136 relations: Absolute hot, Adiabatic process, Albert Einstein, Antoine Lavoisier, Asymptote, Black body, Boltzmann constant, Boomerang Nebula, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Carbon, Carl Wieman, Cartesian coordinate system, Celsius, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction, Chemical substance, Classical element, Cosmic microwave background, Cryocooler, Crystal, CUORE, Debye model, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Derivative, Dilution refrigerator, Einstein solid, Electron, Empiricism, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Enthalpy of fusion, Enthalpy of vaporization, Entropy, Equipartition theorem, Eric Allin Cornell, Espoo, European Space Agency, Exothermic process, Exponential function, Fahrenheit, Femto-, Fermi energy, Fermi gas, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Finland, Gas thermometer, Gibbs free energy, ..., Graphite, Ground state, Guillaume Amontons, Hampson–Linde cycle, Heat, Heat capacity, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Helsinki University of Technology, Henri Victor Regnault, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Imperial units, Internal energy, International System of Units, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Isothermal process, James Dewar, James Prescott Joule, JILA, Johann Heinrich Lambert, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, John Dalton, Karol Olszewski, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Laser cooling, Lattice (group), Laws of thermodynamics, Line–line intersection, Liquid air, Louis Paul Cailletet, Lowest temperature recorded on Earth, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Macroscopic scale, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Max Planck, Maxwell relations, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Michael Faraday, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Negative number, Negative temperature, Nernst heat theorem, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Niter, Nobel Prize, Nova (TV series), Orders of magnitude (temperature), Orthogonality, Particle statistics, Phenomenon, Photon, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Planck temperature, Potential, Quantum, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Rankine scale, Raoul Pictet, Rhodium, Robert Boyle, Rubidium, Satyendra Nath Bose, Spin (physics), State of matter, Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Symmetry, Thermal expansion, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Third law of thermodynamics, Triple point, Ultracold atom, United States customary units, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Hanover, Velocity, Walther Nernst, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Zeitschrift für Physik, Zero-point energy, Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski. Expand index (86 more) »

## Absolute hot

Absolute hot is a concept of temperature that postulates the existence of a highest attainable temperature of matter.

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## Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

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## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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## Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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## Asymptote

In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.

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## Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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## Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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## Boomerang Nebula

The Boomerang Nebula is a protoplanetary nebula located 5,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Centaurus.

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## Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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## Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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## Carl Wieman

Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University.

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## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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## Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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## Chemical potential

In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.

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## Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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## Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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## Classical element

Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.

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## Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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## Cryocooler

A Cryocooler is a substration cooler, usually of table-top size.

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## Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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## CUORE

The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE, pronounced) is a particle physics facility located underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Assergi, Italy.

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## Debye model

In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.

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## Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)

In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.

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## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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## Dilution refrigerator

A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region.

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## Einstein solid

The Einstein solid is a model of a solid based on two assumptions.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Empiricism

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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## Endothermic process

The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.

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## Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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## Enthalpy of fusion

The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.

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## Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.

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## Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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## Equipartition theorem

In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.

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## Eric Allin Cornell

Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.

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## Espoo

Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.

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## European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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## Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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## Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

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## Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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## Femto-

Femto- (symbol f) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or.

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## Fermi energy

The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute zero temperature.

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## Fermi gas

A Fermi gas is a phase of matter which is an ensemble of a large number of non-interacting fermions.

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## Fermi–Dirac statistics

In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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## Gas thermometer

A gas thermometer measures temperature by the variation in volume or pressure of a gas.

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## Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

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## Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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## Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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## Guillaume Amontons

Guillaume Amontons (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist.

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## Hampson–Linde cycle

The Hampson–Linde cycle is used in the liquefaction of gases, especially for air separation.

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## Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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## Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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## Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes FRSFor HFRSE FCS (21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate.

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## Helsinki University of Technology

The Helsinki University of Technology (TKK; Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Tekniska högskolan) was a technical university in Finland.

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## Henri Victor Regnault

Prof Henri Victor Regnault FRS HFRSE (21 July 1810 – 19 January 1878) was a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases.

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## Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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## Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.

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## Imperial units

The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.

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## Internal energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## International Temperature Scale of 1990

The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.

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## Isothermal process

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.

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## James Dewar

Sir James Dewar FRS FRSE (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.

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## James Prescott Joule

James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.

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## JILA

JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.

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## Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.

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## Johannes Diderik van der Waals

Johannes Diderik van der Waals (23 November 1837 – 8 March 1923) was a Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist famous for his work on an equation of state for gases and liquids.

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## John Dalton

John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.

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## Karol Olszewski

Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.

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## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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## Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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## Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is the largest underground research center in the world.

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## Laser cooling

Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.

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## Lattice (group)

In geometry and group theory, a lattice in \mathbbR^n is a subgroup of the additive group \mathbb^n which is isomorphic to the additive group \mathbbZ^n, and which spans the real vector space \mathbb^n.

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## Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.

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## Line–line intersection

In Euclidean geometry, the intersection of a line and a line can be the empty set, a point, or a line.

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## Liquid air

Liquid air is air that has been cooled to very low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures), so that it has condensed into a pale blue mobile liquid.

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## Louis Paul Cailletet

Louis-Paul Cailletet (21 September 1832 – 5 January 1913) was a French physicist and inventor.

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## Lowest temperature recorded on Earth

The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is in East Antartica in March 2018.

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## Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.

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## Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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## Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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## Maxwell relations

Flow chart showing the paths between the Maxwell relations. ''P'': pressure, ''T'': temperature, ''V'': volume, ''S'': entropy, ''α'': coefficient of thermal expansion, ''κ'': compressibility, ''CV'': heat capacity at constant volume, ''CP'': heat capacity at constant pressure. Maxwell's relations are a set of equations in thermodynamics which are derivable from the symmetry of second derivatives and from the definitions of the thermodynamic potentials.

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## Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.

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## Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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## Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

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## Negative temperature

In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperature; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales.

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## Nernst heat theorem

The Nernst heat theorem was formulated by Walther Nernst early in the twentieth century and was used in the development of the third law of thermodynamics.

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## Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".

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## Niter

Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.

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## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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## Nova (TV series)

Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.

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## Orders of magnitude (temperature)

Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.

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## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

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## Particle statistics

Particle statistics is a particular description of multiple particles in statistical mechanics.

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## Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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## Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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## Planck temperature

Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

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## Potential

Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

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## Quantum

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

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## Rankine scale

The Rankine scale is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.

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## Raoul Pictet

Raoul-Pierre Pictet (4 April 1846 – 27 July 1929) was a Swiss physicist.

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## Rhodium

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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## Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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## Rubidium

Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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## Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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## Superfluidity

Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

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## Symmetry

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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## Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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## Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

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## Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.

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## Third law of thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: At absolute zero (zero kelvin) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy.

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## Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Ultracold atom

Ultracold atoms are atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 kelvin (absolute zero), typically below temperatures of some tenths of microkelvins (µK).

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## United States customary units

United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.

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## University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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## University of Hanover

The University of Hanover, officially the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, short Leibniz University Hannover, is a public university located in Hannover, Germany.

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## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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## Walther Nernst

Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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## William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

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## Zeitschrift für Physik

Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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## Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have.

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## Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski

Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski (28 October 1845 – 16 April 1888) was a Polish physicist and chemist.

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## Redirects here:

-273 C, -273 °C, -273.15, -273.15 °C, -273.15°C, -459.67 °F, 0 K, 0 Kelvin, 0-K, Absolute 0, Absolute Zero, Absolute cold, Coldest place in the universe, Coolest place in the universe, Zero temperature, −273.15 °C, −459.67 °F.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_zero