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Zero-point energy

Index Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have. [1]

328 relations: Abraham–Lorentz force, Absolute zero, Adam Riess, Addison-Wesley, Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory, Aether (classical element), Aharonov–Bohm effect, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albert Einstein, Alcubierre drive, Angular frequency, Annalen der Physik, Antimatter, Antiproton Decelerator, Aristotle, Astronomer, Astronomy, Atomic energy, Atomism, Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen, BAE Systems, Baryogenesis, Baryon, Beltrami vector field, Big Bang, Birefringence, Bistability, Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912, Boeing, Boeing Phantom Works, Bohr model, Boltzmann constant, Boson, Bosonic field, Bravais lattice, Brownian motion, Bryce DeWitt, Calque, Casimir effect, Cavity quantum electrodynamics, CERN, Chaos theory, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Classical electromagnetism, Classical mechanics, Clifford algebra, Color charge, Color confinement, Commutator, Conservation law, ..., Conservative force, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmological constant, Cosmological constant problem, Coupling constant, Creation and annihilation operators, Curvature, Dark energy, DARPA, De Broglie–Bohm theory, De Haas–van Alphen effect, Degenerate energy levels, Delbrück scattering, Dielectric, Dirac equation, Dirac sea, Dirk Polder, Dissipative system, Earth, Edwards Air Force Base, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron magnetic moment, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Embodied energy, Emergence, Energy, Energy level, Entropy, Equivalence principle, Erwin Schrödinger, Euclid (spacecraft), Eugene Podkletnov, European Space Agency, Exotic matter, Expansion of the universe, Expectation value (quantum mechanics), Expected value, Faraday effect, Faster-than-light, Fermion, Fermionic condensate, Fermionic field, Feynman diagram, Field (physics), Fine-structure constant, Fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Flux tube, Francis Simon, Frequency, Fringe science, Fritz London, Galaxy, Galaxy formation and evolution, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, GE Aerospace, General relativity, Geometric phase, George Francis FitzGerald, Ginzburg–Landau theory, Gluon, Gluon condensate, Grand Unified Theory, Gravitoelectromagnetism, Ground state, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hans Bethe, Hans Heinrich Euler, Hans Kramers, Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope, Harmonic oscillator, Harry Nyquist, Hawking radiation, Heinrich Hertz, Hendrik Casimir, Herbert Callen, Higgs mechanism, HRL Laboratories, Hydrogen atom, Hysteresis, Ilya Prigogine, INAF, Inflation (cosmology), Interstellar medium, Isotropy, James Clerk Maxwell, James Jeans, Jaynes–Cummings model, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John Archibald Wheeler, Johnson Space Center, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Josephson effect, Julian Schwinger, Kinetic energy, Kip Thorne, Lamb shift, Large Hadron Collider, Laws of thermodynamics, Lepton, Liquid helium, London equations, Lorentz covariance, Lorentz force, Luminiferous aether, Magnetic flux quantum, Magnetic moment, Magnetic monopole, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Matrix mechanics, Max Born, Max Planck, Maxwell's equations, Meissner effect, Michelson–Morley experiment, Microelectromechanical systems, Microwave, Miguel Alcubierre, Milan, Modern searches for Lorentz violation, NASA, National Ground Intelligence Center, Negative energy, Negative temperature, Netherlands, Neutron star, New Scientist, Niels Bohr, Nikola Tesla, Nima Arkani-Hamed, Ning Li (physicist), Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Noether's theorem, Non-perturbative, Nonlinear system, Normal order, Oliver Heaviside, Oliver Lodge, One-loop Feynman diagram, Operator (physics), Otto Stern, Otto von Guericke, Particle, Particle in a box, Pascual Jordan, Paul Dirac, Paul Ehrenfest, Perpetual motion, Perturbation theory, Peter Debye, Peter W. Milonni, Phase factor, Phase transition, Philosophy, Photon, Physica (journal), Physical cosmology, Physical Review, Physical Review A, Physical Review Letters, Physicist, Planck constant, Plasma (physics), Potential, Potential energy, Potential well, Proceedings of the Physical Society, Propagator, Pseudoscience, Purcell effect, QCD matter, QCD vacuum, QED vacuum, Quantum, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum critical point, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum entanglement, Quantum field theory, Quantum fluctuation, Quantum foam, Quantum gravity, Quantum Hall effect, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum mechanics, Quantum phase transition, Quantum vacuum thruster, Quark, Quaternion, Quintessence (physics), Rabi frequency, Renaissance, Renormalization, Richard Feynman, Robert Jaffe, Robert L. Forward, Robert S. Mulliken, RX J1856.5-3754, S-matrix, Sagnac effect, Saul Perlmutter, Scalar field, Scharnhorst effect, Schrödinger equation, Schwinger limit, Seattle, Second law of thermodynamics, Simon & Schuster, Sine wave, Soliton, Spacetime, Special relativity, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Spontaneous emission, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Steven Weinberg, Stochastic electrodynamics, String theory, Strong interaction, Structure formation, Superconductivity, Supernova, Supersymmetry, Symmetry, Symmetry (physics), Telescope, Temperature, Term symbol, The Quantum Vacuum: An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics, Theory of everything, Thermal radiation, Third law of thermodynamics, Thought experiment, Time crystal, Topological degeneracy, Topological order, Toroid, Two-state quantum system, Type-I superconductor, Type-II superconductor, Uncertainty principle, Unitary operator, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Department of Defense, University of Colorado Boulder, Unruh effect, Vacuum, Vacuum energy, Vacuum expectation value, Vacuum permittivity, Vacuum state, Van der Waals force, Vector boson, Victor Weisskopf, Virtual particle, Vortex, W and Z bosons, Walther Nernst, Wave, Wave function, Wave–particle duality, Werner Heisenberg, William Rowan Hamilton, Wolfgang Pauli, Work (physics), Wormhole, X-ray, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (278 more) »

Abraham–Lorentz force

In the physics of electromagnetism, the Abraham–Lorentz force (also Lorentz–Abraham force) is the recoil force on an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation.

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Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

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Adam Riess

Adam Guy Riess (born December 16, 1969) is an American astrophysicist and Bloomberg Distinguished Professor at Johns Hopkins University and the Space Telescope Science Institute and is known for his research in using supernovae as cosmological probes.

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Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory

The Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center, also known as "Eagleworks Laboratories", is a small research group investigating a variety of theories regarding new forms of spacecraft propulsion.

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Aether (classical element)

According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.

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Aharonov–Bohm effect

The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle is affected by an electromagnetic potential (V, A), despite being confined to a region in which both the magnetic field B and electric field E are zero.

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Air Force Research Laboratory

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is a scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of affordable aerospace warfighting technologies, planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program, and providing warfighting capabilities to United States air, space, and cyberspace forces.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alcubierre drive

The Alcubierre drive or Alcubierre warp drive (or Alcubierre metric, referring to metric tensor) is a speculative idea based on a solution of Einstein's field equations in general relativity as proposed by Mexican theoretical physicist Miguel Alcubierre, by which a spacecraft could achieve apparent faster-than-light travel if a configurable energy-density field lower than that of vacuum (that is, negative mass) could be created.

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Angular frequency

In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

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Antiproton Decelerator

The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is a storage ring at the CERN laboratory near Geneva.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Atomic energy

Atomic energy is energy carried by atoms.

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Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.

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Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen

"Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen" (English "Quantum theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations") was a breakthrough paper in quantum mechanics written by Werner Heisenberg.

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BAE Systems

BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.

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In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the hypothetical physical process that took place during the early universe that produced baryonic asymmetry, i.e. the imbalance of matter (baryons) and antimatter (antibaryons) in the observed universe.

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A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).

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Beltrami vector field

In vector calculus, a Beltrami vector field, named after Eugenio Beltrami, is a vector field in three dimensions that is parallel to its own curl.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

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In a dynamical system, bistability means the system has two stable equilibrium states.

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Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912

Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912 (1978; second edition 1987) is a book by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn, in which the author surveys the development of quantum mechanics.

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The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.

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Boeing Phantom Works

Boeing Phantom Works is the advanced prototyping arm of the defense and security side of The Boeing Company.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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Bosonic field

In quantum field theory, a bosonic field is a quantum field whose quanta are bosons; that is, they obey Bose–Einstein statistics.

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Bravais lattice

In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.

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Brownian motion

Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.

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Bryce DeWitt

Bryce Seligman DeWitt (January 8, 1923 – September 23, 2004) was an American theoretical physicist who studied gravity and field theories.

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In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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Casimir effect

In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect and the Casimir–Polder force are physical forces arising from a quantized field.

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Cavity quantum electrodynamics

Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) is the study of the interaction between light confined in a reflective cavity and atoms or other particles, under conditions where the quantum nature of light photons is significant.

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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Classical and Quantum Gravity

Classical and Quantum Gravity is a peer-reviewed journal that covers all aspects of gravitational physics and the theory of spacetime.

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Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Clifford algebra

In mathematics, a Clifford algebra is an algebra generated by a vector space with a quadratic form, and is a unital associative algebra.

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Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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Color confinement

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).

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In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative.

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Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

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Conservative force

A conservative force is a force with the property that the total work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the taken path.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Cosmological constant

In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.

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Cosmological constant problem

In cosmology, the cosmological constant problem or vacuum catastrophe is the disagreement between the observed values of vacuum energy density (the small value of the cosmological constant) and theoretical large value of zero-point energy suggested by quantum field theory.

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Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

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Creation and annihilation operators

Creation and annihilation operators are mathematical operators that have widespread applications in quantum mechanics, notably in the study of quantum harmonic oscillators and many-particle systems.

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In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

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Dark energy

In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.

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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.

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De Broglie–Bohm theory

The de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot wave theory, Bohmian mechanics, Bohm's interpretation, and the causal interpretation, is an interpretation of quantum mechanics.

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De Haas–van Alphen effect

The de Haas–van Alphen effect, often abbreviated to dHvA, is a quantum mechanical effect in which the magnetic susceptibility of a pure metal crystal oscillates as the intensity of an applied magnetic field H is increased.

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Degenerate energy levels

In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.

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Delbrück scattering

Delbrück scattering, the deflection of high-energy photons in the Coulomb field of nuclei as a consequence of vacuum polarization was observed in 1975.

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A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.

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Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

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Dirac sea

The Dirac sea is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles with negative energy.

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Dirk Polder

Dirk Polder (23 August 1919 – 18 March 2001) was a Dutch physicist who, together with Hendrik Casimir, first predicted the existence of what today is known as the Casimir-Polder force, sometimes also referred to as the Casimir effect or Casimir force.

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Dissipative system

A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Edwards Air Force Base

Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about northeast of Lancaster and east of Rosamond.

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron magnetic moment

In atomic physics, the electron magnetic moment, or more specifically the electron magnetic dipole moment, is the magnetic moment of an electron caused by its intrinsic properties of spin and electric charge.

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Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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Embodied energy

Embodied energy is the sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or 'embodied' in the product itself.

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In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Energy level

A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.

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In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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Equivalence principle

In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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Euclid (spacecraft)

Euclid is a visible to near-infrared space telescope currently under development by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Euclid Consortium.

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Eugene Podkletnov

Eugene Podkletnov (Евгений Подклетнов, Yevgeny Podkletnov) is a Russian ceramics engineer known for his claims made in the 1990s of designing and demonstrating gravity shielding devices consisting of rotating discs constructed from ceramic superconducting materials.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Exotic matter

In physics, exotic matter is matter that somehow deviates from normal matter and has "exotic" properties.

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Expansion of the universe

The expansion of the universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.

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Expectation value (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, the expectation value is the probabilistic expected value of the result (measurement) of an experiment.

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Expected value

In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.

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Faraday effect

In physics, the Faraday effect or Faraday rotation is a magneto-optical phenomenon—that is, an interaction between light and a magnetic field in a medium.

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Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communication and travel are the conjectural propagation of information or matter faster than the speed of light.

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In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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Fermionic condensate

A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.

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Fermionic field

In quantum field theory, a fermionic field is a quantum field whose quanta are fermions; that is, they obey Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

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Fine-structure constant

In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.

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Fluctuation-dissipation theorem

The fluctuation–dissipation theorem (FDT) or fluctuation–dissipation relation (FDR) is a powerful tool in statistical physics for predicting the behavior of systems that obey detailed balance.

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Flux tube

A flux tube is a generally tube-like (cylindrical) region of space containing a magnetic field, B, such that the field is perpendicular to the normal vector, \hat.

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Francis Simon

Sir Francis Simon, (2 July 1893 – 31 October 1956), was a German and later British physical chemist and physicist who devised the gaseous diffusion method, and confirmed its feasibility, of separating the isotope Uranium-235 and thus made a major contribution to the creation of the atomic bomb.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Fringe science

Fringe science is an inquiry in an established field of study which departs significantly from mainstream theories in that field and is considered to be questionable by the mainstream.

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Fritz London

Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900 – March 30, 1954) was a Jewish-German physicist and professor at Duke University.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Galaxy formation and evolution

The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies.

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Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

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Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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GE Aerospace

GE Aerospace was a business group of General Electric.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Geometric phase

In classical and quantum mechanics, the geometric phase, Pancharatnam–Berry phase (named after S. Pancharatnam and Sir Michael Berry), Pancharatnam phase or most commonly Berry phase, is a phase difference acquired over the course of a cycle, when a system is subjected to cyclic adiabatic processes, which results from the geometrical properties of the parameter space of the Hamiltonian.

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George Francis FitzGerald

Prof George Francis FitzGerald FRS FRSE (3 August 1851 – 22 February 1901) was an Irish professor of "natural and experimental philosophy" (i.e., physics) at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, during the last quarter of the 19th century.

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Ginzburg–Landau theory

In physics, Ginzburg–Landau theory, often called Landau–Ginzburg theory, named after Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg and Lev Landau, is a mathematical physical theory used to describe superconductivity.

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A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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Gluon condensate

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the gluon condensate is a non-perturbative property of the QCD vacuum which could be partly responsible for giving masses to certain hadrons.

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Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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Gravitoelectromagnetism, abbreviated GEM, refers to a set of formal analogies between the equations for electromagnetism and relativistic gravitation; specifically: between Maxwell's field equations and an approximation, valid under certain conditions, to the Einstein field equations for general relativity.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

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Hans Bethe

Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

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Hans Heinrich Euler

Hans Heinrich Euler (b. 6 October 1909 in Merano, d. 1941) was a German physicist.

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Hans Kramers

Hendrik Anthony "Hans" Kramers (2 February 1894 – 24 April 1952) was a Dutch physicist who worked with Niels Bohr to understand how electromagnetic waves interact with matter.

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Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) also known as Insight is a Chinese X-ray space observatory, launched on June 15, 2017 to observe black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei and other phenomena based on their X-ray and gamma-ray emissions.

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Harmonic oscillator

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: where k is a positive constant.

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Harry Nyquist

Harry Nyquist (born Harry Theodor Nyqvist,; February 7, 1889 – April 4, 1976) was a Swedish-born American electronic engineer who made important contributions to communication theory.

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Hawking radiation

Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

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Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.

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Hendrik Casimir

Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir ForMemRS (July 15, 1909 – May 4, 2000) was a Dutch physicist best known for his research on the two-fluid model of superconductors (together with C. J. Gorter) in 1934 and the Casimir effect (together with D. Polder) in 1948.

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Herbert Callen

Herbert Bernard Callen (1919 – May 22, 1993) was an American physicist best known as the author of the textbook Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, the most frequently cited thermodynamic reference in physics research literature.

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Higgs mechanism

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

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HRL Laboratories

HRL Laboratories (formerly Hughes Research Laboratories), was the research arm of Hughes Aircraft.

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Hydrogen atom

A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.

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Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.

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Ilya Prigogine

Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

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The National Institute for Astrophysics (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, or INAF) is the most important Italian institution conducting scientific research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Inflation (cosmology)

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").

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James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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James Jeans

Sir James Hopwood Jeans (11 September 187716 September 1946) was an English physicist, astronomer and mathematician.

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Jaynes–Cummings model

The Jaynes–Cummings model (JCM) is a theoretical model in quantum optics.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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John Archibald Wheeler

John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.

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Johnson Space Center

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.

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Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

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Josephson effect

The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of supercurrent—i.e. a current that flows indefinitely long without any voltage applied—across a device known as a Josephson junction (JJ), which consists of two superconductors coupled by a weak link.

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Julian Schwinger

Julian Seymour Schwinger (February 12, 1918 – July 16, 1994) was a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Kip Thorne

Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics.

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Lamb shift

In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a difference in energy between two energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy.

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Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.

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Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.

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In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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Liquid helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).

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London equations

The London equations, developed by brothers Fritz and Heinz London in 1935, relate current to electromagnetic fields in and around a superconductor.

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Lorentz covariance

In relativistic physics, Lorentz symmetry, named for Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame.

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Lorentz force

In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

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Luminiferous aether

In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.

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Magnetic flux quantum

The magnetic flux, represented by the symbol, threading some contour or loop is defined as the magnetic field multiplied by the loop area, i.e..

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Magnetic moment

The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetic monopole

A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).

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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mass–energy equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.

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Matrix mechanics

Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.

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Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Meissner effect

The Meissner effect (or Meissner–Ochsenfeld effect) is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state.

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Michelson–Morley experiment

The Michelson–Morley experiment was performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year.

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Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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Miguel Alcubierre

Miguel Alcubierre Moya (born March 28, 1964) is a Mexican theoretical physicist.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Modern searches for Lorentz violation

Modern searches for Lorentz violation are scientific studies that look for deviations from Lorentz invariance or symmetry, a set of fundamental frameworks that underpin modern science and fundamental physics in particular.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Ground Intelligence Center

The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) is part of the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command.

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Negative energy

Negative energy is a concept used in physics to explain the nature of certain fields, including the gravitational field and various quantum field effects.

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Negative temperature

In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperature; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

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Nima Arkani-Hamed

Nima Arkani-Hamed (نیما ارکانی حامد; born April 5, 1972) is an American-Canadian, sns.ias.edu; accessed December 4, 2015.

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Ning Li (physicist)

Ning Li is an American scientist known for her controversial claims about anti-gravity devices.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Noether's theorem

Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.

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In mathematics and physics, a non-perturbative function or process is one that cannot be accurately described by perturbation theory.

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Nonlinear system

In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.

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Normal order

In quantum field theory a product of quantum fields, or equivalently their creation and annihilation operators, is usually said to be normal ordered (also called Wick order) when all creation operators are to the left of all annihilation operators in the product.

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Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.

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Oliver Lodge

Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of, and holder of key patents for, radio.

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One-loop Feynman diagram

In physics, a one-loop Feynman diagram is a connected Feynman diagram with only one cycle (unicyclic).

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Operator (physics)

In physics, an operator is a function over a space of physical states to another space of physical states.

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Otto Stern

Otto Stern (17 February 1888 – 17 August 1969) was a German American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.

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Otto von Guericke

Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke,; November 20, 1602 – May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 – May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician.

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In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.

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Particle in a box

In quantum mechanics, the particle in a box model (also known as the infinite potential well or the infinite square well) describes a particle free to move in a small space surrounded by impenetrable barriers.

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Pascual Jordan

Ernst Pascual Jordan (18 October 1902 – 31 July 1980) was a theoretical and mathematical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

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Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.

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Paul Ehrenfest

Paul Ehrenfest (18 January 1880 – 25 September 1933) was an Austrian and Dutch theoretical physicist, who made major contributions to the field of statistical mechanics and its relations with quantum mechanics, including the theory of phase transition and the Ehrenfest theorem.

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Perpetual motion

Perpetual motion is motion of bodies that continues indefinitely.

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Perturbation theory

Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.

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Peter Debye

Peter Joseph William Debye (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.

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Peter W. Milonni

Peter Walden Milonni (born 5 May 1947) is an American theoretical physicist who deals with quantum optics, laser physics, quantum electrodynamics and the Casimir effect.

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Phase factor

For any complex number written in polar form (such as reiθ), the phase factor is the complex exponential factor (eiθ).

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physica (journal)

Physica is a Dutch series of peer-reviewed, scientific journals of physics by Elsevier.

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Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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Physical Review A

Physical Review A (also known as PRA) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

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Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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Potential well

A potential well is the region surrounding a local minimum of potential energy.

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Proceedings of the Physical Society

The Proceedings of the Physical Society was a journal on the subject of physics, originally associated with the Physical Society of London, England.

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In quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, the propagator is a function that specifies the probability amplitude for a particle to travel from one place to another in a given time, or to travel with a certain energy and momentum.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Purcell effect

The Purcell effect is the enhancement of a quantum system's spontaneous emission rate by its environment.

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QCD matter

Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.

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QCD vacuum

Th Quantum Chromodynamic Vacuum or QCD vacuum is the vacuum state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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QED vacuum

The Quantum Electrodynamic Vacuum or QED vacuum is the field-theoretic vacuum of quantum electrodynamics.

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In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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Quantum critical point

A quantum critical point is a point in the phase diagram of a material where a continuous phase transition takes place at absolute zero.

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Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

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Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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Quantum fluctuation

In quantum physics, a quantum fluctuation (or vacuum state fluctuation or vacuum fluctuation) is the temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space, as explained in Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

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Quantum foam

Quantum foam (or spacetime foam) is the fluctuation of spacetime on very small scales due to quantum mechanics.

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Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

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Quantum Hall effect

The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.

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Quantum harmonic oscillator

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum phase transition

In physics, a quantum phase transition (QPT) is a phase transition between different quantum phases (phases of matter at zero temperature).

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Quantum vacuum thruster

A quantum vacuum thruster (QVT or Q-thruster) is a theoretical system that uses the same principles and equations of motion that a conventional plasma thruster would use, namely magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), to make predictions about the behavior of the propellant.

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A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

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Quintessence (physics)

In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy, more precisely a scalar field, postulated as an explanation of the observation of an accelerating rate of expansion of the universe.

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Rabi frequency

The Rabi frequency is the radian frequency of the Rabi cycle undergone for a given atomic transition in a given light field.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Robert Jaffe

Robert L. Jaffe (born May 23, 1946) is an American physicist and the Jane and Otto Morningstar Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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Robert L. Forward

Robert Lull Forward (August 15, 1932 – September 21, 2002) was an American physicist and science fiction writer.

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Robert S. Mulliken

Robert Sanderson Mulliken (June 7, 1896 – October 31, 1986) was an American physicist and chemist, primarily responsible for the early development of molecular orbital theory, i.e. the elaboration of the molecular orbital method of computing the structure of molecules.

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RX J1856.5-3754

RX J1856.5-3754 (also called RX J185635-3754, RX J185635-375, and various other designations) is a nearby neutron star in the constellation Corona Australis.

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In physics, the S-matrix or scattering matrix relates the initial state and the final state of a physical system undergoing a scattering process.

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Sagnac effect

The Sagnac effect, also called Sagnac interference, named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is elicited by rotation.

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Saul Perlmutter

Saul Perlmutter (born September 22, 1959) is a U.S. astrophysicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Scalar field

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space.

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Scharnhorst effect

The Scharnhorst effect is a hypothetical phenomenon in which light signals travel slightly faster than ''c'' between two closely spaced conducting plates.

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Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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Schwinger limit

In quantum electrodynamics (QED), the Schwinger limit is a scale above which the electromagnetic field is expected to become nonlinear.

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Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.

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Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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In mathematics and physics, a soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave packet that maintains its shape while it propagates at a constant velocity.

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In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Spontaneous emission

Spontaneous emission is the process in which a quantum mechanical system (such as an atom, molecule or subatomic particle) transitions from an excited energy state to a lower energy state (e.g., its ground state) and emits a quantum in the form of a photon.

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Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

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Stochastic electrodynamics

Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) is an extension of the de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, with the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) playing a central role as the guiding pilot-wave.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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Structure formation

In physical cosmology, structure formation is the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and larger structures from small early density fluctuations.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.

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Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Term symbol

In quantum mechanics, the term symbol is an abbreviated description of the (total) angular momentum quantum numbers in a multi-electron atom (however, even a single electron can be described by a term symbol).

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The Quantum Vacuum: An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics

The Quantum Vacuum: An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics is a physics textbook authored by Peter W. Milonni in 1993.

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Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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Third law of thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: At absolute zero (zero kelvin) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy.

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Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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Time crystal

A time crystal or space-time crystal is a structure that repeats in time, as well as in space.

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Topological degeneracy

Topological degeneracy is a phenomenon in quantum many-body physics, that the ground state of a gapped many-body system becomes degenerate in the large system size limit, and that such a degeneracy cannot be lifted by any local perturbations as long as the system size is large.

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Topological order

In physics, topological order is a kind of order in the zero-temperature phase of matter (also known as quantum matter).

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In mathematics, a toroid is a surface of revolution with a hole in the middle, like a doughnut, forming a solid body.

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Two-state quantum system

In quantum mechanics, a two-state system (also known as a two-level system) is a quantum system that can exist in any quantum superposition of two independent (physically distinguishable) quantum states.

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Type-I superconductor

The interior of a bulk superconductor cannot be penetrated by a weak magnetic field, a phenomenon known as the Meissner effect.

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Type-II superconductor

In superconductivity, a type-II superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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Unitary operator

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a unitary operator is a surjective bounded operator on a Hilbert space preserving the inner product.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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Unruh effect

The Unruh effect (or sometimes Fulling–Davies–Unruh effect) is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe blackbody radiation where an inertial observer would observe none.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vacuum energy

Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe.

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Vacuum expectation value

In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.

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Vacuum permittivity

The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.

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Vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Vector boson

In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.

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Victor Weisskopf

Victor Frederick "Viki" Weisskopf (September 19, 1908 – April 22, 2002) was an Austrian-born American theoretical physicist.

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Virtual particle

In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.

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In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.

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W and Z bosons

The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.

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Walther Nernst

Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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Work (physics)

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

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A wormhole is a concept that represents a solution of the Einstein field equations: a non-trivial resolution of the Ehrenfest paradox structure linking separate points in spacetime.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-point_energy

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