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Livy's History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin, between 27 and 9 BC.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd el-Krim (1882–83, Ajdir – February 6, 1963, Cairo) was a Riffian political and military leader.
Abdelkrim Ghallab (December 31, 1919, in Fes – August 14, 2017, in El Jadida) was a Moroccan political journalist, cultural commentator, and novelist.
Abdellatif Laâbi is a Moroccan poet, born in 1942 in Fes, Morocco.
Abderrahmane Youssoufi (عبد الرحمن اليوسفي; born 8 March 1924) is a Moroccan politician who served as the Prime Minister of Morocco from 1998 to 2002.
Abu Ya`qub Yusuf or Yusuf I (Abū Ya‘qūb Yūsuf; 1135 – 14 October 1184) was the second Almohad Amir or caliph.
The African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) is the leopard nominate subspecies native to many countries in Africa.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Agadir (Berber: Agadir, ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ, Arabic: أكادير or أݣادير or أغادير) is a major city in mid-southern Morocco.
The Agadir Crisis or Second Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Panthersprung in German) was a brief international crisis sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of Morocco in April 1911.
Agriculture in Morocco employs about 40% of the nation's workforce.
Ahmad al-Mansur (أبو العباس أحمد المنصور, Ahmad Abu al-Abbas al-Mansur, also El-Mansour Eddahbi, أحمد المنصور الذهبي; and Ahmed el-Mansour; 1549 in Fes – 25 August 1603, outskirts of Fes) was Sultan of the Saadi dynasty from 1578 to his death in 1603, the sixth and most famous of all rulers of the Saadis.
Aita (also spelled Eita in Etruscan inscriptions) is the name of the Etruscan equivalent to the Greek Hades, the divine ruler of the underworld.
Al Akhawayn University (جامعة الأخوين jāmiʿat al-akhawayn; Université Al Akhawayn) is an independent, public, not-for-profit, coeducational university located in Ifrane, Morocco, from the imperial city of Fez, in the midst of the Middle Atlas Mountains.
Al Hoceima (in the Berber language: Eřḥusima or Elḥusima, Taɣzut, Taghzut and also Tijdit, in Arabic: الحسيمة, in Spanish: Alhucemas) is a city in the north of Morocco, on the northern edge of the Rif Mountains and on the Mediterranean coast.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Andalus Ensemble is an award-winning husband and wife musical duo that performs contemporary Andalusian music.
The Alaouite dynasty, or Alawite dynasty (سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين, Sulālat al-ʿAlawiyyīn al-Fīlālīyn), is the current Moroccan royal family.
The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from 16 January to 7 April.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Alhucemas Islands is a group of islands and one of the Spanish plazas de soberanía just off the Moroccan coast in the Alboran Sea.
Muhammad Allal al-Fassi (January 10, 1910 – May 19, 1974), was a Moroccan politician, writer, poet and Islamic scholar.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andalusian classical music (طرب أندَلُسي, trans. ṭarab andalusi, música andalusí) is a style of Arabic music found in different styles across the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and to a lesser degree in Tunisia and Libya in the form of the Ma'luf style).
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU); اتحاد المغرب العربي) is a trade agreement aiming for economic and future political unity among Arab countries of the Maghreb in North Africa. Its members are the nations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The Union has been unable to achieve tangible progress on its goals due to deep economic and political disagreements between Morocco and Algeria regarding, among others, the issue of Western Sahara. No high level meetings have taken place since 3 July 2008 and commentators regard the Union as largely dormant.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Arab-Berbers (العرب والبربر; Arabo-berbères) are an ethnic group native to Maghreb, a North African region along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Aterian is a Middle Stone Age (or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool industry centered in North Africa, but also possibly found in Oman and the Thar Desert.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The names Atlas bear and African bearBryden, H. A. (ed.) (1899).
The Atlas languages are a subgroup of the Northern Berber languages spoken in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The Moroccan Auxiliary Forces (Berber: Idwasen Imawwasen or Imxazniyen; Arabic: القوات المساعدة Al-Quwwāt al-Musā`idah; French: Forces Auxiliaires Marocaines) is a paramilitary force following the command of the Ministry of the Interior, and supplements the military, Gendarmerie and police when needed.
Azilal (ⴰⵣⵉⵍⴰⵍ, أزلال) is a town in central Morocco, in the Atlas Mountains.
Azrou (Berber: Aẓro, ⴰⵥⵔⵓ, Arabic: أزرو) is a Moroccan town 89 kilometres south of Fez in Ifrane Province of the Fès-Meknès region.
The École Hassania des Travaux Publics ("Hassania School of Public Works"), or EHTP, is one of Morocco's oldest engineering schools, a member of the Conférence des grandes écoles, and remains to this day the most prestigious Moroccan Grande Ecole in engineering.
The École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Rabat called also Mines Rabat in French or Rabat School of Mines in English is a leading engineering school in Morocco.
Badr Hari (بدر هاري; born 8 December 1984) is a Moroccan-Dutch super heavyweight kickboxer from Amsterdam, fighting out of Mike's Gym in Oostzaan.
Baga (also Bagas) was a Berber king of Mauretania about 225 BC.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.
The Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) is the nominate lion subspecies in North Africa.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy.
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.
The Battle of Annual was fought on July 22, 1921, at Annual in Spanish Morocco, between the Spanish Army of Africa and Berber combatants of the Rif region during the Rif War.
Béni Mellal-Khénifra is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beni Mellal (ayt məllal; bni məllal) is a Moroccan city located in the country's interior.
The Amazigh (Berber) cuisine is a traditional cuisine with a varied history and influence of numerous flavours from distinct regions across North Africa.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Berber Latin alphabet (Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin) is the version of the Latin alphabet used to write the Berber languages.
The Great Berber Revolt of 739/740–743 AD (122–125 AH in the Muslim calendar) took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the Arab caliphate (ruled from Damascus).
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Boulemane (ⴱⵓⵍⵎⴰⵏ; بولمان) is a town in northern of Atlas Mountains in Morocco.
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Canary Current is a wind-driven surface current that is part of the North Atlantic Gyre.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
Casablanca-Settat is one of the twelve administrative regions of Morocco.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Chaabi (literally "popular") refers to several types of popular music of Morocco, combining rural and urban folk music.
Chaabi (الشعبي in Arabic), also known as Chaâbi, Sha-bii, or Sha'bii meaning "folk", refers to different music genres in North Africa such as Algerian chaabi, Moroccan chaabi and Egyptian chaabi.
The Chafarinas Islands (Islas Chafarinas, Berber: Igumamen Iceffaren or Takfarinas, Arabic: جزر الشفارين or الجزر الجعفرية), also spelled Zafarin, Djaferin or Zafarani, are a group of three small islets located in the Alboran Sea off the coast of Morocco with an aggregate area of, to the east of Nador and off the Moroccan town of Ras Kebdana.
Chefchaouen (شفشاون (pronounced IPA); Ashawen), also known as Chaouen, is a city in northwest Morocco.
The Chellah or Shalla (Sla or Calla; شالة), is a medieval fortified Muslim necropolis located in the metro area of Rabat, Morocco, on the south (left) side of the Bou Regreg estuary.
Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.
The Cherifian Anthem (النشيد الشريف, an-Našīd aš-Šarīf; Hymne Chérifien) is the anthem of the Kingdom of Morocco, it was so even before the country gained its independence in 1956.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christians in Morocco constitute less than 1% of the country's population of 33,600,000 (2014 census).
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
The Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD; Arabic:; French: Communauté des Etats Sahélo-Sahariens; Portuguese: Comunidade dos Estados Sahelo-Saarianos) aims to create a free trade area within Africa.
The first Constitution of Morocco was adopted in 1962, 6 years after the country regained independence.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The cuisine of the Sephardi Jews is an assortment of cooking traditions that developed among the Sephardi Jews – the Jews of Spain and Portugal, and those of this Iberian origin who were dispersed in the Sephardic Diaspora, and ultimately became the Eastern Sephardim and North African Sephardim as they settled throughout the Mediterranean in places such as Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, as well as the Arab countries of West Asia and North Africa.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab (الداخلة - وادي الذهب) is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis.
The Draa (Asif en Dra, ⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⴻⵏ ⴷⵔⴰ, wad dərʿa; also spelled Dra or Drâa, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Morocco's longest river, at.
Drâa-Tafilalet is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Driss Chraïbi (July 15, 1926, El Jadida – April 1, 2007, Drôme, France) was a Moroccan author whose novels deal with colonialism, culture clashes, generational conflict and the treatment of women and are often semi-autobiographical.
Driss El Khouri is one of the most acclaimed Moroccan novelists.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Jadida (Berber: Maziɣen, ⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ, الجديدة or مازيغن, Portuguese: Mazagão) is a port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, located 106 km south of the city of Casablanca in the region of Doukkala-Abda and the province of El Jadida.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Tangier was an English overseas possession between 1661 and 1684.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
The Equity and Reconciliation Commission (هيئة الإنصاف والمصالحة; French Instance Equité et Réconciliation - IER) is a Moroccan human rights and truth commission created on January 7, 2004 when King Mohammed VI signed a Dahir (royal decree).
Essaouira (الصويرة; ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ, Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
European Moroccans are Moroccans whose ancestry lies within the continent of Europe, most notably France and Spain.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest 1980 was the 25th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 19 April 1980 in The Hague.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya Al-Qurashiya (فاطمة بنت محمد الفهرية القرشية.) was an Arab Muslim woman who is credited for founding the oldest existing, continually operating and first degree-awarding educational institution in the world, The University of Al Quaraouiyine in Fes, Morocco in 859 CE.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fès-Meknès (فاس-مكناس, Fas-Meknas, ⴼⴰⵙ-ⵎⴻⴾⵏⴰⵙ) is one of the twelve Regions of Morocco.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Fouad Laroui (12 August 1958) is a Moroccan economist and writer, born in Oujda, Morocco.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franco-Cantabrian region (also Franco-Cantabric region) is a term applied in archaeology and history to refer to an area that stretches from Asturias, in northern Spain, to Aquitaine and Provence in southern France.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
The Free Zone or Liberated Territories is a term used by the Polisario Front to describe the part of Western Sahara that lies to the east of the Moroccan Berm (the Moroccan border wall) and west and north of the borders with Algeria and Mauritania, respectively.
Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French is one of the two prestige languages of Morocco, is often used for business, diplomacy, and government,"." CIA World Factbook.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Gnawa (or Gnaoua, Ghanawa, Ghanawi, Gnawi) are an ethnic group inhabiting Morocco and Algeria in the Maghreb.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Green March was a strategic mass demonstration in November 1975, coordinated by the Moroccan government, to force Spain to hand over the disputed, autonomous semi-metropolitan province of Spanish Sahara to Morocco.
Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong teas and black teas.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guelmim-Oued Noun is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Haratin, also referred to as Harratins, Haratine or Hartani, are oasis-dwellers in the Sahara, especially in the Maghreb.
Harira (الحريرة al-ḥarīra, ⴰⵣⴽⵉⴼ azkif) is a traditional soup of the Maghreb region, consumed in Algeria and Morocco.
King Hassan II (الحسن الثاني, MSA: (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, Darija: el-ḥasan ett(s)âni); 9 July 1929 – 23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He was the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909–1961), and his second wife, Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909–1992). Hassan was known to be one of the most severe rulers of Morocco.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
The Haut Commissariat au Plan (HCP) or Higher Planning Commission in Morocco is an independent government statistical institution.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Hicham El Guerrouj (Moroccan Arabic: هشام الݣروج, Hishāmu l-Karrūj; Berber: Hicam El Gerruj, ⵀⵉⵛⴰⵎ ⴻⵍ ⴳⴻⵔⵔⵓⵊ; born 14 September 1974) is a retired Moroccan middle-distance runner.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
The history of Morocco spans several millennia, succeeding the prehistoric cultures of Jebel Irhoud and Taforalt.
Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
The House of Councillors (Berber: Agraw en imessemtiren, Arabic: مجلس المستشارين) is the upper house of the Parliament of Morocco and has 120 members, elected for a six-year term.
The Moroccan Parliament has two chambers.
Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey (17 November 1854 – 21 July 1934) was a French Army general and colonial administrator.
Morocco's human rights record is mixed.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberomaurusian ("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Idris I (إدريس الأول), also known as Idris ibn Abdillah, was the founder of the Idrisid dynasty in part of northern Morocco in alliance with the Berber tribe of Awraba.
The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.
Ifni was a Spanish province on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands.
Ifrane (إفران.; Berber: ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ) is a city in the Middle Atlas region of Morocco (population 73,782 in November 2014).
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
Imilchil or Imilshil (إملشيل) is a small town in Midelt Province of central Morocco, in the Atlas Mountains with a population of about 1858.
This is a list of topics related to Morocco.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE) is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and Spanish society.
The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) was founded in 2001 as a non-profit organization dedicated to pursuing accountability for mass atrocity and human rights abuse through transitional justice mechanisms.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
The ISCAE (Institut supérieur de commerce et d'administration des entreprises) is a business school in Casablanca and Rabat, Morocco.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the largest religion in Morocco, with more than 99% of the population adhering to it.
Islamic music may refer to religious music, as performed in Islamic public services or private devotions, or more generally to musical traditions of the Muslim world.
Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif (مولاي إسماعيل بن الشريف ابن النصر) (1634– 22 March 1727), reigned 1672–1727, was the second ruler of the Moroccan Alaouite dynasty. He is also known in his native country as the "Warrior King".
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
The Istiqlal or Independence Party (Arabic: حزب الإستقلال Ḥizb Al-Istiqlāl, French: Parti de l'Istiqlal) is a political party in Morocco.
Jebel Irhoud (žbəl iġud) is an archaeological site located just north of the locality known as Tlet Ighoud, about south-east of the city of Safi in Morocco.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Josef (Yousef) Waleed Meri (يوسف وليد مرعي Yūsuf Walīd Marʿī) is an academic who specializes in the history of interfaith relations in the Middle East in past and present, medieval Islamic history and civilization, social history, and the history of the Jewish communities of the Middle East.
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.
A kasbah (qaṣbah, "central part of a town or citadel"; also known as qasaba, gasaba and quasabeh, in older English casbah or qasbah, in India qassabah and in Spanish alcazaba (remains of the Moorish Spain)) is a type of medina or fortress (citadel).
Kenitra (Moroccan Arabic:, Qniṭra; القنيطرة, al-Qonayṭéra, the little bridge) is a city in northern Morocco, formerly (1932–1956) known as Port Lyautey.
Khenifra (Berber: Xnifṛa, ⵅⵏⵉⴼⵕⴰ, خنيفرة) is a city in northern central Morocco, surrounded by the Atlas Mountains and located on the Oum Er-Rbia River.
Khubz, alternatively spelled khoubz, khobez, khubez, khobz or khubooz (خبز, Arabic: khubzun), is a round leavened Middle Eastern flatbread, that forms a staple of the local diet from the Arabian Peninsula to Morocco.
Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate mixed with boxing.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Nekor (Berber: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵏⴽⴽⵓⵔ (Tageldit n Nekkur); إمارة بني صالح) was an emirate centered in the Rif area of present-day Morocco.
The Koutoubia Mosque or Kutubiyya Mosque is the largest mosque in Marrakesh, Morocco.
Laayoune (Maghrebi Arabic: لعيون Al-ʿAyyūn/El-Aiun,; El Aaiún; Laâyoune; Berber: ⵍⵄⵢⵓⵏ, Leɛyun; Literary Arabic: العيون, literally "The Springs") is the largest city of the disputed territory of Western Sahara currently administered by Morocco.
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
Larache (also El Araich; Arabic: العرايش; Berber: Leɛrayec or Aɛrich: the attic or shed) is an important harbour town in the region of Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima in northern Morocco.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leila Abouzeid (ليلة أبو زيد) (born 1950, El Ksiba) is a Moroccan author.
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory; everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of heads of government of Morocco since the formation of the post of President of the Government of Morocco in 1955, to the present day.
This is the list of rulers of Morocco, since the establishment of the first Moroccan state in 789.
This is a list of public and private universities in Morocco.
World records in athletics are ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Lixus is the site of an ancient Roman-Berber-Punic city located in Morocco, just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Loukkos River.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Madrid Accords, also called Madrid Agreement or Madrid Pact, was a treaty between Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania to end the Spanish presence in the territory of Spanish Sahara, which was until the Madrid Accords' inception a Spanish province and former colony.
The Maghrawa or Meghrawa (Berber: imeghrawen) were a large Zenata Berber tribe originating from what is now north of Algeria(mainly to the mountainous Dahra region to western Algeria).
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
The Marrakech International Film Festival (FIFM) (French: Festival International du Film de Marrakech, المهرجان الدولي للفيلم بمراكش, Amazigh ⴰⵏⵎⵓⴳⴳⴰⵔ ⴰⴳⵔⴰⵖⵍⴰⵏ ⵏ ⵍⴼⵉⵍⵎ ⴳ ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ) is an international film festival founded in 2001 and held annually in Marrakech, Morocco.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Marrakesh-Safi (مراكش آسفي; ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ ⴰⵙⴼⵉ) is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarian Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb.
Mauritania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauritania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The Mauro-Roman Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Maurorum et Romanorum) was an independent Christian Berber kingdom centered on the city of Altava which controlled much of the ancient Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, located in present-day northern Algeria.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Mechta-Afalou (Mechtoid) are a population that inhabited parts of North Africa during the late Paleolithic and Mesolithic.
Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia in the English language about culture of the Islamic world in Middle Ages.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meknes (məknas; amknas; Meknès) is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco, located in northern central Morocco and the sixth largest city by population in the kingdom.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
Midelt (Midelt or Awṭaṭ / ⴰⵡⵟⴰⵟ, ميدلت) is a town in central Morocco, in the high plains between the Middle Atlas and High Atlas mountain ranges.
The Miknasa (Berber: Imeknasen) is a Zenata Berber tribe originated in western Algeria.
The mile run (1,760 yards or exactly 1,609.344 metres) is a middle-distance foot race.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Mohamed Chukri (Berber: Muḥemmed Cikri, Arabic: محمد شكري), born on July 15, 1935 and died on November 15, 2003, was a Moroccan author and novelist who is best known for his internationally acclaimed autobiography For Bread Alone (al-Khubz al-Hafi), which was described by the American playwright Tennessee Williams as "A true document of human desperation, shattering in its impact".
Mohamed Zafzaf (1945 – 13 July 2001) was one of the best known Moroccan novelists and poets (born in Souk El Arbaa) writing in Arabic.
The Mohammadia School of Engineering (École Mohammadia d'Ingénieurs, abbreviated EMI; المدرسة المحمدية للمهندسين) is the first to be established engineering school in Morocco.
Mohammed al-Mokhtar Soussi (محمد المختار السوسي; 1900–1963) was a Moroccan scholar, politician and writer who played an important role in the years before Morocco's independence in 1956.
Mohammed Ben Aarafa, or Ben Arafa (1889 – 17 July 1976) was a distant relative of Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco (محمد بن عرفة بن محمد); he was put in Mohammed V's place by the French after they exiled Mohammed V to Madagascar, he is culturally known as "The French's Puppet.
Mohammed Ben Abdellah al-Khatib (c. 1710 – 9 April 1790) (محمد الثالث بن عبد الله الخطيب) was Sultan of Morocco from 1757 to 1790 under the Alaouite dynasty.
El Houari Mohammed Ben Brahim Assarraj (1897–1955) was a poet from Morocco.
Mohammed Berrada (محمد برادة), also transliterated Muhammad Baradah, (born 1938 in Rabat) is a Moroccan novelist, literary critic and translator writing in Arabic.
Mohammed V (10 August 1909 – 26 February 1961) (محمد الخامس) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1953; he was recognized as Sultan again upon his return from exile in 1955, and as King from 1957 to 1961.
Mohammed V University, in Rabat, Morocco, was founded in 1957 under a royal decree (Dahir).
Mohammed VI (محمد السادس,; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
Moroccan architecture dates from 110 BCE with the massive pisé (mud brick) buildings.
A referendum on constitutional reforms was held in Morocco on 1 July 2011.
A Dahir (ظهير) is a Moroccan King's decree.
The Moroccan diaspora consists of emigrants from Morocco and their descendants.
The dirham (درهم); plural: (دراهم, ⴰⴷⵔⵀⵎ, Dirham, Dírha, pronounced darahim) is the currency of Morocco.
Parliamentary elections were held for the first time in Morocco on 17 May 1963.
An early parliamentary election was held in Morocco on 25 November 2011, brought forward from 2012 and then postponed from 7 October 2011.
The Moroccan Goumiers (Les Goumiers Marocains) were indigenous soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Army of Africa, between 1908 and 1956.
Moroccan Jews (al-Yehud al-Magharibah יהודים מרוקאים Yehudim Maroka'im) are the Jews who live or have lived in the area of North African country of Morocco.
The Moroccan Royal Guard (الحرس الملكي المغربي, Garde royale marocaine, Guardia Real Marroquí) is officially part of the Royal Moroccan Army.
In December 1777, the Moroccan Sultan Muhammad III included the United States in a list of countries to which Morocco’s ports were open.
Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ) continued the century of rapid Arab Early Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa.
Nador (Berber: Ennaḍor, ⴻⵏⵏⴰⴹⵓⵔ; Arabic: الناظور) is a coastal city and provincial capital in the northeastern Rif region of Morocco with a population of about 161,726 (2014 census).
The National Human Development Initiative is a program launched in 2005 by King Mohammed VI of Morocco with the objective of "ensuring a better distribution of the fruits of growth and to improve the living conditions of citizens".
The National Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics (INSEA) is one of Morocco's oldest engineering school and remains to this day one of the most prestigious Moroccan Grandes écoles in engineering, located in Rabat and created in 1961, it was replaced by royal decree,the Training Centre of Engineers statisticsin 1967 with the support of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nawal El Moutawakel (Amazigh: Nawal Lmutawakkil; نوال المتوكل; born on April 15, 1962 in Casablanca) is a former Moroccan hurdler, who won the inaugural women's 400 metres hurdles event at the 1984 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming the first female Muslim born on the continent of Africa to become an Olympic champion.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
ONCF (from French: Office National des Chemins de Fer; المكتب الوطني للسكك الحديدية Al-Maktab al-Waṭaniy lil-Sikak al-Ḥadīdiyyah; Moroccan National Railways Office) is Morocco's national railway operator.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Oriental (Berber: Tagmoḍant, ⵜⴰⴳⵎⵓⴹⴰⵏⵜ; Arabic: الشرق, Ash-Sharq) is one of the twelve regions of Morocco, located in the eastern part of the country.
George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer, and producer who worked in theatre, radio, and film.
In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English, from Latin: 'obstinate') is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, frequently at the same pitch.
Othello (also known as The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice) is a 1951 drama film directed and produced by Orson Welles, who also adapted the Shakespearean play and played the title role.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ouarzazate (Warzazat), nicknamed The door of the desert, is a city and capital of Ouarzazate Province in Drâa-Tafilalet region of south-central Morocco.
The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.
Oujda (ūʒda) is the capital city of the Oriental region of eastern Morocco.
Morocco – sovereign country located in western North Africa.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
The Parliament of Morocco is the bicameral legislature located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Pastilla (bəsṭila) is a traditional Moroccan dish consumed in countries of the Maghreb.
Paul Frederic Bowles (December 30, 1910November 18, 1999) was an American expatriate composer, author, and translator.
Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera (Berber language: Badis; Arabic: جزيرة غمارة jazīrat ghumara), in ancient times Badis or Bades, is a Spanish rock (plaza de soberanía) in the west of the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the Moroccan shore by a sandy isthmus.
Perejil Island (Isla de Perejil, Berber: Tura, translit) is a small, uninhabited rocky islet located off the coast of Morocco, just 200 metres from the mainland coast.
The Perejil Island crisis was a bloodless armed conflict between Spain and Morocco that took place on 11–20 July 2002.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43−) and vanadate (VO43−).
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or simply POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro ("Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro" الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب Al-Jabhat Al-Sha'abiyah Li-Tahrir Saqiya Al-Hamra'a wa Wadi Al-Dhahab, Front populaire de Libération de la Seguia el Hamra et du Rivière d'or), is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara.
Politics of Morocco take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Morocco is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.
The President of the Government of the Kingdom of Morocco is the head of government and serves in a position akin to a prime minister in other constitutional monarchies.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
A protecting power is a country that represents another sovereign state in a country where it lacks its own diplomatic representation.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is generally funded from public sources, such as taxes.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.
Rabat-Salé-Kenitra (الرباط-سلا-القنيطرة; Eṛṛbaṭ-Sla-Qniṭra) is one of the twelve administrative regions of Morocco.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Ras Nouadhibou (رأس نواذيبو) is a 40-mile peninsula or headland divided between Mauritania and Western Sahara on the African coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
Río de Oro (Spanish for "Gold River";, wādī-að-ðahab, often transliterated as Oued Edhahab) was, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969; it had been taken as a Spanish colonial possession in the late 19th century.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Regions are currently the highest administrative divisions in Morocco.
The Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas ("Indigenous Regular Forces"), known simply as the Regulares (Regulars), are volunteer infantry units of the Spanish Army, largely recruited in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
A renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale.
The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Rif War was an armed conflict fought from 1920 to 1927 between the colonial power Spain (later joined by France) and the Berber tribes of the Rif mountainous region. Led by Abd el-Krim, the Riffians at first inflicted several defeats on the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics and captured European weapons. After France's military intervention against Abd el-Krim's forces and the major landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, considered the first amphibious landing in history to involve the use of tanks and aircraft, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French and was taken into exile. In 1909, Rifian tribes aggressively confronted Spanish workers of the iron mines of the Rif, near Melilla, which led to the intervention of the Spanish Army. The military operations in Jebala, in the Moroccan West, began in 1911 with the Larache Landing. Spain worked to pacify a large part of the most violent areas until 1914, a slow process of consolidation of frontiers that lasted until 1919 due to World War I. The following year, after the signing of the Treaty of Fez, the northern Moroccan area was adjudicated to Spain as a protectorate. The Riffian populations strongly resisted the Spanish, unleashing a conflict that would last for several years. In 1921, the Spanish troops suffered the catastrophic Disaster of Annual, the biggest defeat in the history of Spain, in addition to a rebellion led by Rifian leader Abd el-Krim. As a result, the Spanish retreated to a few fortified positions while Abd el-Krim ultimately created an entire independent state: the Republic of the Rif. The development of the conflict and its end coincided with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who took on command of the campaign from 1924 to 1927. In addition, and after the Battle of Uarga in 1925, the French intervened in the conflict and established a joint collaboration with Spain that culminated in the notorious renowned Alhucemas landing. By 1926 the area had been pacified; Abd-el-Krim surrendered in July 1927; and the Spanish regained the previously lost territory. The Rif War is still considered controversial among historians. Some see in it a harbinger of the decolonization process in North Africa. Others consider it one of the last colonial wars, as it was the decision of the Spanish to conquer the Rif — nominally part of their Moroccan protectorate but de facto independent — that catalyzed the entry of France in 1924. The Rif War left a deep memory both in Spain and in Morocco. The Riffian insurgency of the 1920s can be interpreted as a precursor to the Algerian war of independence, which took place three decades later.
Riffian, Rif Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (المجلس الملكي الاستشاري للشؤون الصحراوية) (CORCAS, from the French abbreviation of Conseil royal consultatif pour les affaires sahariennes) is an advisory committee to the Moroccan government on the Western Sahara.
The Royal Moroccan Air Force, RMAF, (Arabic: القوات الجوية الملكية; Berber: Adwas ujenna ageldan; French: Forces royales air) is the air force branch of the Moroccan Armed Forces.
The Royal Moroccan Armed Forces (Berber: Idwasen Urbiben Igeldanen n Murakuc; Arabic: القوات المسلحة الملكية المغربية, Al-Quwwat al-Musallaha al-Malakiyah al-Maghribiyah) are the military forces of the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Royal Moroccan Army (الجيش الملكي, Armée royale, Ejército Real, "Royal Army") is the branch of the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
The Moroccan Royal Gendarmerie (Arabic: الدرك الملكي المغربي Al-Darak al-Malikiy al-Maghribiy) is the Gendarmerie body of Morocco, and comes under the authority of the Ministry of Defence.
The Royal Navy of Morocco (القوات البحرية الملكية المغربية, Berber: Adwas Ageldan n Yilel, Marine royale) is a branch of the military of Morocco responsible for conducting naval operations.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
Rugby union in Morocco is a significant, and popular, sport.
Saadeddine Othmani (سعد الدين العثماني; born 16 January 1956) is a Moroccan politician who has been Prime Minister of Morocco since 2017.
The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty (السعديون as-saʿadiūn; ⵉⵙⵄⴷⵉⵢⵏ Isɛdiyen) was an arab Moroccan dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1549 to 1659.
Saïd Aouita (سعيد عويطة; born November 2, 1959) is a former Moroccan track and field athlete.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Safi (Berber: Asfi, ⴰⵙⴼⵉ; أسفي, Portuguese: Safim) is a city in western Morocco on the Atlantic Ocean.
Saguia el-Hamra (Saguía el Hamra, translit) was, with Río de Oro, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahrawi Republic, officially the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR; also romanized with Saharawi; República Árabe Saharaui Democrática; الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية), is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony and later province.
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.
Sahrawi refugees refers to the refugees of the Western Sahara War (1975–1991) and their descendants, who are still mostly populating the Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria.
Salé (سلا Sala, Berber ⵙⵍⴰ Sla) is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town.
Salih I ibn Mansur (صالح ابن منصور الأول) (ca. 710), was the founder of the Kingdom of Nekor, located in the Rif Mountains of Morocco.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
The Independence Intifada or the Second Sahrawi Intifada (intifada is Arabic for "uprising") and also May Intifada is a Sahrawi activist term for a series of disturbances, demonstrations and riots that broke out in May 2005 in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara and south of Morocco.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
The Siege of Melilla was an attempt by the British-backed Sultanate of Morocco to capture the Spanish fortress of Melilla on the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.
Sijilmasa (سجلماسة; also transliterated Sijilmassa, Sidjilmasa, Sidjilmassa and Sigilmassa) was a medieval city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara Desert in Morocco.
Sirocco, scirocco,, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Xaloc; Sciroccu; Σορόκος; Siroco; Siròc, Eisseròc; Jugo, literally southerly; Libyan Arabic: Ghibli; Egypt: khamsin; Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.
The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.
Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.
Souss-Massa is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the terms used by the Moroccan government for Western Sahara.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
Spanish Sahara (Sahara Español; الصحراء الإسبانية As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah), officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
A spectator sport is a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its competitions.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Standard Moroccan Berber (Amazigh or Tamazight) is the standardized national variety of Berber spoken in Morocco.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
Tahar Ben Jelloun (الطاهر بن جلون; born in Fes, French protectorate in Morocco, 1 December 1944) is a Moroccan writer.
A tajine or tagine (Arabic: الطاجين) is a Maghrebi dish which is named after the earthenware pot in which it is cooked.
Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima (طنجة - تطوان - الحسيمة, ⵜⴰⵎⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵟⴰⵏⵊⴰ ⵜⵉⵟⴰⵡⵉⵏ ⵍⵃⵓⵙⵉⵎⴰ, Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceïma) is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Tangia is an urn-shaped terra cotta cooking vessel.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
The Tangier International Zone (Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya,, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.
Taza (Berber: ⵜⴰⵣⴰ, Taza, in Arabic: تازة) is a city in northern Morocco, which occupies the corridor between the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas mountains, about 120 km east of Fez and 210 km west of Oujda.
Tazmamart (سجن تازمامرت) was a secret prison in south-eastern Morocco in the Atlas Mountains, holding political prisoners.
Tétouan (تطوان, ⵜⵉⵟⵟⴰⵡⵉⵏ, Tétouan, Tetuán) is a city in northern Morocco.
All phone numbers in Morocco are 9 digits in length (excluding the leading 0).
Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983) was an American playwright.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The World's Work (1900–1932) was a monthly magazine that covered national affairs from a pro-business point of view.
Tindouf (Berber: Tinduf, تندوف) is the main town, and a commune in Tindouf Province, Algeria, close to the Mauritanian, Western Saharan and Moroccan borders.The commune has population of around 160,000 but the census and population estimates do not count the Sahrawi refugees making the population as of the 2008 census 45,966, up from 25,266 in 1998, and an annual population growth rate of 6.3%.
Tingi (current Tangier in Morocco) was an important Roman-Berber colonia in the Maghreb.
Tiris al-Gharbiyya (تيرس الغربية, "Western Tiris") was the name for the area of Western Sahara under Mauritanian control between 1975 and 1979.
Tourism in Morocco is well developed, with a strong tourist industry focused on the country's coast, culture, and history.
Trance is a genre of electronic<!-- The source says electronic music, not electronic dance music ---> music that emerged from the rave scene in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and developed further during the early 1990s in Germany before spreading throughout the rest of Europe, as a more melodic offshoot from techno and house.
Transit passage is a concept of the Law of the Sea, which allows a vessel or aircraft the freedom of navigation or overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of a strait between one part of the high seas or exclusive economic zone and another.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Treaty of Fez (معاهدة فاس) was a treaty signed on 30 March 1912 in which Sultan Abdelhafid agreed to allow France to make Morocco a French protectorate, ending the Agadir Crisis of 1 July 1911.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process.
The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية; Mission des Nations Unies pour l'Organisation d'un Référendum au Sahara Occidental; Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental; MINURSO) is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front (representing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara).
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
The Wattasid dynasty (ⵉⵡⴻⵟⵟⴰⵙⴻⵏ, Iweṭṭasen; الوطاسيون, al-waṭṭāsīyūn) was a ruling dynasty of Morocco.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West African crocodile or desert crocodile (Crocodylus suchus) is a species of crocodile related to – and often confused with – the larger and more aggressive Nile crocodile (C. niloticus).
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The Western Sahara Autonomy Proposal is an initiative, proposed by Morocco in 2006 as a possible solution to the Western Sahara conflict.
Western Sahara peace process refers to the international efforts to resolve the Western Sahara conflict.
The Western Sahara War (حرب الصحراء الغربية, Guerre du Sahara occidental, Guerra del Sahara Occidental) was an armed struggle between the Sahrawi indigenous Polisario Front and Morocco between 1975 and 1991, being the most significant phase of the Western Sahara conflict.
The Economist Intelligence Unit’s where-to-be-born index (previously called the quality-of-life index, abbreviated QLI) attempts to measure which country will provide the best opportunities for a healthy, safe and prosperous life in the years ahead.
William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914 – August 2, 1997) was an American writer and visual artist.
The World Festival of Sacred Music (Festival des Musiques Sacrées du Monde) is an annual music festival that is held for a week in Fes, Morocco.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Years of Lead (سنوات الرصاص Sanawāt ar-Ruṣāṣ, années de plomb) is the term used to describe a period of the rule of King Hassan II of Morocco, mainly the 1960s through the 1980s, marked by state violence against dissidents and democracy activists.
Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi or Ziryab (789–857; rtl) was a singer, oud player, composer, poet, and teacher who lived and worked in Iraq, Northern Africa, and Andalusia of the medieval Islamic period.
.ma is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Morocco (Maroc).
The meridian 14° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1500 metres or 1,500-metre run (typically pronounced 'fifteen-hundred metres') is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics.
The meridian 17° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The Fez Riots, also known as the Fez Mutiny, Fez Uprising, Tritl (by the Jewish community) and Fez's Bloody Days (from) were riots which took place in Fez, then the capital of Morocco, shortly after the signing of the Treaty of Fez on 30 March 1912 which created the French protectorate in Morocco.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The meridian 1° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco.
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
The Moroccan protests are a series of demonstrations across Morocco which occurred from 20 February 2011 to the spring of 2012.
The 2014 Moroccan census was held in Morocco between September 1st and September 20th, 2014.
The 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, known as the Orange Africa Cup of Nations, Equatorial Guinea 2015 for sponsorship reasons, was the 30th staging of the Africa Cup of Nations, the international football championship of Africa.
The 21st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 21 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 27th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 27 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 36th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 36 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event.
The 5000 metres or 5000-meter run (approximately 3.1 mi or 16,404 ft) is a common long-distance running event in track and field.
Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah, Al-Mamlaka al-Maghrebia, Al-Mamlaka al-Maġribiyya, Al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyah, Al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya, Al-Maġrib, Etymology of Morocco, ISO 3166-1:MA, Kingdom of Morocco, Lmaġrib, Maghrib al-Aksa, Maroc, Marocko, Maroco, Marokko, Moraco, Moroccan Kingdom, Moroco, Morrocan, Morrocco, Morroco, Name of Morocco, Norocco, Royaume du Maroc, Sherifian Empire, Sultanate of Fez, Sultanate of Morocco, المغرب, المملكة المغربية.