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Spectroscopy

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. [1]

182 relations: Absorption spectroscopy, Acoustic resonance spectroscopy, Albert Einstein, Analytical chemistry, Andrew Fraknoi, Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, Applied Physics Letters, Applied spectroscopy, Astronomical object, Astronomical spectroscopy, Atom, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Atomic emission spectroscopy, Atomic nucleus, Atomic spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Biomedical spectroscopy, Black body, Black-body radiation, Bohr model, Brian Orr, Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Circular dichroism, Coherence (physics), Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, Coherent spectroscopy, Cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, Color, Composite material, Compressed sensing, Compton scattering, Coronium, CRC Press, Crystal structure, Crystallography, Cure monitoring, David Morrison (astrophysicist), Deep-level transient spectroscopy, Density of states, Dielectric spectroscopy, Diffuse series, Dual-polarization interferometry, Dye, Dynamic mechanical analysis, Elastic scattering, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron energy loss spectroscopy, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Electron phenomenological spectroscopy, ..., Electron spectroscopy, Emission spectrum, Experiment, F. J. Duarte, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Force spectroscopy, Fourier transform, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier-transform spectroscopy, Fraunhofer lines, Frequency, Fundamental series, Gamma ray, Gamma spectroscopy, Gustav Kirchhoff, Hadron spectroscopy, Hydrogen spectral series, Hyperspectral imaging, Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, Inelastic neutron scattering, Inelastic scattering, Infrared spectroscopy, Ink, Ion source, Isaac Newton, Isotope, Joseph von Fraunhofer, Kinetic energy, Lamb shift, Laser, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, List of spectroscopists, Maser, Mass spectrometry, Matter, Matter wave, Max Planck, Mössbauer effect, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Metamerism (color), Microwave spectroscopy, Mineralogy, Molecular vibration, Molecule, Multivariate optical computing, Nature Photonics, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Neon lighting, Neutron, Neutron spectroscopy, Neutron spin echo, Niels Bohr, Nitrogen dioxide, Noble gas, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Operando spectroscopy, Optical fiber, Optics, Paint, Parity (physics), Pendulum, Phosphor, Photoacoustic spectroscopy, Photoelectric effect, Photoemission spectroscopy, Photon, Photothermal spectroscopy, Physical chemistry, Physical property, Planck constant, Planetary science, Principal series representation, Prism, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Radiation, Raman optical activity, Raman scattering, Raman spectroscopy, Rayleigh scattering, Reaction intermediate, Reflectance, Refractive index, Remote sensing, Reports on Progress in Physics, Resonance, Robert Bunsen, Rotational spectroscopy, Royal Society, Saturated spectroscopy, Scanning tunneling spectroscopy, Scattering theory, Semiconductor, Sharp series, Soft matter, Sound, Spectral line, Spectral power distribution, Spectral theory, Spectrogram, Spectrograph, Spectrometer, Spectrophotometry, Spectroscopic notation, Spectrum, Spectrum analyzer, Spin (physics), Stationary state, Telescope, Temperature, Terahertz spectroscopy and technology, Thermal infrared spectroscopy, Time stretch analog-to-digital converter, Time-resolved spectroscopy, Transient grating spectroscopy, Tunable laser, Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Velocity, Vibrational circular dichroism, Video spectroscopy, Visible spectrum, Wavelength, William Hyde Wollaston, Wolfgang Demtröder, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy. Expand index (132 more) »

Absorption spectroscopy

Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.

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Acoustic resonance spectroscopy

Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) is a method of spectroscopy in the acoustic region, primarily the sonic and ultrasonic regions.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.

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Andrew Fraknoi

Andrew Fraknoi (born 1948) is a retired professor of astronomy recognized for his lifetime of work using everyday language to make astronomy more accessible and popular for both students and the general public.

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Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry

The Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry is an annual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews, covering all aspects of analytical chemistry, including measurement science, analytical methods, materials science, chemicals, and processes.

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Applied Physics Letters

Applied Physics Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by the American Institute of Physics.

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Applied spectroscopy

Applied spectroscopy is the application of various spectroscopic methods for detection and identification of different elements/compounds in solving problems in the fields of forensics, medicine, oil industry, atmospheric chemistry, pharmacology, etc.

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Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

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Astronomical spectroscopy

Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.

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Atomic emission spectroscopy

Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is a method of chemical analysis that uses the intensity of light emitted from a flame, plasma, arc, or spark at a particular wavelength to determine the quantity of an element in a sample.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic spectroscopy

Atomic spectroscopy is the study of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms.

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Auger electron spectroscopy

Hanford scientist uses an Auger electron spectrometer to determine the elemental composition of surfaces. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES; pronounced in French) is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials science.

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Biomedical spectroscopy

Biomedical spectroscopy is a multidisciplinary research field involving spectroscopic tools for applications in the field of biomedical science.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Brian Orr

Brian J. Orr is an Australian scientist known for his contributions to laser spectroscopy and optical parametric oscillators.

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Cavity ring-down spectroscopy

Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a highly sensitive optical spectroscopic technique that enables measurement of absolute optical extinction by samples that scatter and absorb light.

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Circular dichroism

Circular dichroism (CD) is dichroism involving circularly polarized light, i.e., the differential absorption of left- and right-handed light.

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Coherence (physics)

In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.

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Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, also called Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS), is a form of spectroscopy used primarily in chemistry, physics and related fields.

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Coherent spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of light through light-matter interactions.

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Cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy

Cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS) is a subset of the analytical technique known as atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS).

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Color

Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Compressed sensing

Compressed sensing (also known as compressive sensing, compressive sampling, or sparse sampling) is a signal processing technique for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal, by finding solutions to underdetermined linear systems.

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Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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Coronium

Coronium, also called newtonium, was the name of a suggested chemical element, hypothesised in the 19th century.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystallography

Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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Cure monitoring

Real-time computing of cure monitoring is an essential component for the control of the manufacturing process of composite materials.

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David Morrison (astrophysicist)

David Morrison (born 26 June 1940) is an American astronomer, a senior scientist at the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California.

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Deep-level transient spectroscopy

Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is an experimental tool for studying electrically active defects (known as charge carrier traps) in semiconductors.

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Density of states

In solid-state and condensed matter physics, the density of states (DOS) of a system describes the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level available to be occupied.

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Dielectric spectroscopy

Dielectric spectroscopy (which falls in a subcategory of impedance spectroscopy) measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency.

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Diffuse series

The diffuse series is a series of spectral lines in the atomic emission spectrum caused when electrons jump between the lowest p orbital and d orbitals of an atom.

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Dual-polarization interferometry

Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.

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Dye

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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Dynamic mechanical analysis

Dynamic mechanical analysis (abbreviated DMA, also known as dynamic mechanical spectroscopy) is a technique used to study and characterize materials.

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Elastic scattering

Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron energy loss spectroscopy

In electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) a material is exposed to a beam of electrons with a known, narrow range of kinetic energies.

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Electron paramagnetic resonance

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

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Electron phenomenological spectroscopy

Electron phenomenological spectroscopy (EPS) is based on the correlations between integral optical characteristics and properties of substance as a single whole quantum continuum: spectrum-properties and color-properties.

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Electron spectroscopy

Electron spectroscopy is an analytical technique to study the electronic structure and its dynamics in atoms and molecules.

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Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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Experiment

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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F. J. Duarte

Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte (born c. 1954) is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers and quantum optics.

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Fluorescence spectroscopy

Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorometry or spectrofluorometry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyzes fluorescence from a sample.

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Force spectroscopy

Force spectroscopy is a set of techniques for the study of the interactions and the binding forces between individual molecules.

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Fourier transform

The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.

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Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission of a solid, liquid or gas.

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Fourier-transform spectroscopy

Fourier-transform spectroscopy is a measurement technique whereby spectra are collected based on measurements of the coherence of a radiative source, using time-domain or space-domain measurements of the electromagnetic radiation or other type of radiation.

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Fraunhofer lines

In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826).

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Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Fundamental series

The fundamental series is a set of spectra lines in a set caused by transition between d and f orbitals in atoms.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gamma spectroscopy

Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the quantitative study of the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources, in such as the nuclear industry, geochemical investigation, and astrophysics.

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Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

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Hadron spectroscopy

Hadron spectroscopy is the subfield of particle physics that studies the masses and decays of hadrons.

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Hydrogen spectral series

The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen is divided into a number of spectral series, with wavelengths given by the Rydberg formula.

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Hyperspectral imaging

Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), also referred to as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), is an analytical technique used for the detection of chemical elements.

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Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is an experimental tool for studying the vibrations of molecular adsorbates on metal oxides.

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Inelastic neutron scattering

Inelastic neutron scattering is an experimental technique commonly used in condensed matter research to study atomic and molecular motion as well as magnetic and crystal field excitations.

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Inelastic scattering

In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Ink

Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

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Ion source

An ion source is a device that creates atomic and molecular ions.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Joseph von Fraunhofer

Joseph Ritter von Fraunhofer (6 March 1787 – 7 June 1826) was a Bavarian physicist and optical lens manufacturer.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Lamb shift

In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a difference in energy between two energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy.

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Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source.

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List of spectroscopists

Articles about notable spectroscopists.

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Maser

A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Matter wave

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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Mössbauer effect

The Mössbauer effect, or recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence, is a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958.

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Mössbauer spectroscopy

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.

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Metamerism (color)

In colorimetry, metamerism is a perceived matching of the colors with different (nonmatching) spectral power distributions.

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Microwave spectroscopy

Microwave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter.

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Mineralogy

Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

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Molecular vibration

A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Multivariate optical computing

Multivariate Optical Computing, also known as Molecular Factor Computing, is an approach to the development of spectroscopic instruments, particularly for industrial applications such as process analytical support.

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Nature Photonics

Nature Photonics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Near-infrared spectroscopy

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).

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Neon lighting

Neon lighting consists of brightly glowing, electrified glass tubes or bulbs that contain rarefied neon or other gases.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron spectroscopy

Neutron scattering is a spectroscopic method of measuring the atomic and magnetic motions of atoms.

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Neutron spin echo

Neutron spin echo spectroscopy is an inelastic neutron scattering technique invented by Ferenc Mezei in the 1970s, and developed in collaboration with John Hayter.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

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Operando spectroscopy

Operando spectroscopy is an analytical methodology wherein the spectroscopic characterization of materials undergoing reaction is coupled simultaneously with measurement of catalytic activity and selectivity.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Paint

Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.

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Parity (physics)

In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.

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Pendulum

A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.

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Phosphor

A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

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Photoacoustic spectroscopy

Photoacoustic spectroscopy is the measurement of the effect of absorbed electromagnetic energy (particularly of light) on matter by means of acoustic detection.

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Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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Photoemission spectroscopy

Photoemission spectroscopy (PES), also known as photoelectron spectroscopy, refers to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photothermal spectroscopy

Photothermal spectroscopy is a group of high sensitivity spectroscopy techniques used to measure optical absorption and thermal characteristics of a sample.

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Physical chemistry

Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.

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Physical property

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Principal series representation

In mathematics, the principal series representations of certain kinds of topological group G occur in the case where G is not a compact group.

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Prism

In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.

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Pure and Applied Chemistry

Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

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Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Radiation

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Raman optical activity

Raman optical activity (ROA) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that is reliant on the difference in intensity of Raman scattered right and left circularly polarised light due to molecular chirality.

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Raman scattering

Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.

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Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

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Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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Reaction intermediate

A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.

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Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.

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Reports on Progress in Physics

Reports on Progress in Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.

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Resonance

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

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Robert Bunsen

Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.

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Rotational spectroscopy

Rotational spectroscopy is concerned with the measurement of the energies of transitions between quantized rotational states of molecules in the gas phase.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Saturated spectroscopy

Saturated spectroscopy is the method by which the exact energy of the hyperfine transitions within an atom can be found.

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Scanning tunneling spectroscopy

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), an extension of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), is used to provide information about the density of electrons in a sample as a function of their energy.

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Scattering theory

In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Sharp series

The sharp series is a series of spectral lines in the atomic emission spectrum caused when electrons jump between the lowest p orbital and s orbitals of an atom.

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Soft matter

Soft matter or soft condensed matter is a subfield of condensed matter comprising a variety of physical systems that are deformed or structurally altered by thermal or mechanical stress of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations.

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Sound

In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spectral power distribution

In radiometry, photometry and color science, a spectral power distribution (SPD) measurement describes the power per unit area per unit wavelength of an illumination (radiant exitance).

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Spectral theory

In mathematics, spectral theory is an inclusive term for theories extending the eigenvector and eigenvalue theory of a single square matrix to a much broader theory of the structure of operators in a variety of mathematical spaces.

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Spectrogram

A spectrogram is a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies of sound or other signal as they vary with time.

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Spectrograph

A spectrograph is an instrument that separates light into a frequency spectrum and records the signal using a camera.

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Spectrometer

A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.

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Spectrophotometry

In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.

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Spectroscopic notation

Spectroscopic notation provides a way to specify atomic ionization states, as well as atomic and molecular orbitals.

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Spectrum

A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.

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Spectrum analyzer

A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Stationary state

A stationary state is a quantum state with all observables independent of time.

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Telescope

A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Terahertz spectroscopy and technology

Terahertz spectroscopy detects and controls properties of matter with electromagnetic fields that are in the frequency range between a few hundred gigahertz and several terahertz (abbreviated as THz).

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Thermal infrared spectroscopy

Thermal infrared spectroscopy (TIR spectroscopy) is the subset of infrared spectroscopy that deals with radiation emitted in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Time stretch analog-to-digital converter

The time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (TS-ADC), also known as the time stretch enhanced recorder (TiSER), is an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system that has the capability of digitizing very high bandwidth signals that cannot be captured by conventional electronic ADCs.

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Time-resolved spectroscopy

In physics and physical chemistry, time-resolved spectroscopy is the study of dynamic processes in materials or chemical compounds by means of spectroscopic techniques.

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Transient grating spectroscopy

Transient grating spectroscopy is an optical technique used to measure quasiparticle propagation.

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Tunable laser

A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner.

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Ultrafast laser spectroscopy

Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).

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Ultrasound

Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) refers to the measurement of kinetic energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted by molecules which have absorbed ultraviolet photons, in order to determine molecular orbital energies in the valence region.

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Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy

Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.

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Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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Vibrational circular dichroism

Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is a spectroscopic technique which detects differences in attenuation of left and right circularly polarized light passing through a sample.

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Video spectroscopy

Video spectroscopy combines spectroscopic measurements with video technique.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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William Hyde Wollaston

William Hyde Wollaston (6 August 1766 – 22 December 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium.

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Wolfgang Demtröder

Wolfgang Demtröder (b. 5 September 1931 in Attendorn) is a German physicist and spectroscopist.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition at the parts per thousand range, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material.

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X-ray spectroscopy

X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.

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Atomic line, Atomic line spectra, Atomic spectra, Atomic spectral line, Electromagnetic spectroscopy, Emission spectrochemical analysis, Fingerprint Region, Fingerprint region, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser spectroscopy, Molecular spectroscopy, Optical Spectroscopy, Optical spectroscopy, Spectrochemical Analysis, Spectrographic analysis, Spectrography, Spectrology, Spectroscopic, Spectroscopic analysis, Spectroscopic data, Spectroscopist, Spectroscopists.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectroscopy

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