256 relations: A, A Translation Guide to 19th-Century Polish-Language Civil-Registration Documents, Acute accent, Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Adjective, Adverb, Affricate consonant, Afrikaans, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Animacy, Approximant consonant, Argentina, Article (grammar), Assimilation (phonology), Augmentative, Australia, Automated teller machine, Ó, Ą, Ć, Ę, Ł, Ń, Ś, Ź, Ż, Żoliborz, Żyrardów, B, BABEL Speech Corpus, Baltic Sea, Balto-Slavic languages, BBC, Belarus, Belarusian language, Bernard Comrie, Bona Sforza, Book of Henryków, Brazil, Brest, Belarus, C, Calque, Canada, Cardinal number (linguistics), Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe, Comparative, Comparison (grammar), Consonant, Croatian language, ..., Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech Republic, D, Diacritic, Dialect, Digraph (orthography), Diminutive, DTBook, Dutch language, E, East Prussia, Eastern Europe, England, English language, Esperanto, Ethnologue, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, F, First language, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Former eastern territories of Germany, French language, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, G, Gdańsk, Genghis Khan, Genitive case, German language, Gorals, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Greater Poland, Greek language, Grodno, Grypsera, H, Habsburg Monarchy, Hanseatic League, History of the Germans in Poland, History of the Jews in Poland, Holy Cross Sermons, Hungarian language, Hungary, I, Illinois, International Organization for Standardization, Israel, Italian language, J, K, Kashubian language, Kashubians, Kingdom of Prussia, Kresy, L, Languages of the European Union, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lechitic languages, Lesser Poland, Lingua franca, Linguist List, Lithuania, Lower Sorbian language, Lviv Oblast, M, Masovian dialect, Masuria, Middle Polish language, Mieszko I of Poland, Ministry of Administration and Digitization (Poland), Moldova, Monophthong, Montreal, N, Napoleon, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, New Jersey, New York (state), New York City, New Zealand, Noun, O, Oder, Official language, Ogonek, Old Polish language, Operation Vistula, Oxford, P, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Palatalization (sound change), Paroxytone, Partitions of Poland, Passive voice, Pączki, Philippe de Girard, Phoneme, Pierogi, Plural, PNC Financial Services, Poland, Poles, Poles in Germany, Poles in Ukraine, Polish alphabet, Polish Americans, Polish Braille, Polish Canadians, Polish diaspora, Polish Language Council, Polish literature, Polish People's Republic, Polish population transfers (1944–1946), Polish Scientific Publishers PWN, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pome, Pomerania, Population exchange between Poland and Soviet Ukraine, Poznań, Praga, Pro-drop language, Proto-Slavic, Prussia, Prussian Partition, Quark (dairy product), R, Recovered Territories, Republic of Ireland, Romania, Romanian language, Routledge, Russian Empire, Russian language, Rusyn language, S, Sejm, Sigismund I the Old, Signed Polish, SIL International, Silesian language, Silesians, Slavic languages, Slavic vocabulary, Slavs, Slovak language, Slovakia, Slovene language, Sorbian languages, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Spruce, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subject–verb–object, Swedish language, Szlachta, T, Tarzan, Territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II, The Holocaust, Tie (typography), Tomasz Kamusella, Toronto, Trigraph (orthography), Trill consonant, Turkish language, U, Ukraine, Ukrainian language, United Kingdom, United States, University of Łódź School of Polish for Foreigners, Upper Silesia, Upper Sorbian language, Verb, Vilnius, Vilnius County, Vistula, Vlachs, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Volyn Oblast, W, Wales, Wallachia, Warsaw, Warsaw dialect, West Slavic languages, West Slavs, Western Belorussia, Wiedza Powszechna, Word order, World War II, Y, Yes–no question, Yiddish, Z, 2000 United States Census. Expand index (206 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A Translation Guide to 19th-Century Polish-Language Civil-Registration Documents (including Birth, Marriage and Death Records) is a book written by genealogical researcher Judith R. Frazin as a tool to help researchers unlock the meaning of 19th-century Polish language civil records.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
The Adam Mickiewicz Institute (Instytut Adama Mickiewicza) is a government-sponsored organization funded by Poland's Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, and headquartered at ulica Mokotowska 25 (the Sugar Palace) in Warsaw.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
An augmentative (abbreviated) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.
Ó, ó (o-acute) is a letter in the Czech, Emilian-Romagnol, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Kashubian, Kazakh, Polish, Slovak, and Sorbian languages.
Ą (minuscule: ą) is a letter in the Polish, Kashubian, Lithuanian, Creek, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Osage, Hocąk, Mescalero, Gwich'in, Tutchone, and Elfdalian alphabets.
The grapheme Ć (minuscule: ć), formed from C with the addition of an acute accent, is used in various languages.
Ę (minuscule: ę; Polish E z ogonkiem, "E with a little tail"; Lithuanian e nosinė, "e nasal") is a letter in the Polish alphabet, Lithuanian alphabet, and the Dalecarlian alphabet.
Ł or ł, described in English as L with stroke, is a letter of the West Slavic (Polish, Kashubian, and Sorbian), Łacinka (Latin Belarusian), Łatynka (Latin Ukrainian), Wymysorys, Navajo, Dene Suline, Inupiaq, Zuni, Hupa, and Dogrib alphabets, several proposed alphabets for the Venetian language, and the ISO 11940 romanization of the Thai alphabet.
Ń (minuscule: ń) is a letter formed by putting an acute accent over the letter N. In the Belarusian Łacinka alphabet; the alphabets of Polish, Kashubian, Wymysorys and the Sorbian languages; and the romanization of Khmer, it represents, which is the same as Czech and Slovak ň, Serbo-Croatian nj, Spanish ñ, Italian and French gn, Hungarian and Catalan ny, and Portuguese nh.
Ś (minuscule: ś) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from S with the addition of an acute accent.
Ź (minuscule: ź) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of an acute accent.
Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.
Żoliborz is one of the northern districts of the city of Warsaw.
Żyrardów is a town and former industrial hub in central Poland with approximately 41,400 inhabitants (2006).
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The BABEL speech corpus is a corpus of recorded speech materials from five Central and Eastern European languages.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Bernard S. Comrie, (born 23 May 1947) is a British-born linguist.
Bona Sforza (2 February 1494 – 19 November 1557) was a member of the powerful House of Sforza, which ruled the Duchy of Milan since 1447.
The Book of Henryków (Księga henrykowska, Liber fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichau) is a Latin chronicle of the Cistercian abbey in Henryków in Lower Silesia.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a cardinal number or cardinal numeral (or just cardinal) is a part of speech used to count, such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds, e.g. three hundred and forty-two (Commonwealth English) or three hundred forty-two (American English).
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, or degree.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
DTBook (an acronym for DAISY Digital Talking Book) or DAISY XML is a XML-based document file format.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Gorals (Górale; Gorali; Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are an ethnographic (or ethnic) group primarily found in their traditional area of southern Poland, northern Slovakia, and in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic (Silesian Gorals).
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Grypsera (from Low German Gripps meaning "intelligence", "cleverness") is a distinct nonstandard dialect of the Polish language, used traditionally by recidivist prison inmates.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
The history of the Germans in Poland dates back over a millennium.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The Holy Cross Sermons (Kazania świętokrzyskie) are the oldest extant prose text in the Polish language, dating probably from the late 13th, or from the early 14th century.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Lechitic (or Lekhitic) languages are a language subgroup consisting of Polish and several other languages and dialects that originally were spoken in the area.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The LINGUIST List is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lviv Oblast (Львівська область, translit. L’vivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as L’vivshchyna, Львівщина) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Masovian dialect, also written Mazovian, is the dialect of Polish spoken in Mazovia and historically related regions, in northeastern Poland.
Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.
Middle Polish (język średniopolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 16th and 18th centuries.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
The Ministry of Administration and Digitization (Ministerstwo Administracji i Cyfryzacji) was formed on 21 November 2011, from a reorganisation of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Ministry of Interior and Administration.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The ogonek (Polish:, "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.
Old Polish language (język staropolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 9th and the 16th centuries, followed by the Middle Polish language.
Operation Vistula (Akcja "Wisła") was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of the Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Paroxytone (παροξύτονος) is a linguistic term for a word with stress on the penultimate syllable, that is, the second last syllable, such as the English word potato.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Pączki (singular: pączek; pùrcle; kreple) are filled doughnuts that are typical for Polish cuisine.
Philippe Henri de Girard (February 1, 1775 – August 26, 1845) was a French engineer and inventor of the first flax spinning frame in 1810, as well as the name-sake for the town of Żyrardów in Poland.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. (stylized as PNC) is a bank holding company and financial services corporation based in Pittsburgh.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Poles in Germany are the second largest Polish diaspora (Polonia) in the world and the biggest in Europe.
The Polish minority in Ukraine officially numbers about 144,130 (according to the 2001 census), (Розподіл населення окремих національностей за іншими мовами, крім рідної, якими володіють), Ukrainian Statistical Bureau (Державний комітет статистики України).
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry.
Polish Braille (alfabet Braille'a) is a braille alphabet for writing the Polish language.
Polish Canadians are citizens of Canada with Polish ancestry, and Poles who immigrated to Canada from abroad.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
The Polish Language Council (Polish: Rada Języka Polskiego) is the official language regulating organ of the Polish language.
Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles from the Kresy macroregion), refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II.
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - National Scientific Publishers PWN, PWN) is a Polish book publisher, founded in 1951.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
In botany, a pome (derived from Latin pōmum, meaning "fruit") is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The population exchange between Poland and the Soviet Ukraine at the end of World War II was based on a treaty signed on 9 September 1944 by the Ukrainian SSR with the newly formed Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKWN).
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Praga is a district of Warsaw, Poland.
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prussian Partition (Zabór pruski), or Prussian Poland, refers to the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired during the Partitions of Poland, in the late 18th century by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Quark or quarg is a type of fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired amount of curdling is met, and then straining it.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Sigismund I of Poland (Zygmunt I Stary, Žygimantas I Senasis; 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548), of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548.
Signed Polish (język migany) or System Językowo-Migowy (SJM), is a manually coded form of Polish that uses the signs of Polish Sign Language ("Polski Język Migowy", PJM).
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Proto-Slavic and its development into today's Slavic languages have been reconstructed using the comparative method (which has also been used to reconstruct its mother tongue, Proto-Indo-European).--> The following list is a comparison of basic Proto-Slavic vocabulary and the corresponding reflexes in the modern languages, for assistance in understanding the discussion in Proto-Slavic and History of the Slavic languages.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The Sorbian languages (Serbska rěč, Serbska rěc) are two closely related, but only partially mutually intelligible, West Slavic languages spoken by the Sorbs, a West Slavic minority in the Lusatia region of eastern Germany.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Tarzan (John Clayton, Viscount Greystoke) is a fictional character, an archetypal feral child raised in the African jungle by the Mangani great apes; he later experiences civilization only to largely reject it and return to the wild as a heroic adventurer.
The territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II were very extensive, the Oder-Neisse Line became Poland's western border and the Curzon Line its eastern border.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation.
Tomasz Kamusella FRHistS (born 1967, Kędzierzyn, Upper Silesia, Poland) is a Polish scholar pursuing interdisciplinary research in language politics, nationalism and ethnicity.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The School of Polish for Foreigners (SoPfF/SJPdC) - an educational institution, part of University of Łódź.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vilnius County (Vilniaus apskritis) is the largest of the 10 counties of Lithuania, located in the east of the country around the city Vilnius.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Volyn Oblast (Волинська область, translit. Volyns’ka oblast’, Obwód wołyński; also referred to as Volyn’ or Wołyń) is an oblast (province) in north-western Ukraine.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw dialect (called Gwara warszawska in standard Polish, pronounced), or Masovian, is a regional dialect of the Polish language centered on Warsaw.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
Western Belorussia or Western Belarus (Заходняя Беларусь: Zachodniaja Biełaruś; Zachodnia Białoruś; Западная Белоруссия: Zapadnaja Belorussija) is a historical region of modern-day Belarus comprising the territory which belonged to the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period in accordance with the international peace treaties.
Wiedza Powszechna (literally "Common Knowledge") is a publishing house in Poland.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question or a general question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.