119 relations: Absolute hot, Adiabatic process, Albert Einstein, Antoine Lavoisier, Asymptote, Black body, Boltzmann constant, Boomerang Nebula, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Carbon, Carl Wieman, Cartesian coordinate system, Celsius, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction, Chemical substance, Cosmic microwave background, Cryocooler, Crystal, CUORE, Debye model, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Delisle scale, Derivative, Dilution refrigerator, Einstein solid, Electron, Empiricism, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Enthalpy of fusion, Enthalpy of vaporization, Entropy, Equipartition theorem, Eric Allin Cornell, European Space Agency, Exothermic process, Exponential function, Fahrenheit, Femto-, Fermi energy, Fermi gas, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Gas thermometer, Gibbs free energy, Graphite, Ground state, ..., Guillaume Amontons, Heat, Heat capacity, Helsinki University of Technology, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Internal energy, International System of Units, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Isothermal process, James Prescott Joule, JILA, Johann Heinrich Lambert, John Dalton, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Laser cooling, Lattice (group), Laws of thermodynamics, Line–line intersection, List of adiabatic concepts, Macroscopic scale, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Max Planck, Maxwell relations, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Negative number, Nernst heat theorem, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Niter, Nova (TV series), Orders of magnitude (temperature), Orthogonality, Particle statistics, Phenomenon, Photon, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Planck temperature, Potential, Quantum, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Rankine scale, Rhodium, Robert Boyle, Rubidium, Satyendra Nath Bose, Spin (physics), State of matter, Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Symmetry, Thermal expansion, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Third law of thermodynamics, Triple point, Ultracold atom, United States customary units, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Hanover, Velocity, Walther Nernst, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Zeitschrift für Physik, Zero-point energy. Expand index (69 more) »

## Absolute hot

Absolute hot is a concept of temperature that postulates the existence of a highest attainable temperature of matter.

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## Adiabatic process

An adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a system and its surroundings; energy is transferred only as work.

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## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.

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## Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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## Asymptote

In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as they tend to infinity.

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## Black body

A black body (also blackbody) is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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## Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant (kB or k), named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating energy at the individual particle level with temperature.

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## Boomerang Nebula

The Boomerang Nebula is a protoplanetary nebula located 5,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Centaurus.

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## Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero (that is, very near or). Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point macroscopic quantum phenomena become apparent.

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## Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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## Carl Wieman

Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics at the University of Colorado for the production, in 1995 with Eric Allin Cornell and Wolfgang Ketterle, of the first true Bose–Einstein condensate.

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## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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## Celsius

Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature.

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## Chemical potential

In thermodynamics, chemical potential, also known as partial molar free energy, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction.

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## Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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## Chemical substance

A chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.

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## Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation left over from the time of recombination in Big Bang cosmology.

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## Cryocooler

A Cryocooler is a standalone cooler, usually of table-top size.

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## Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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## CUORE

The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a particle physics facility located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in central Italy.

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## Debye model

In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.

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## Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)

In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.

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## Delisle scale

The Delisle scale (°D) is a temperature scale invented in 1732 by the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (1688–1768).

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## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of a quantity (a function value or dependent variable) which is determined by another quantity (the independent variable).

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## Dilution refrigerator

A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region.

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## Einstein solid

The Einstein solid is a model of a solid based on two assumptions.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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## Empiricism

Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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## Endothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat.

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## Enthalpy

Enthalpy is defined as a thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter "H", that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of the system: Since U, p and V are all functions of the state of the thermodynamic system, enthalpy is a state function.

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## Enthalpy of fusion

The enthalpy of fusion also known as (latent) heat of fusion is the change in enthalpy resulting from heating a given quantity of a substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid.

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## Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the enthalpy change required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure (often atmospheric pressure, as in STP).

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## Entropy

In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.

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## Equipartition theorem

In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem is a general formula that relates the temperature of a system with its average energies.

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## Eric Allin Cornell

Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.

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## European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.

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## Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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## Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form The input variable x occurs as an exponent – hence the name.

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## Fahrenheit

Fahrenheit (symbol °F) is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), after whom the scale is named.

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## Femto-

Femto- (symbol f) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or.

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## Fermi energy

The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute zero temperature.

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## Fermi gas

A Fermi gas is an ensemble of a large number of fermions.

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## Fermi–Dirac statistics

In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Gas thermometer

A gas thermometer measures temperature by the variation in volume or pressure of a gas.

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## Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that measures the "usefulness" or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

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## Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.

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## Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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## Guillaume Amontons

Guillaume Amontons (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist.

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## Heat

In physics, heat is energy in a process of transfer between a system and its surroundings, other than as work or with the transfer of matter.

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## Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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## Helsinki University of Technology

The Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) (Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Tekniska högskolan) was a technical university in Finland.

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## Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles that do not interact except when they collide elastically.

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## Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.

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## Internal energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy is one of the two cardinal state functions of the state variables of a thermodynamic system.

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## International Temperature Scale of 1990

The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.

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## Isothermal process

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.

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## James Prescott Joule

James Prescott Joule FRS ((24 December 1818 – 11 October 1889) was an English physicist and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work (see energy). This led to the law of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named after James Joule. He worked with Lord Kelvin to develop the absolute scale of temperature the kelvin. Joule also made observations of magnetostriction, and he found the relationship between the current through a resistor and the heat dissipated, which is now called Joule's first law.

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## JILA

JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.

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## Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.

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## John Dalton

John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.

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## Kelvin

The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.

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## Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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## Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is a particle physics laboratory of the INFN, situated near the Gran Sasso mountain in Italy, between the towns of L'Aquila and Teramo, about 120 km from Rome.

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## Laser cooling

Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero through the interaction with one or more laser fields.

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## Lattice (group)

In mathematics, especially in geometry and group theory, a lattice in \mathbb^n is a discrete subgroup of \mathbb^n which spans the real vector space \mathbb^n.

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## Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems.

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## Line–line intersection

In Euclidean geometry, the intersection of a line and a line can be the empty set, a point, or a line.

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## List of adiabatic concepts

Adiabatic (from Gr. ἀ negative + διάβασις passage; transference) refers to any process that occurs without heat transfer.

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## Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible practically with the naked eye, without magnifying devices.

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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## Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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## Maxwell relations

Flow chart showing the paths between the Maxwell relations. ''P'': pressure, ''T'': temperature, ''V'': volume, ''S'': entropy, ''α'': coefficient of thermal expansion, ''κ'': compressibility, ''CV'': heat capacity at constant volume, ''CP'': heat capacity at constant pressure. Maxwell's relations are a set of equations in thermodynamics which are derivable from the symmetry of second derivatives and from the definitions of the thermodynamic potentials.

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## Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

In statistics the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.

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## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, also known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.

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## Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

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## Nernst heat theorem

The Nernst heat theorem was formulated by Walther Nernst early in the twentieth century and was used in the development of the third law of thermodynamics.

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## Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".

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## Niter

Niter (American English) or nitre (most English-speaking countries) is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter in America or saltpetre in other English-speaking countries.

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## Nova (TV series)

Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.

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## Orders of magnitude (temperature)

Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.

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## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the relation of two lines at right angles to one another (perpendicularity), and the generalization of this relation into n dimensions; and to a variety of mathematical relations thought of as describing non-overlapping, uncorrelated, or independent objects of some kind.

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## Particle statistics

Particle statistics is a particular description of multiple particles in statistical mechanics.

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## Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενoν, phainomenon, from the verb φαίνειν, phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena), is any thing which manifests itself.

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## Photon

No description.

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## Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy.

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## Planck temperature

Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

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## Potential

Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

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## Quantum

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

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## Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of a quantum system.

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## Rankine scale

Rankine is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.

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## Rhodium

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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## Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.

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## Rubidium

Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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## Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose, FRS (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Shottendronath Boshū,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian Bengali physicist specialising in mathematical physics.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms that matter takes on.

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## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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## Superfluidity

Superfluidity is a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity; where it appears to exhibit the ability to self-propel and travel in a way that defies the forces of gravity and surface tension.

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## Symmetry

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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## Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature, when the body is heated its dimension(size) increase.This increase in dimension is called thermal expansion.

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## Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of classical thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the content of a macroscopic volume in space, along with its walls and surroundings; it undergoes thermodynamic processes according to the principles of thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.

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## Third law of thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature: At absolute zero (zero kelvin), the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy, and the above statement of the third law holds true provided that the perfect crystal has only one minimum energy state.

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## Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Ultracold atom

Ultracold atoms are atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 kelvin (absolute zero), typically below temperatures of some tenths of microkelvins (µK).

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## United States customary units

United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.

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## University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (UCB, also commonly referred to as CU-Boulder, CU, Boulder, or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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## University of Hanover

The University of Hannover, officially the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, short Leibniz Universität Hannover, is a public university located in Hannover, Germany.

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## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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## Walther Nernst

Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

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## William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a British mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

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## Zeitschrift für Physik

Zeitschrift für Physik is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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## Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state.

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## Redirects here:

-273 C, -273 °C, -273.15 °C, -459.67 °F, 0 K, 0 Kelvin, 0-K, Absolute 0, Absolute Zero, Coldest place, Coldest place in the universe, Coolest place, Coolest place in the universe, The coldest place, Zero temperature, −459.67 °F.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_zero