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Analytical chemistry

Index Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. [1]

144 relations: Acid test (gold), Ampere, Amperometry, Analogue filter, Analyte, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Bandwidth (signal processing), Bioanalysis, Biochemistry, Blood, Boltzmann constant, Caesium, Calibration curve, Carrier generation and recombination, Chemical industry, Chemical ionization, Chemistry, Chemometrics, Chromatography, Clinical chemistry, Compact fluorescent lamp, Computer hardware, Correlation and dependence, Coulometry, Design of experiments, Detection limit, Digital filter, Distillation, DNA microarray, DNA profiling, DNA sequencing, Dual-polarization interferometry, Dynamic range, Electric current, Electric field, Electric motor, Electric potential, Electric power transmission, Electrochemical cell, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron, Electron microscope, Electrophoresis, Elemental analysis, Elementary charge, Emission spectrum, Ensemble average (statistical mechanics), Environmental analysis, Environmental chemistry, ..., Environmental noise, Extraction (chemistry), Field flow fractionation, Food science, Forensic chemistry, Forensic science, Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Genomics, Gold, Gustav Kirchhoff, Heat, Histology, Hyphen, Inductively coupled plasma, Infrared spectroscopy, Integrated circuit, Internal standard, Ion selective electrode, Isotope dilution, Justus von Liebig, Kastle–Meyer test, Lab-on-a-chip, Laser ablation, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, Linear range, Lipidomics, Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, List of chemical analysis methods, List of materials analysis methods, Lock-in amplifier, Magnetic field, Mass-to-charge ratio, Matrix (chemical analysis), Mössbauer spectroscopy, Measurement uncertainty, Metabolomics, Metrology, Microanalysis, Microscale chemistry, Microscopy, Modulation, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Noise (electronics), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Optical microscope, Photoemission spectroscopy, Photon, Poisson distribution, Poisson point process, Precipitation (chemistry), Propagation of uncertainty, Proteomics, Quadrupole ion trap, Quadrupole mass analyzer, Qualitative inorganic analysis, Quality assurance, Quality of analytical results, Quantification (science), Quantitative analysis (chemistry), Raman spectroscopy, Robert Bunsen, Root mean square, Rubidium, Scanning probe microscopy, Sector mass spectrometer, Sensory analysis, Separation process, Shielded cable, Signal-to-noise ratio, Slash (punctuation), Small molecule, Software, Spectral density, Spectroscopy, Standard addition, Temperature, Thermodynamics, Time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Total analysis system, Transcriptomics technologies, Transistor, Tunable laser, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Vibration isolation, Virtual instrumentation, Volt, Voltammetry, Wet chemistry, White noise, Wireless, Working range, X-ray fluorescence. Expand index (94 more) »

Acid test (gold)

An acid test is any qualitative chemical or metallurgical assay which uses acid; most commonly, and historically, the use of a strong acid to distinguish gold from base metals.

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The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.

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Amperometry in chemistry is detection of ions in a solution based on electric current or changes in electric current.

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Analogue filter

Analogue filters are a basic building block of signal processing much used in electronics.

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An analyte, component (in clinical chemistry), or chemical species is a substance or chemical constituent that is of interest in an analytical procedure.

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Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.

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Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

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Bioanalysis is a sub-discipline of analytical chemistry covering the quantitative measurement of xenobiotics (drugs and their metabolites, and biological molecules in unnatural locations or concentrations) and biotics (macromolecules, proteins, DNA, large molecule drugs, metabolites) in biological systems.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Calibration curve

In analytical chemistry, a calibration curve, also known as a standard curve, is a general method for determining the concentration of a substance in an unknown sample by comparing the unknown to a set of standard samples of known concentration.

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Carrier generation and recombination

In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

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Chemical ionization

Chemical ionization (CI) is a soft ionization technique used in mass spectrometry.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chemometrics is the science of extracting information from chemical systems by data-driven means.

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Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.

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Clinical chemistry

Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

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Compact fluorescent lamp

A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb; some types fit into light fixtures designed for incandescent bulbs.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Coulometry is the name given to a group of techniques in analytical chemistry that determine the amount of matter transformed during an electrolysis reaction by measuring the amount of electricity (in coulombs) consumed or produced.

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Design of experiments

The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation.

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Detection limit

In analytical chemistry, the detection limit, lower limit of detection, or LOD (limit of detection), is the lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance (a blank value) with a stated confidence level (generally 99%).

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Digital filter

In signal processing, a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal.

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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Dual-polarization interferometry

Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.

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Dynamic range

Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electric motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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Electric power transmission

Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.

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Electrochemical cell

An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.

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Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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Elemental analysis

Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition.

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Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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Ensemble average (statistical mechanics)

In statistical mechanics, the ensemble average is defined as the mean of a quantity that is a function of the microstate of a system (the ensemble of possible states), according to the distribution of the system on its micro-states in this ensemble.

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Environmental analysis

Environmental analysis is the use of analytical chemistry and other techniques to study the environment.

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Environmental chemistry

Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.

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Environmental noise

Environmental noise is the summary of noise pollution from outside, caused by transport, industrial and recreational activities.

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Extraction (chemistry)

Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix.

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Field flow fractionation

Field-flow fractionation, abbreviated FFF, is a separation technique where a field is applied to a fluid suspension or solution pumped through a long and narrow channel, perpendicular to the direction of flow, to cause separation of the particles present in the fluid, depending on their differing "mobilities" under the force exerted by the field.

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Food science

Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.

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Forensic chemistry

Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance

Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a type of mass analyzer (or mass spectrometer) for determining the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of ions based on the cyclotron frequency of the ions in a fixed magnetic field.

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Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.

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Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

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Inductively coupled plasma

An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) or transformer coupled plasma (TCP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Internal standard

An internal standard in analytical chemistry is a chemical substance that is added in a constant amount to samples, the blank and calibration standards in a chemical analysis.

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Ion selective electrode

An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential.

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Isotope dilution

Isotope dilution analysis is a method of determining the quantity of chemical substances.

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Justus von Liebig

Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.

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Kastle–Meyer test

The Kastle–Meyer test is a presumptive blood test, first described in 1903, in which the chemical indicator phenolphthalein is used to detect the possible presence of hemoglobin.

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A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip") of only millimeters to a few square centimeters to achieve automation and high-throughput screening.

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Laser ablation

Laser ablation is the process of removing material from a solid (or occasionally liquid) surface by irradiating it with a laser beam.

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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source.

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Linear range

The linear range is that range of input or output values for which an electronic amplifier produces an output signal that is a direct, linear function of the input signal.

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Lipidomics is the large-scale study of pathways and networks of cellular lipids in biological systems The word "lipidome" is used to describe the complete lipid profile within a cell, tissue, organism, or ecosystem and is a subset of the "metabolome" which also includes the three other major classes of biological molecules: proteins/amino-acids, sugars and nucleic acids.

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Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS).

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List of chemical analysis methods

A list of chemical analysis methods with acronyms.

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List of materials analysis methods

List of materials analysis methods.

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Lock-in amplifier

A lock-in amplifier is a type of amplifier that can extract a signal with a known carrier wave from an extremely noisy environment.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Mass-to-charge ratio

The mass-to-charge ratio (m/Q) is a physical quantity that is most widely used in the electrodynamics of charged particles, e.g. in electron optics and ion optics.

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Matrix (chemical analysis)

In chemical analysis, matrix refers to the components of a sample other than the analyte of interest.

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Mössbauer spectroscopy

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.

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Measurement uncertainty

In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.

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Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites, the small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism.

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Metrology is the science of measurement.

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Microanalysis is the chemical identification and quantitative analysis of very small amounts of chemical substances (generally less than 10 mg or 1 ml) or very small surfaces of material (generally less than 1 cm2).

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Microscale chemistry

Microscale chemistry (often referred to as small-scale chemistry, in German: '''Chemie im Mikromaßstab''') is an analytical method and also a teaching method widely used at school and at university levels, working with small quantities of chemical substances.

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Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

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Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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Noise (electronics)

In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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Photoemission spectroscopy

Photoemission spectroscopy (PES), also known as photoelectron spectroscopy, refers to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Poisson distribution

In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution (in English often rendered), named after French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson, is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space if these events occur with a known constant rate and independently of the time since the last event.

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Poisson point process

In probability, statistics and related fields, a Poisson point process or Poisson process (also called a Poisson random measure, Poisson random point field or Poisson point field) is a type of random mathematical object that consists of points randomly located on a mathematical space.

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

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Propagation of uncertainty

In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties (or errors, more specifically random errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them.

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Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.

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Quadrupole ion trap

A quadrupole ion trap is a type of ion trap that uses dynamic electric fields to trap charged particles.

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Quadrupole mass analyzer

The quadrupole mass analyzer (QMS) is one type of mass analyzer used in mass spectrometry.

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Qualitative inorganic analysis

Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds.

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Quality assurance

Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO 9000 defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled".

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Quality of analytical results

Quality of measurements made in chemistry and other areas is an important issue in today’s world as measurements influence quality of life, cross-border trade and commerce.

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Quantification (science)

In mathematics and empirical science, quantification (or quantitation) is the act of counting and measuring that maps human sense observations and experiences into quantities.

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Quantitative analysis (chemistry)

In analytical chemistry, quantitative analysis is the determination of the absolute or relative abundance (often expressed as a concentration) of one, several or all particular substance(s) present in a sample.

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Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

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Robert Bunsen

Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.

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Root mean square

In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).

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Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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Scanning probe microscopy

Scanning probe microscope (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen.

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Sector mass spectrometer

A sector instrument is a general term for a class of mass spectrometer that uses a static electric or magnetic sector or some combination of the two (separately in space) as a mass analyzer.

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Sensory analysis

Sensory analysis (or sensory evaluation) is a scientific discipline that applies principles of experimental design and statistical analysis to the use of human senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing) for the purposes of evaluating consumer products.

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Separation process

A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two or more distinct product mixtures.

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Shielded cable

A shielded cable is an electrical cable of one or more insulated conductors enclosed by a common conductive layer.

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Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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Slash (punctuation)

The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.

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Small molecule

Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Standard addition

The method of standard addition is a type of quantitative analysis approach often used in analytical chemistry whereby the standard is added directly to the aliquots of analyzed sample.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) is a method of mass spectrometry in which an ion's mass-to-charge ratio is determined via a time of flight measurement.

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Total analysis system

Total Analysis System (TAS) describes a device that automates and includes all necessary steps for chemical analysis of a sample e.g. sampling, sample transport, filtration, dilution, chemical reactions, separation and detection.

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Transcriptomics technologies

Transcriptomics technologies are the techniques used to study an organism’s transcriptome, the sum of all of its RNA transcripts.

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Tunable laser

A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner.

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Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy

Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.

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Vibration isolation

Vibration isolation is the process of isolating an object, such as a piece of equipment, from the source of vibrations.

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Virtual instrumentation

Virtual instrumentation is the use of customizable software and modular measurement hardware to create user-defined measurement systems, called virtual instruments.

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The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Voltammetry is a category of electroanalytical methods used in analytical chemistry and various industrial processes.

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Wet chemistry

Wet chemistry is a form of analytical chemistry that uses classical methods such as observation to analyze materials.

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White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.

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Working range

Each instrument used in analytical chemistry has a useful working range.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_chemistry

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