96 relations: Absorbance, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Analytical chemistry, Astronomical spectroscopy, Atom, Atomic mass, Attenuation, Attenuation coefficient, Beer–Lambert law, Black body, Bolometer, Cauchy distribution, Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Complementary colors, Crystal, Cuvette, Densitometry, Density of states, Differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Electric field, Electromagnetic absorption by water, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electronic structure, Emission spectrum, Exoplanet, Fine-structure constant, Frequency, Globar, HITRAN, Hydrogen atom, Infrared gas analyzer, Infrared spectroscopy, Integral, Interferometry, Interstellar cloud, Io (moon), Jupiter, Klystron, Kramers–Kronig relations, Lamb shift, Laser, Laser absorption spectrometry, Light, Lyman-alpha forest, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Mercury cadmium telluride, Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal carbonyl, Microwave spectroscopy, ..., Molecular cloud, Molecular geometry, Molecular mass, Molecule, Multipass spectroscopic absorption cells, Noble gas, Normal distribution, Optics, Photodetector, Photodiode, Photoemission spectroscopy, Photomultiplier, Photon, Photothermal optical microscopy, Photothermal spectroscopy, Pressure, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Refractive index, Remote sensing, Rotational spectroscopy, Rotational–vibrational coupling, Scale height, Semiconductor, Spectral density, Spectral line, Spectral resolution, Spectrometer, Spectroscopy, Superheterodyne receiver, Synchrotron radiation, Temperature, Total absorption spectroscopy, Transition dipole moment, Transparency and translucency, Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, Vacuum, Visible spectrum, Wavelength, X-ray absorption fine structure, X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray tube. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
A bolometer is a device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.
The Cauchy distribution, named after Augustin Cauchy, is a continuous probability distribution.
Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a highly sensitive optical spectroscopic technique that enables measurement of absolute optical extinction by samples that scatter and absorb light.
Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A cuvette (French: cuvette.
Densitometry is the quantitative measurement of optical density in light-sensitive materials, such as photographic paper or photographic film, due to exposure to light.
In solid-state and condensed matter physics, the density of states (DOS) of a system describes the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level available to be occupied.
In atmospheric chemistry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is used to measure concentrations of trace gases.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by water depends on the state of the water.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
In quantum chemistry, electronic structure is the state of motion of electrons in an electrostatic field created by stationary nuclei.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A Globar is used as thermal light source for infrared spectroscopy.
HITRAN - HITRAN (an acronym for High Resolution Transmission) is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in gaseous media including the atmosphere, laboratory cells, etc.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
An infrared gas analyzer measures trace gases by determining the absorption of an emitted infrared light source through a certain air sample.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
An interstellar cloud is generally an accumulation of gas, plasma, and dust in our and other galaxies.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian,Pond, Norman H. "The Tube Guys".
The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.
In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a difference in energy between two energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laser absorption spectrometry (LAS) refers to techniques that use lasers to assess the concentration or amount of a species in gas phase by absorption spectrometry (AS).
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In astronomical spectroscopy, the Lyman-alpha forest is a series of absorption lines in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars arising from the Lyman-alpha electron transition of the neutral hydrogen atom.
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.
HgCdTe or mercury cadmium telluride (also cadmium mercury telluride, MCT, MerCad Telluride, MerCadTel, MerCaT or CMT) is an alloy of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions.
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
Microwave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Multiple-pass or long path absorption cells are commonly used in spectroscopy to measure low-concentration components or to observe weak spectra in gases or liquids.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
Photoemission spectroscopy (PES), also known as photoelectron spectroscopy, refers to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photothermal optical microscopy / "photothermal single particle microscopy" is a technique that is based on detection of non-fluorescent labels.
Photothermal spectroscopy is a group of high sensitivity spectroscopy techniques used to measure optical absorption and thermal characteristics of a sample.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Rotational spectroscopy is concerned with the measurement of the energies of transitions between quantized rotational states of molecules in the gas phase.
Rotational–vibrational coupling occurs when the rotation frequency of an object is close to or identical to a natural internal vibration frequency.
In various scientific contexts, a scale height is a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e (approximately 2.72, the base of natural logarithms).
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
The spectral resolution of a spectrograph, or, more generally, of a frequency spectrum, is a measure of its ability to resolve features in the electromagnetic spectrum.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A superheterodyne receiver, often shortened to superhet, is a type of radio receiver that uses frequency mixing to convert a received signal to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF) which can be more conveniently processed than the original carrier frequency.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Total absorption spectroscopy is a measurement technique that allows the measurement of the gamma radiation emitted in the different nuclear gamma transitions that may take place in the daughter nucleus after its unstable parent has decayed by means of the beta decay process.
The transition dipole moment or transition moment, usually denoted \scriptstyle for a transition between an initial state, \scriptstyle, and a final state, \scriptstyle, is the electric dipole moment associated with the transition between the two states.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a technique for measuring the concentration of certain species such as methane, water vapor and many more, in a gaseous mixture using tunable diode lasers and laser absorption spectrometry.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
UKIRT, the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope, is a 3.8 metre (150 inch) infrared reflecting telescope, the second largest dedicated infrared (1 to 30 micrometres) telescope in the world.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is a specific structure observed in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).
X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), also known as near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), is a type of absorption spectroscopy that indicates the features in the X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of condensed matter due to the photoabsorption cross section for electronic transitions from an atomic core level to final states in the energy region of 50–100 eV above the selected atomic core level ionization energy, where the wavelength of the photoelectron is larger than the interatomic distance between the absorbing atom and its first neighbour atoms.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used technique for determining the local geometric and/or electronic structure of matter.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
Absorbtion spectroscopy, Absorption Spectrum, Absorption curve, Absorption maxima, Absorption maximum, Absorption spectra, Absorption spectrometry, Absorption spectrum, Crystal absorption spectra, Dark-line spectrum, Excitation wavelength, Transmission spectroscopy.