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Index Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. [1]

252 relations: Absorption spectroscopy, Acid, Adenosine triphosphate, Algae, Allosteric regulation, Alpha helix, Alpha-thalassemia, Anemia, Annelid, Antioxidant, Arthropod, Ascidiacea, Astrocyte, Bacteria, Band 3, Beta thalassemia, Bicarbonate, Bilirubin, Biomolecular structure, Bird, Bird anatomy, Blood, Blood donation, Blood gas tension, Blood sugar level, Blood test, Blood-oxygen-level dependent imaging, Bohr effect, Bone marrow, Breathing, Capillary, Carbaminohemoglobin, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide detector, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carbonic acid, Carbonic anhydrase, Carboxyhemoglobin, CD163, Cell nucleus, Cellular respiration, Cerebral cortex, Channichthyidae, Chlorocruorin, Chlorophyll, Chromosome 11, Chromosome 16, Circulatory system, Claude Bernard, ..., Coboglobin, Cofactor (biochemistry), Competitive inhibition, Complete blood count, Concentration, Congenital heart defect, Cooperative binding, Coordinate covalent bond, Crustacean, Crystal field theory, Cyanide, Cyanosis, Cytochrome b5 reductase, Cytosol, Diabetes mellitus, Diamagnetism, Dopaminergic, Dopaminergic cell groups, Earthworm, Embryo, Erythrocruorin, Erythropoietin, Exhaust gas, Felix Hoppe-Seyler, Ferritin, Fetal hemoglobin, Fetus, Functional group, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genetic disorder, George III of the United Kingdom, Gilbert Smithson Adair, Gill, Globin, Globular protein, Globulin, Glucose, Glycated hemoglobin, Gnathostomata, Gram, Guanosine triphosphate, Haldane effect, HBB, HBD, Hematocrit, Heme, Hemeprotein, Hemerythrin, Hemocyanin, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobin A, Hemoglobin A2, Hemoglobin Barts, Hemoglobin C, Hemoglobin D-Punjab, Hemoglobin E, Hemoglobin Hopkins-2, Hemoglobin variants, Hemoglobin, alpha 1, Hemoglobin, alpha 2, Hemoglobinometer, Hemoglobinopathy, Hemolysis, Hemolytic anemia, Heterocyclic compound, Hippocampus, Histidine, Human embryogenesis, Human iron metabolism, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrophobic effect, Hyperbolic function, Hypoxemia, Hypoxia (medical), Imidazole, Infrared spectroscopy, Insect, Invertebrate, Ion, Iron, Iron deficiency, Iron-deficiency anemia, Jaundice, John Kendrew, Julian Voss-Andreae, Kidney, Kidney failure, Lamprey, Leghemoglobin, Legume, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), Litre, Low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA, Lung, Macrophage, Magnetic field, Mammal, Mammoth, Mars, Max Perutz, McGill University Health Centre, Mechanism (biology), Mesangial cell, Metabolism, Metalloprotein, Methemoglobin, Methine group, Mitochondrion, Mole (unit), Molecular mass, Molecule, Mollusca, Muscle, Mutation, Myoglobin, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Nematode, Neuromelanin, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide dioxygenase, Nitrogen, Nitrogenase, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Octahedron, Oligodendrocyte, Otto Funke, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxygen, Oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve, Paramagnetism, Parkinson's disease, Partial pressure, Pathology, Peptide, PH, Physiology, Phytic acid, Pinna nobilis, Placenta, Plant, Pleistocene, Polycythemia, Polycythemia vera, Population, Porphyria, Porphyrin, Prenatal development, Proerythroblast, Protein, Protein subunit, Proton, Protozoa, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary heart disease, Pulse oximetry, Pyrrole, Red blood cell, Regulation of gene expression, Resonance, Respiration (physiology), Reticulocyte, Reversible reaction, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Riftia pachyptila, Root effect, Salt bridge (protein and supramolecular), Sculpture, Sickle cell disease, Sickle cell trait, Sigmoid function, Singlet oxygen, Steric effects, Substantia nigra, Sulfide, Sulfur monoxide, Superoxide, Tetrameric protein, Thalassemia, Thiol, Tobacco smoking, Transferrin, Triplet oxygen, Unified atomic mass unit, Vanabins, Vanadium, Vaska's complex, Vasodilation, Vertebrate, Volcano, Wavelength, Weathering steel, X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray crystallography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, 2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (202 more) »

Absorption spectroscopy

Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.

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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Alpha helix

The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.

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Alpha-thalassemia (α-thalassemia, α-thalassaemia) is a form of thalassemia involving the genes HBA1 and HBA2.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.

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Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Band 3

Band 3 anion transport protein, also known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), is a protein that is encoded by the SLC4A1 gene in humans.

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Beta thalassemia

Beta thalassemias (β thalassemias) are a group of inherited blood disorders.

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In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

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Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bird anatomy

Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood donation

A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components).

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Blood gas tension

Blood gas tension refers to the partial pressure of gases in blood.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood-oxygen-level dependent imaging

Blood-oxygen-level dependent contrast imaging, or BOLD-contrast imaging, is a method used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe different areas of the brain or other organs, which are found to be active at any given time.

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Bohr effect

The Bohr effect is a physiological phenomenon first described in 1904 by the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr: hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity (see Oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve) is inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.

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Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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Carbaminohemoglobin (or carbaminohaemoglobin, also known as carbhaemoglobin and carbohaemoglobin) is a compound of hemoglobin and carbon dioxide, and is one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists in the blood.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon monoxide detector

A carbon monoxide detector or CO detector is a device that detects the presence of the carbon monoxide (CO) gas in order to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.

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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).

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Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).

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Carbonic anhydrase

The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).

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Carboxyhemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin (symbol COHb or HbCO) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin (Hb) that forms in red blood cells upon contact with carbon monoxide (CO).

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CD163 (Cluster of Differentiation 163) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD163 gene.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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The crocodile icefish or white-blooded fish (Channichthyidae) comprise a family of notothenioid fish found in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and southern South America, where water temperatures remain relatively stable (generally ranging from -1.8 to +2.0 °C).

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Chlorocruorin is an oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the blood plasma of many annelids, particularly certain marine polychaetes.

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Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

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Chromosome 11

Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 16

Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.

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A coboglobin is a synthetic compound, a metalloprotein chemically similar to hemoglobin or myoglobin but using the metal cobalt instead of iron (hence the name).

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Competitive inhibition

Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Congenital heart defect

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

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Cooperative binding

Molecular binding is an interaction between molecules that results in a stable physical association between those molecules.

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Coordinate covalent bond

A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Crystal field theory

Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).

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A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.

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Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.

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Cytochrome b5 reductase

Cytochrome-b5 reductase (also known as methemoglobin reductase) is a NADH-dependent enzyme that converts methemoglobin to hemoglobin.

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.

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Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

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Dopaminergic cell groups

Dopaminergic cell groups are collections of neurons in the central nervous system that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Erythrocruorin is a large oxygen-carrying protein, which has a molecular mass greater than 3.5 million Daltons.

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Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.

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Exhaust gas

Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.

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Felix Hoppe-Seyler

Ernst Felix Immanuel Hoppe-Seyler (26 December 1825 – 10 August 1895), né Felix Hoppe, was a German physiologist and chemist, and the principal founder of the disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.

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Fetal hemoglobin

Fetal hemoglobin, or foetal haemoglobin, (also hemoglobin F, HbF, or α2γ2) is the main oxygen transport protein in the human fetus during the last seven months of development in the uterus and persists in the newborn until roughly 6 months old.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

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Gilbert Smithson Adair

Gilbert Smithson Adair FRS (1896–1979) was an early protein scientist who used osmotic pressure measurements to establish that haemoglobin was a tetramer under physiological conditions.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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The globins are a superfamily of heme-containing globular proteins, involved in binding and/or transporting oxygen.

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Globular protein

Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).

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The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights than albumins and are insoluble in pure water but dissolve in dilute salt solutions.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycated hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.

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Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.

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The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

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Guanosine triphosphate

Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.

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Haldane effect

The Haldane effect is a property of hemoglobin first described by John Scott Haldane.

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Beta globin (also referred to as HBB, β-globin, haemoglobin beta, hemoglobin beta, or preferably haemoglobin subunit beta) is a globin protein, which along with alpha globin (HBA), makes up the most common form of haemoglobin in adult humans, the HbA.

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Hemoglobin subunit delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HBD gene.

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The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.

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Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.

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A hemeprotein (or haemprotein; also hemoprotein or haemoprotein), or heme protein, is a protein that contains a heme prosthetic group.

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Hemerythrin (also spelled haemerythrin; blood, red) is an oligomeric protein responsible for oxygen (O2) transport in the marine invertebrate phyla of sipunculids, priapulids, brachiopods, and in a single annelid worm genus, Magelona.

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Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hemoglobin A

Hemoglobin A (HbA), also known as adult hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1 or α2β2, is the most common human hemoglobin tetramer, comprising over 97% of the total red blood cell hemoglobin.

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Hemoglobin A2

Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) is a normal variant of hemoglobin A that consists of two alpha and two delta chains (α2δ2) and is found at low levels in normal human blood.

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Hemoglobin Barts

Hemoglobin Barts, abbreviated Hb Barts, is an abnormal type of hemoglobin that consists of four gamma globins.

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Hemoglobin C

Hemoglobin c (abbreviated as Hb C or HbC) is an abnormal hemoglobin in which substitution of a glutamic acid residue with a lysine residue at the 6th position of the β-globin chain has occurred (E6K substitution).

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Hemoglobin D-Punjab

Hemoglobin D-Punjab is one of the sub-variants of Hemoglobin D, a variant of hemoglobin found in human blood.

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Hemoglobin E

Hemoglobin E or haemoglobin E (HbE) is an abnormal hemoglobin with a single point mutation in the β chain.

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Hemoglobin Hopkins-2

Hemoglobin Hopkins-2 (Hb Hop-2) is a mutation of the protein hemoglobin, which is responsible for the transportation of oxygen through the blood from the lungs to the musculature of the body in vertebrates.

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Hemoglobin variants

Hemoglobin variants are mutant forms of hemoglobin in a population (usually of humans), caused by variations in genetics.

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Hemoglobin, alpha 1

Hemoglobin, alpha 1, also known as HBA1, is an hemoglobin protein that in humans is encoded by the HBA1 gene.

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Hemoglobin, alpha 2

Hemoglobin, alpha 2 also known as HBA2 is a gene that in humans codes for the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin.

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A hemoglobinometer is a medical measuring device of hemoglobin blood concentration.

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Hemoglobinopathy is a kind of genetic defect that results in abnormal structure of one of the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule.

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Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).

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Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).

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Heterocyclic compound

A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Human embryogenesis

Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.

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Human iron metabolism

Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at the systemic and cellular level.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hydrophobic effect

The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.

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Hyperbolic function

In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular, functions.

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Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron deficiency

Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.

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Iron-deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.

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Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.

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John Kendrew

Sir John Cowdery Kendrew, (24 March 1917 – 23 August 1997) was an English biochemist and crystallographer who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Max Perutz; their group in the Cavendish Laboratory investigated the structure of heme-containing proteins.

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Julian Voss-Andreae

Julian Voss-Andreae (born 15 August 1970) is a German sculptor living and working in the U.S. Voss-Andreae is a descendant of the German pastor Johann Valentin Andreae, author of one of the earliest texts of Rosicrucianism, The Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreuz (1616).

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

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Leghemoglobin (also leghaemoglobin or legoglobin) is an oxygen carrier and hemoprotein found in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

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Low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA

Low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA refers to the application of statistical thermodynamics to understand low-frequency vibrations in biomolecules.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Max Perutz

Max Ferdinand Perutz (19 May 1914 – 6 February 2002) was an Austrian-born British molecular biologist, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John Kendrew, for their studies of the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin.

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McGill University Health Centre

The McGill University Health Centre (MUHC, Centre universitaire de santé McGill) is one of two major healthcare networks in the city of Montreal, Quebec, and it is the only bilingual teaching hospital in the province.

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Mechanism (biology)

In the science of biology, a mechanism is a system of causally interacting parts and processes that produce one or more effects.

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Mesangial cell

Mesangial cells are specialised cells in the kidney that make up the mesangium of the glomerulus.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.

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Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin.

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Methine group

In chemistry, methine is a trivalent functional group.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.

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Near-infrared spectroscopy

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm).

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nitric oxide dioxygenase

Nitric oxide dioxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate (NO).

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.

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Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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Otto Funke

Otto Funke (October 27, 1828 - August 17, 1879) was a German physiologist born in Chemnitz.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve

2-Hb dissociation curve is a sigmoidal curve that represents the relationship between O2 concentration and the percentage saturation of Hb.

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Partial pressure

In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Phytic acid

Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds.

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Pinna nobilis

Pinna nobilis, common name the noble pen shell or fan mussel, is a large species of Mediterranean clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pinnidae, the pen shells.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.

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Polycythemia vera

Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells.

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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.

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Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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A proerythroblast (or rubriblast, or pronormoblast) is the earliest of four stages in development of the normoblast.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein subunit

In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Pulmonary alveolus

A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.

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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.

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Pulmonary heart disease

Pulmonary heart disease, also known as cor pulmonale, is the enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased vascular resistance (such as from pulmonic stenosis) or high blood pressure in the lungs.

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Pulse oximetry

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).

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Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

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In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically composing about 1% of the red blood cells in the human body.

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Reversible reaction

A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Riftia pachyptila

Riftia pachyptila, commonly known as giant tube worms, are marine invertebrates in the phylum Annelida (formerly grouped in phylum Pogonophora and Vestimentifera) related to tube worms commonly found in the intertidal and pelagic zones.

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Root effect

The Root effect is a physiological phenomenon that occurs in fish hemoglobin, named after its discoverer R. W. Root.

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Salt bridge (protein and supramolecular)

In chemistry, a salt bridge is a combination of two non-covalent interactions: hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding (Figure 1).

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Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.

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Sickle cell trait

Sickle cell trait describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle-cell disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous).

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Sigmoid function

A sigmoid function is a mathematical function having a characteristic "S"-shaped curve or sigmoid curve.

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Singlet oxygen

Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.

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Steric effects

Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.

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Substantia nigra

The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.

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Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.

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Sulfur monoxide

Sulfur monoxide is an inorganic compound with formula.

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A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.

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Tetrameric protein

A tetrameric protein is a protein with a quaternary structure of four subunits (tetrameric).

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Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production.

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Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.

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Triplet oxygen

Triplet oxygen, 3O2, refers to the S.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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Vanabins (also known as vanadium-associated proteins or vanadium chromagen) are a specific group of vanadium-binding metalloproteins.

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Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

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Vaska's complex

Vaska's complex is the trivial name for the chemical compound trans-carbonylchlorobis(triphenylphosphine)iridium(I), which has the formula IrCl(CO)2.

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Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Weathering steel

Weathering steel, often referred to by the genericized trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance after several years exposure to weather.

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X-ray absorption near edge structure

X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), also known as near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), is a type of absorption spectroscopy that indicates the features in the X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of condensed matter due to the photoabsorption cross section for electronic transitions from an atomic core level to final states in the energy region of 50–100 eV above the selected atomic core level ionization energy, where the wavelength of the photoelectron is larger than the interatomic distance between the absorbing atom and its first neighbour atoms.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition at the parts per thousand range, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material.

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2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid

2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (conjugate base 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate) (2,3-BPG), also known as 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (conjugate base 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) (2,3-DPG), is a three-carbon isomer of the glycolytic intermediate 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (1,3-BPG).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin

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