101 relations: Absinthe, Accessory pigment, Acetone, Acrylate, Adenosine triphosphate, Aldehyde, Algae, Ancient Greek, Angewandte Chemie, Anthocyanin, Bacteriochlorophyll, Biological pigment, Chemical formula, Chemiosmosis, Chlorin, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll c, Chlorophyll d, Chlorophyll f, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Chlorophyllin, Chloroplast, Cyanobacteria, Deep chlorophyll maximum, Diethyl ether, Diffuse sky radiation, E number, Edinburgh Napier University, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron transport chain, Energy, Ethyl group, Etiolation, Förster resonance energy transfer, Flowering plant, Fluorescence, Glycine, Grow light, Hans Fischer, Hemoglobin, Ian Fleming (chemist), Iron deficiency (plant disorder), Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, Journal of Chemical Education, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Leaf, Ligand, Light, Magnesium, ..., Magnesium deficiency (plants), Marine Biological Laboratory, Methanol, Methyl group, Molar attenuation coefficient, Nanometre, Nature (journal), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrogen deficiency, Non-vascular plant, Online Etymology Dictionary, P680, P700, Photosensitizer, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic reaction centre, Photosystem, Photosystem I, Photosystem II, Phytol, Phytoplankton, Pierre Joseph Pelletier, Pigment, Plant, Plant senescence, Porphyrin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protochlorophyllide, Quercus coccifera, Radical (chemistry), Red, Redox, Richard Willstätter, Robert Burns Woodward, Science (journal), Solution, Stereochemistry, Stromatolite, Succinyl-CoA, Tetrahedron (journal), Tetrapyrrole, Texas A&M University, The Biological Bulletin, Thriving, Thylakoid, University of Bristol, University of California Museum of Paleontology, University of Cincinnati, Uroporphyrinogen III, Vegetable oil, Vinyl group. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Absinthe is historically described as a distilled, highly alcoholic (45–74% ABV / 90–148 U.S. proof) beverage.
Accessory pigments are light-absorbing compounds, found in photosynthetic organisms, that work in conjunction with chlorophyll ''a''.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acrylates are the salts, esters, and conjugate bases of acrylic acid and its derivatives.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Bacteriochlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments that occur in various phototrophic bacteria.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient.
In organic chemistry, a chlorin is a large heterocyclic aromatic ring consisting, at the core, of three pyrroles and one pyrroline coupled through four CH- linkages.
Chlorophyll a is a specific form of chlorophyll used in oxygenic photosynthesis. It absorbs most energy from wavelengths of violet-blue and orange-red light. It also reflects green-yellow light, and as such contributes to the observed green color of most plants. This photosynthetic pigment is essential for photosynthesis in eukaryotes, cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes because of its role as primary electron donor in the electron transport chain. Chlorophyll a also transfers resonance energy in the antenna complex, ending in the reaction center where specific chlorophylls P680 and P700 are located.
Chlorophyll b is a form of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll b helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy. It is more soluble than chlorophyll ''a'' in polar solvents because of its carbonyl group. Its color is yellow, and it primarily absorbs blue light. In land plants, the light-harvesting antennae around photosystem II contain the majority of chlorophyll b. Hence, in shade-adapted chloroplasts, which have an increased ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I, there is a higher ratio of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a. This is adaptive, as increasing chlorophyll b increases the range of wavelengths absorbed by the shade chloroplasts.
Chlorophyll c is a form of chlorophyll found in certain marine algae, including the photosynthetic Chromista (e.g. diatoms, brown algae) and dinoflagellates.
Chlorophyll d is a form of chlorophyll, identified by Harold Strain and Winston Manning in 1943.
Chlorophyll f is a type form of chlorophyll that absorbs further in the red (infrared light) than other chlorophylls.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is light re-emitted by chlorophyll molecules during return from excited to non-excited states.
Chlorophyllin refers to any one of a group of closely related water-soluble salts that are semi-synthetic derivatives of chlorophyll, differing in the identity of the cations associated with the anion.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diffuse sky radiation is solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by molecules or particulates in the atmosphere.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
Edinburgh Napier University is a public university in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Etiolation is a process in flowering plants grown in partial or complete absence of light.
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
A grow light or plant light is an artificial light source, generally an electric light, designed to stimulate plant growth by emitting a light appropriate for photosynthesis.
Hans Fischer (27 July 1881 – 31 March 1945) was a German organic chemist and the recipient of the 1930 Nobel Prize for Chemistry "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin.".
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Ian Fleming (born 1935) is an English organic chemist, and an emeritus professor of the University of Cambridge, and an emeritus fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge.
Iron (Fe) deficiency is a plant disorder also known as "lime-induced chlorosis".
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (30 June 1795 – 5 May 1877) was a French pharmacist.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is a detrimental plant disorder that occurs most often in strongly acidic, light, sandy soils, where magnesium can be easily leached away.
The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is an international center for research and education in biological and environmental science.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
All plants require sufficient supplies of macronutrients for healthy growth, and nitrogen (N) is a nutrient that is commonly in limited supply.
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
P680, or Photosystem II primary donor, (where P stands for pigment) refers to either of the two special chlorophyll dimers (also named special pairs), PD1 or PD2.
P700, or photosystem I primary donor, (where P stands for pigment) is the reaction-center chlorophyll ''a'' molecule in association with photosystem I. Its absorption spectrum peaks at 700 nm.
A photosensitizer is a molecule that produces a chemical change in another molecule in a photochemical process.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A photosynthetic reaction centre is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis.
Photosystems are functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons.
Photosystem I (PS I, or plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase) is the second photosystem in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae, plants, and some bacteria.
Photosystem II (or water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase) is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis.
Phytol is an acyclic diterpene alcohol that can be used as a precursor for the manufacture of synthetic forms of vitamin E and vitamin K1.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant senescence is the process of aging in plants.
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Protochlorophyllide,KEGG compound database entry or monovinyl protochlorophyllide, is an immediate precursor of chlorophyll ''a'' that lacks the phytol side-chain of chlorophyll.
Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak tree in the ''Quercus'' section ''Cerris''.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Richard Martin Willstätter, (13 August 1872 – 3 August 1942) was a German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917 – July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρῶμα strōma "layer, stratum" (GEN στρώματος strōmatos), and λίθος lithos "rock") are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Succinyl-Coenzyme A, abbreviated as Succinyl-CoA or SucCoA, is a combination of succinic acid and coenzyme A.
Tetrahedron is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of organic chemistry.
Tetrapyrroles are a class of chemical compounds that contain four pyrrole or pyrrole-like rings.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
The Biological Bulletin is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of biology.
Thriving is a condition beyond mere survival, implying growth and positive development.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.
The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) is a paleontology museum located on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.
Uroporphyrinogen III is a tetrapyrrole, the first macrocyclic intermediate in the biosynthesis of heme, chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and siroheme.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
In chemistry, vinyl or ethenyl is the functional group with the formula −CH.
C35H28O5N4Mg, C35H30O5N4Mg, C54H70O6N4Mg, C55H70O6N4Mg, C55H72O5N4Mg, Chlorafil, Chlorophil, Chlorophyl, Chlorophylls, Cholorophyl, Cholorophyll, Chorophyll, Chromule, Clorofill, Clorophyl, E140 (E number), Leaf green, Leafgreen.