency for Russia's exports/imports of defense-related and dual use products, technologies and services.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Rustamid dynasty (or Rustumids, Rostemids) was a ruling house of Ibāḍī imāms of Persian descent centered in Algeria.
The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty (السعديون as-saʿadiūn; ⵉⵙⵄⴷⵉⵢⵏ Isɛdiyen) was an arab Moroccan dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1549 to 1659.
Saïda (ولاية سعيدة) is a province (wilaya) of Algeria, named after its capital.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Saharan Atlas (الأطلس الصحراوي) is a range of the Atlas Mountain System.
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.
The Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria, are a collection of refugee camps set up in the Tindouf Province, Algeria in 1975-76 for Sahrawi refugees fleeing from Moroccan forces, who advanced through Western Sahara during the Western Sahara War.
Salah Assad (صالح عصاد; born 10 June 1958 in Larbaâ Nath Irathen) is a former Algerian football striker and manager.
Salé (سلا Sala, Berber ⵙⵍⴰ Sla) is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town.
The Sand War or Sands War (ḥarb ar-rimāl) was a border conflict between Algeria and Morocco in October 1963.
The Sanhaja (Aẓnag, pl. Iẓnagen, and also Aẓnaj, pl. Iẓnajen; صنهاجة, Ṣanhaja) were once one of the largest Berber tribal confederations, along with the Iznaten and Imesmuden confederations.
Setif (Berber: Ẓḍif or Sṭif, سطيف, Sitifis) is an Algerian city and the capital of the Stif Province, it is one of the most important cities of eastern Algeria and the country as a whole, since it is considered the trade capital of the country.
The Sétif and Guelma massacre was a series of widespread disturbances and killings in 1945 around the French Algerian market town of Sétif, west of Constantine, Algeria.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
The Second Barbary War (1815) was fought between the United States and the North African Barbary Coast states of Tripoli, Tunis, and Ottoman Algeria.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.
Sidi El Houari (1350 – 12 September 1439) was an Algerian imam whose real name was Ben-Amar El Houari.
Skikda (سكيكدة) is a city in north eastern Algeria and a port on the Gulf of Stora, the ancient Sinus Numidicus.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Sonatrach (arabic:سوناطراك) (Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures) is an Algerian government-owned company formed to explore the hydrocarbon resources of the country.
Souad Massi (سعاد ماسي), born August 23, 1972, is an Algerian Berber singer, songwriter and guitarist.
Souk Ahras (Berber: Tagast; ancient name: Thagast; سوق أهراس) is a municipality in Algeria.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
Stephen Decatur Jr. (January 5, 1779 – March 22, 1820) was a United States naval officer and commodore.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Tadrart Rouge (meaning "Red Tadrart") is a mountain range in southeastern Algeria.
Al-Sirah al-Hilaliyyah, also known as the Sirat Bani Hilal and the al-Hilali epic, is an Arabic epic oral poem that recounts the tale of the journey of the Bedouin tribe of the Banu Hilal from Najd in Arabia to Tunisia and Algeria via Egypt.
Tahar Djaout (January 11, 1954 – May 26, 1993) was an Algerian journalist, poet, and fiction writer.
Tahar Ouettar (الطاهر وطار; 1936 – August 12, 2010) was an Algerian writer.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
Tamanrasset (تمنراست, also known as Tamenɣest, Tamanghasset or Tamenghest, Tuareg: ⵜⵎⵏⵘⵙⵜ) is an oasis city and capital of Tamanrasset Province in southern Algeria, in the Ahaggar Mountains.
Taoufik Makhloufi (توفيق مخلوفي; born 29 April 1988) is an Algerian track and field athlete who specialises in middle-distance running.
Tassili n'Ajjer (Tasili n Ajjer, طاسيلي ناجر; "Plateau of the Rivers") is a national park in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau in south-east Algeria.
Tébessa (ⵜⴱⴻⵙⴰ Tbessa or Tibesti, تبسة), is the capital city of Tébessa Province, in the Shawi region of Algeria, 20 kilometers west from the border with Tunisia.
Ténès (Tinas; تنس) is a town in Algeria located around 200 kilometers west of the capital Algiers.
The Tell Atlas (الاطلس التلي) is a mountain chain over in length, belonging to the Atlas mountain ranges in North Africa, stretching from Morocco, through Algeria to Tunisia.
The Territorial Air Defence Force (forces de défense aérienne du Territoire (en arabe: قوات الدفاع الجوي عن الإقليم) abbreviated as DAT) is an armed service/branch of the People's National Army, the armed forces of Algeria.
Thagaste (or "Tagaste") was a Roman-Berber city in present-day Algeria, now called Souk Ahras.
The Battle of Algiers (La battaglia di Algeri; معركة الجزائر; La Bataille d'Alger) is a 1966 Italian-Algerian historical war film co-written and directed by Gillo Pontecorvo and starring Jean Martin and Saadi Yacef.
The Metamorphoses of Apuleius, which St. Augustine referred to as The Golden Ass (Asinus aureus), is the only ancient Roman novel in Latin to survive in its entirety.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Timgad (called Thamugas or Thamugadi in old Berber) was a Roman-Berber city in the Aurès Mountains of Algeria.
Tinariwen (Tamasheq: ⵜⵏⵔⵓⵏ, with vowels ⵜⵉⵏⴰⵔⵉⵓⴻⵏ, pronounced tinariwen "deserts", plural of ténéré "desert") is a Grammy Award-winning group of Tuareg musicians from the Sahara Desert region of northern Mali.
Tipasa was a colonia in the Roman province Mauretania Caesariensis, nowadays called Tipaza, and located in coastal central Algeria.
Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.
Elements of the French Armed Forces as well as of the opposing Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) made use of torture during the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62), creating an ongoing public controversy.
The Trans-Sahara Highway is a proposed transnational highway project to pave, improve and ease border formalities on an existing trade route across the Sahara Desert.
Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages and dialects.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Turkish Abductions (Tyrkjaránið) were a series of slave raids by Ottoman pirates that took place in Iceland between June 20 – July 19, 1627.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) was established "To protect the rights and address the needs of persons in forced or voluntary migration worldwide and support their transition to a dignified life.".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
Université Laval (Laval University) is a French-language, public research university in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
The University of Abou Bakr Belkaïd (جامعة أبي بكر بلقايد) is a university located in Tlemcen, Algeria.
The University of Algiers Benyoucef Benkhedda (Arabic:جامعة الجزائر – بن يوسف بن خـدة) is a university located in Algiers, Algeria.
The University of Batna (Université de Batna, also named Université Colonel Hadj Lakhdar, Arabic: جامعة باتنة) is a public university in the city of Batna, Algeria.
University of Oran (جامعة وهران, Université d'Oran), or Es Sénia University (Arabic: جامعة السانية), is a university located in western Algeria in the wilaya of Oran.
The University of Science and Technology – Houari Boumediene (Université des sciences et de la technologie Houari-Boumediene, USTHB, جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا هواري بومدين) is a university located in the town of Bab-Ezzouar from Algiers, Algeria.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Verso Books (formerly New Left Books) is a publishing house based in London and New York City, founded in 1970 by the staff of New Left Review.
Vieste (Viestano: Vìst) is a town, comune and former Catholic bishopric in the province of Foggia, in the Apulia region of southeast Italy.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The Wattasid dynasty (ⵉⵡⴻⵟⵟⴰⵙⴻⵏ, Iweṭṭasen; الوطاسيون, al-waṭṭāsīyūn) was a ruling dynasty of Morocco.
The West African crocodile or desert crocodile (Crocodylus suchus) is a species of crocodile related to – and often confused with – the larger and more aggressive Nile crocodile (C. niloticus).
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Yaghmurasen Ibn Zyan (1206–1283,, يغمراسن إبن زيان, long name: Yaghmurasan ben Ziyan ben Thabet ben Mohamed ben Zegraz ben Tiddugues ben Taaullah ben Ali ben Abd al-Qasem ben Abd al-Wad), was the founder of the Zayyanid dynasty.
Yasmina Khadra (ياسمينة خضراء, literally meaning "green jasmine") is the pen name of the Algerian author Mohammed Moulessehoul (محمد مولسهول, born January 10, 1955, in Kénadsa, Béchar Province, Algeria).
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Z is a 1969 Algerian-French epic political thriller film directed by Costa-Gavras, with a screenplay by Gavras and Jorge Semprún, based on the 1966 novel of the same name by Vassilis Vassilikos.
The Zayyanid dynasty (زيانيون, Ziyānyūn) or Abd al-Wadids (بنو عبد الواد, Bānu ʿabd āl-Wād) was a Berber Zenata dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Tlemcen, an area of northwestern Algeria, centered on Tlemcen.
The Zenata (Berber: Iznaten, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵜⴻⵏ or Iznasen, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵙⴻⵏ; زناتة Zanātah) were a Berber tribe, who inhabited an area stretching from western Egypt to Morocco in antiquity along with the Sanhaja and Masmuda.
The Zirid dynasty (ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⴰ ⵏ ⴰⵢⵜ ⵣⵉⵔⵉ Tagelda n Ayt Ziri, زيريون /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.
.dz is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Algeria.
The meridian 12° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1928 Summer Olympics (Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in November–December 1956, apart from the equestrian events, which were held five months earlier in Stockholm, Sweden.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th FIFA World Cup, was held in Spain from 13 June to 11 July 1982.
The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986.
The 19th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 19 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.
The 37th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 37 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 9° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Ad-Dimuqratiyah ash-Sha'biyah, Ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha’bīyah, Administrative divisions of Algeria, Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah, Al-Jumhuriyah al-Jaza'iriyah, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Jazā’irīyah, AlgeriA, Algeria country, Algerian People's Democratic Republic, Algerian Peoples Democratic Republic, Algerian State, Algerie, Algery, Algérie, Dzayer, Etymology of Algeria, ISO 3166-1:DZ, Name of Algeria, People's Democratic Algerian Republic, People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, People's Republic of Algeria, People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, Popular Democratic Republic of Algeria, Republic of Algeria, République algérienne démocratique et populaire, République démocratique populaire d'Algérie, Subdivision of Algeria, Subdivisions of Algeria, الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية.