136 relations: Absolute hot, Adiabatic process, Albert Einstein, Antoine Lavoisier, Asymptote, Black body, Boltzmann constant, Boomerang Nebula, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Carbon, Carl Wieman, Cartesian coordinate system, Celsius, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction, Chemical substance, Classical element, Cosmic microwave background, Cryocooler, Crystal, CUORE, Debye model, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Derivative, Dilution refrigerator, Einstein solid, Electron, Empiricism, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Enthalpy of fusion, Enthalpy of vaporization, Entropy, Equipartition theorem, Eric Allin Cornell, Espoo, European Space Agency, Exothermic process, Exponential function, Fahrenheit, Femto-, Fermi energy, Fermi gas, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Finland, Gas thermometer, Gibbs free energy, ..., Graphite, Ground state, Guillaume Amontons, Hampson–Linde cycle, Heat, Heat capacity, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Helsinki University of Technology, Henri Victor Regnault, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Imperial units, Internal energy, International System of Units, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Isothermal process, James Dewar, James Prescott Joule, JILA, Johann Heinrich Lambert, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, John Dalton, Karol Olszewski, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Laser cooling, Lattice (group), Laws of thermodynamics, Line–line intersection, Liquid air, Louis Paul Cailletet, Lowest temperature recorded on Earth, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Macroscopic scale, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Max Planck, Maxwell relations, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Michael Faraday, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Negative number, Negative temperature, Nernst heat theorem, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Niter, Nobel Prize, Nova (TV series), Orders of magnitude (temperature), Orthogonality, Particle statistics, Phenomenon, Photon, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Planck temperature, Potential, Quantum, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Rankine scale, Raoul Pictet, Rhodium, Robert Boyle, Rubidium, Satyendra Nath Bose, Spin (physics), State of matter, Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Symmetry, Thermal expansion, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Third law of thermodynamics, Triple point, Ultracold atom, United States customary units, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Hanover, Velocity, Walther Nernst, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Zeitschrift für Physik, Zero-point energy, Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute hot is a concept of temperature that postulates the existence of a highest attainable temperature of matter.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
The Boomerang Nebula is a protoplanetary nebula located 5,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Centaurus.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
A Cryocooler is a substration cooler, usually of table-top size.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE, pronounced) is a particle physics facility located underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Assergi, Italy.
In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region.
The Einstein solid is a model of a solid based on two assumptions.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.
Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.
Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).
Femto- (symbol f) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or.
The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute zero temperature.
A Fermi gas is a phase of matter which is an ensemble of a large number of non-interacting fermions.
In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
A gas thermometer measures temperature by the variation in volume or pressure of a gas.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Guillaume Amontons (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist.
The Hampson–Linde cycle is used in the liquefaction of gases, especially for air separation.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes FRSFor HFRSE FCS (21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate.
The Helsinki University of Technology (TKK; Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Tekniska högskolan) was a technical university in Finland.
Prof Henri Victor Regnault FRS HFRSE (21 July 1810 – 19 January 1878) was a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.
An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.
Sir James Dewar FRS FRSE (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.
Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
Johannes Diderik van der Waals (23 November 1837 – 8 March 1923) was a Dutch theoretical physicist and thermodynamicist famous for his work on an equation of state for gases and liquids.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is the largest underground research center in the world.
Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.
In geometry and group theory, a lattice in \mathbbR^n is a subgroup of the additive group \mathbb^n which is isomorphic to the additive group \mathbbZ^n, and which spans the real vector space \mathbb^n.
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.
In Euclidean geometry, the intersection of a line and a line can be the empty set, a point, or a line.
Liquid air is air that has been cooled to very low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures), so that it has condensed into a pale blue mobile liquid.
Louis-Paul Cailletet (21 September 1832 – 5 January 1913) was a French physicist and inventor.
The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is in East Antartica in March 2018.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Flow chart showing the paths between the Maxwell relations. ''P'': pressure, ''T'': temperature, ''V'': volume, ''S'': entropy, ''α'': coefficient of thermal expansion, ''κ'': compressibility, ''CV'': heat capacity at constant volume, ''CP'': heat capacity at constant pressure. Maxwell's relations are a set of equations in thermodynamics which are derivable from the symmetry of second derivatives and from the definitions of the thermodynamic potentials.
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.
In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperature; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales.
The Nernst heat theorem was formulated by Walther Nernst early in the twentieth century and was used in the development of the third law of thermodynamics.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.
Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
Particle statistics is a particular description of multiple particles in statistical mechanics.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.
Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
The Rankine scale is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.
Raoul-Pierre Pictet (4 April 1846 – 27 July 1929) was a Swiss physicist.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: At absolute zero (zero kelvin) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Ultracold atoms are atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 kelvin (absolute zero), typically below temperatures of some tenths of microkelvins (µK).
United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The University of Hanover, officially the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, short Leibniz University Hannover, is a public university located in Hannover, Germany.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have.
Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski (28 October 1845 – 16 April 1888) was a Polish physicist and chemist.
-273 C, -273 °C, -273.15, -273.15 °C, -273.15°C, -459.67 °F, 0 K, 0 Kelvin, 0-K, Absolute 0, Absolute Zero, Absolute cold, Coldest place in the universe, Coolest place in the universe, Zero temperature, −273.15 °C, −459.67 °F.