272 relations: Absorption spectroscopy, Academic Press, Accessory pigment, Action spectrum, Adenosine triphosphate, Algae, Allotropes of oxygen, Amino acid, Ammonia, Andrew Benson, Animal, Anoxygenic photosynthesis, Archaea, Archean, Arid, Arsenate, Arsenite, Artificial photosynthesis, Astrobiology Magazine, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric chemistry, ATP synthase, Bacteriorhodopsin, Benjamin Cummings, Benzoquinone, Biomass, Biomass (ecology), Blue, Body plan, Botany (journal), Brown algae, C. B. van Niel, C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation, Cactus, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon fixation, Carbonic anhydrase, Carboxysome, Carotene, Carotenoid, Catalysis, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Charles Reid Barnes, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical energy, ..., Chemical equation, Chemical synthesis, Chemosynthesis, Chlorella, Chloroflexi (phylum), Chlorophyll, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Chloroplast, Chloroplast membrane, Chromophore, Chromosome, Common descent, Concentration, Continental shelf, Convergent evolution, Coral, Cornell University, CoRR hypothesis, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Current Opinion (Elsevier), Cyanobacteria, Daniel I. Arnon, Dean Burk, Decarboxylation, Diatom, Electrical energy, Electrochemical gradient, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron, Electron acceptor, Electron donor, Electron transport chain, ELife, Elsevier, Elysia chlorotica, Elysia viridis, Endocytosis, Endothermic process, Energy Information Administration, Energy transformation, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Euphorbia, Evaporation, Evolution, Evolutionary history of life, Exciton, Exothermic process, Femtosecond, Ferricyanide, Food chain, Frederick Blackman, Fucoxanthin, Gabrielle Howard, Glucose, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Gottlieb Haberlandt, Great Oxygenation Event, Greek language, Green algae, Green sulfur bacteria, Heat, Hexose, Hill reaction, Hornwort, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Infrared, Iron, Irradiance, James Bassham, Jan Anderson (scientist), Jan Baptist van Helmont, Jan Ingenhousz, Jean Senebier, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Priestley, Journal of Experimental Botany, Leaf, Life, Light, Light-dependent reactions, Light-harvesting complex, Light-harvesting complexes of green plants, Light-independent reactions, Limiting factor, Lipid, Maize, Malic acid, Manganese, Marine ecosystem, Martin Kamen, Mass, McGraw-Hill Education, Melvin Calvin, Mesozoic, Metabolism, Microsecond, Millisecond, Mitochondrion, Molecular diffusion, Mollusca, Multicellular organism, Nanosecond, Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrogen fixation, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nuclear DNA, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organelle, Organic acid, Organic reaction, Otto Heinrich Warburg, Otto Kandler, Oxalate, Oxaloacetic acid, Oxygen, Oxygen evolution, Oxygen-evolving complex, Oxygenase, Paleoproterozoic, Pearson Education, Peripheral membrane protein, Pheophytin, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Photobiology, Photochemistry, Photodissociation, Photoheterotroph, Photoinduced charge separation, Photoinhibition, Photon, Photophosphorylation, Photorespiration, Photosynthesis system, Photosynthetic capacity, Photosynthetic efficiency, Photosynthetic reaction centre, Photosynthetically active radiation, Photosystem, Photosystem I, Photosystem II, Phototroph, Phycobilisome, Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin, Picosecond, Pigment, Plant, Plant cell, Plant cuticle, Plastid, Plastocyanin, Prentice Hall, Primary producers, Primary production, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Protein filament, Proterozoic, Purple bacteria, Purple sulfur bacteria, Pyrenoid, Quantum biology, Quantum walk, Quasiparticle, Quinone, Radionuclide, Radiosynthesis (metabolism), Red algae, Red edge, Redox, Reducing agent, Reducing atmosphere, Reverse Krebs cycle, Ribosome, Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, Robert Emerson (scientist), Robin Hill (biochemist), RuBisCO, Rudolph A. Marcus, Sam Ruben, Science (journal), Sea anemone, Second, Sedimentary rock, Sinauer Associates, Solar panel, Sponge, Springer Science+Business Media, Starch, Stoma, Succulent plant, Sucrose, Sugar, Sulfur, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Temperature, Thylakoid, Trends (journals), Triose, Tyrosine, Ultraviolet, University of California, Berkeley, Vascular bundle, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Visible spectrum, Vitamin D, W. H. Freeman and Company, Water, Watt, Wavelength, Wax, World energy consumption, Xanthophyll, Xerophyte, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (222 more) » « Shrink index
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Accessory pigments are light-absorbing compounds, found in photosynthetic organisms, that work in conjunction with chlorophyll ''a''.
An action spectrum is the rate of a physiological activity plotted against wavelength of light.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
There are several known allotropes of oxygen.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Andrew Alm Benson (September 24, 1917 – January 16, 2015) was an American biologist and a professor of biology at the University of California, San Diego, until his retirement in 1989.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Bacterial anoxygenic photosynthesis is distinguished from the more familiar terrestrial plant oxygenic photosynthesis by the nature of the terminal reductant (e.g. hydrogen sulfide rather than water) and in the byproduct generated (e.g. elemental sulfur instead of molecular oxygen).
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
The arsenate ion is.
In chemistry, an arsenite is a chemical compound containing an arsenic oxoanion where arsenic has oxidation state +3.
Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation of a natural process it is biomimetic.
Astrobiology Magazine (exploring the solar system and beyond), or Astrobiology Mag, is an American NASA-sponsored international online popular science magazine containing popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.
Benjamin Cummings specializes in science and is a publishing imprint of Pearson Education, the world's largest education publishing and technology company, which is part of Pearson PLC, the global publisher and former owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times.
Benzoquinone (C6H4O2) is a quinone with a single benzene ring, of which there are only two.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.
Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that has been published since 1951 by NRC Research Press.
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
Cornelis Bernardus van Niel (November 4, 1897, Haarlem – March 10, 1985, Carmel, California) was a Dutch-American microbiologist.
carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
Carboxysomes are bacterial compartments consisting of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) -the predominant enzyme in carbon fixation and the rate limiting enzyme in the Calvin Cycle-and a carbonic anhydrase.
The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi).
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Charles Reid Barnes (1858-1910) was an American botanist specializing in bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts).
Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.
In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
Chlorella is a genus of single-celled green algae belonging to the division Chlorophyta.
The Chloroflexi or Chlorobacteria are a phylum of bacteria containing isolates with a diversity of phenotypes including members that are aerobic thermophiles, which use oxygen and grow well in high temperatures, anoxygenic phototrophs, which use light for photosynthesis (green non-sulfur bacteria), and anaerobic halorespirers, which uses halogenated organics (such as the toxic chlorinated ethenes and polychlorinated biphenyls) as electron acceptors.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is light re-emitted by chlorophyll molecules during return from excited to non-excited states.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Chloroplasts contain several important membranes, vital for their function.
A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The CoRR hypothesis states that the location of genetic information in cytoplasmic organelles permits regulation of its expression by the reduction-oxidation ("redox") state of its gene products.
Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.
Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Daniel Israel Arnon (November 14, 1910 – December 20, 1994) was a Polish-born American plant physiologist whose research led to greater insights into the operation of photosynthesis in plants.
Dean Burk (March 21, 1904 – October 6, 1988) was an American biochemist, medical researcher, and a cancer researcher at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and the National Cancer Institute.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
eLife is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal for the biomedical and life sciences, It was established at the end of 2012 by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Max Planck Society, and Wellcome Trust, following a workshop held in 2010 at the Janelia Farm Research Campus.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Elysia chlorotica (common name the eastern emerald elysia) is a small-to-medium-sized species of green sea slug, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusc.
Elysia viridis, the sap-sucking slug, is a small-to-medium-sized species of green sea slug, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusc in the family Plakobranchidae.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10−15 or 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 of a second; that is, one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth, of a second.
Ferricyanide is the anion 3−. It is also called hexacyanoferrate(III) and in rare, but systematic nomenclature, hexacyanidoferrate(III).
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Frederick Frost Blackman FRS (25 July 1866 – 30 January 1947) was a British plant physiologist.
Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll, with formula C42H58O6.
Gabrielle Louise Caroline Howard (née Matthaei; 3 October 1876 – 18 August 1930), usually cited as G. L. C. Matthaei, was a British plant physiologist and economic botanist who advocated organic farming.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
Gottlieb Haberlandt (28 November 1854, Ungarisch-Altenburg (present day Magyaróvár) – 30 January 1945, Berlin) was an Austrian botanist.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
In bio-organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6.
The Hill reaction was discovered by the biochemist Robin Hill from the University of Cambridge in 1937.
Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
James Alan Bassham (November 26, 1922 – November 19, 2012) was an American scientist known for his work on photosynthesis.
Joan Mary "Jan" Anderson FAA FRS (13 May 1932 – 28 August 2015) was a New Zealand scientist who worked in Canberra, Australia, distinguished by her investigation of photosynthesis.
Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.
Jan Ingenhousz or Ingen-Housz FRS (8 December 1730 – 7 September 1799) was a Dutch physiologist, biologist and chemist.
His precise definition of the experimental method anticipated the work of noted French physiologist Claude Bernard fifty years later.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
The Journal of Experimental Botany (JXB) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.
A light-harvesting complex has a complex of subunit proteins that may be part of a larger supercomplex of a photosystem, the functional unit in photosynthesis.
The light-harvesting complex (or antenna complex) is an array of protein and chlorophyll molecules embedded in the thylakoid membrane of plants, which transfer light energy to one chlorophyll a molecule at the reaction center of a photosystem.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
Martin David Kamen (August 27, 1913, Toronto – August 31, 2002) was a chemist briefly involved with the Manhattan project.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Melvin Ellis Calvin (April 8, 1911 – January 8, 1997) was an American biochemist most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle along with Andrew Benson and James Bassham, for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10 seconds.
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure (14 October 1767, in Geneva – 18 April 1845, in Geneva) was a Swiss chemist and student of plant physiology who made seminal advances in phytochemistry.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Otto Heinrich Warburg (8 October 1883 – 1 August 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor, and Nobel laureate.
Otto Kandler (23 October 1920 in Deggendorf - 29 August 2017 in Munich, Bavaria) was a German botanist and microbiologist.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen evolution is the process of generating molecular oxygen through chemical reaction.
The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), also known as the water-splitting complex, is a water-oxidizing enzyme involved in the photo-oxidation of water during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it.
Paleoproterozoic Era, spanning the time period from (2.5–1.6 Ga), is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic Eon.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Peripheral membrane proteins are membrane proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated.
Pheophytin or phaeophytin (abbreviated Pheo) is a chemical compound that serves as the first electron carrier intermediate in the electron transfer pathway of Photosystem II (PS II) in plants, and the photosynthetic reaction center (RC P870) found in purple bacteria.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (also known as PEP carboxylase, PEPCase, or PEPC;, PDB ID: 3ZGE) is an enzyme in the family of carboxy-lyases found in plants and some bacteria that catalyzes the addition of bicarbonate (HCO3−) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate: This reaction is used for carbon fixation in CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) and C4 organisms, as well as to regulate flux through the citric acid cycle (also known as Krebs or TCA cycle) in bacteria and plants.
Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) as the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate.
Photobiology is the scientific study of the interactions of light (technically, non-ionizing radiation) and living organisms.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Photoheterotrophs (Gk: photo.
Photoinduced charge separation is the process of an electron in an atom or molecule, being excited to a higher energy level by the absorption of a photon and then leaving the atom or molecule to a nearby electron acceptor.
Photoinhibition is light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, alga, or cyanobacterium.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In the process of photosynthesis, the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation.
Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) refers to a process in plant metabolism where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, causing some of the energy produced by photosynthesis to be wasted.
Photosynthesis systems are electronic scientific instruments designed for non-destructive measurement of photosynthetic rates in the field.
Photosynthetic capacity (Amax) is a measure of the maximum rate at which leaves are able to fix carbon during photosynthesis.
The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in plants and algae.
A photosynthetic reaction centre is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis.
Photosynthetically active radiation, often abbreviated PAR, designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis.
Photosystems are functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons.
Photosystem I (PS I, or plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase) is the second photosystem in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae, plants, and some bacteria.
Photosystem II (or water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase) is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis.
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
Phycobilisomes are light harvesting antennae of photosystem II in cyanobacteria, red algae and glaucophytes.
Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin.
Phycoerythrin (PE) is a red protein-pigment complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, present in red algae and cryptophytes, accessory to the main chlorophyll pigments responsible for photosynthesis.
A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10−12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000 (one trillionth) of a second.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
Plastocyanin is a copper-containing protein involved in electron-transfer.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Primary producers take energy from other organisms and turn it into energy that is used.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biology, a filament is a "long chain of proteins, such as those found in hair, muscle, or in flagella".
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their own food via photosynthesis.
The purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) are part of a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, collectively referred to as purple bacteria.
Pyrenoids are sub-cellular micro-compartments found in chloroplasts of many algae,Giordano, M., Beardall, J., & Raven, J. A. (2005).
Quantum biology refers to applications of quantum mechanics and theoretical chemistry to biological objects and problems.
In quantum computing, quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks.
In physics, quasiparticles and collective excitations (which are closely related) are emergent phenomena that occur when a microscopically complicated system such as a solid behaves as if it contained different weakly interacting particles in free space.
The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radiosynthesis is the theorized capture and metabolism, by living organisms, of energy from ionizing radiation, analogously to photosynthesis.
The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
Red edge refers to the region of rapid change in reflectance of vegetation in the near infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
A reducing atmosphere is an atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal of oxygen and other oxidizing gases or vapours, and which may contain actively reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and gases such as hydrogen sulphide that would be oxidized by any present oxygen.
The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle) is a sequence of chemical reactions that are used by some bacteria to produce carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is an organic substance that is involved in photosynthesis.
Robert Emerson (November 4, 1903 – February 4, 1959) was an American scientist noted for his discovery that plants have two distinct photosynthetic reaction centres.
Robert Hill FRS (2 April 1899 – 15 March 1991), known as Robin Hill, was a British plant biochemist who, in 1939, demonstrated the 'Hill reaction' of photosynthesis, proving that oxygen is evolved during the light requiring steps of photosynthesis.
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.
Rudolph Arthur Marcus (born July 21, 1923) is a Canadian-born chemist who received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems".
Samuel Ruben (born Charles Rubenstein; November 5, 1913 – September 28, 1943) was an American chemist.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Sinauer Associates, Inc. is a publisher of college-level textbooks.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
A triose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, containing three carbon atoms.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
World energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization.
Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.
A xerophyte (from Greek ξηρός xeros dry, φυτόν phuton plant) is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic.
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
History of C3 : C4 photosynthesis research, Net photosynthesis, Oxygen synthesis, Oxygenic photosynthesis, Photosintesis, Photosinthesis, Photosymthesis, Photosyntesis, Photosynthasis, Photosynthate, Photosyntheis, Photosynthese, Photosynthesis and Respiration, Photosynthesis equation, Photosynthesise, Photosynthesising, Photosynthesize, Photosynthesizing, Photosynthetic, Photosynthetic reactions, Photosynthisis, Photosythesize, Reverse photosynthesis.