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Flowering plant

Index Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species. [1]

397 relations: Academic Press, Acanthaceae, Acanthus (plant), Achene, Acorus, Adaptation, Adaptive radiation, Agriculture, Aizoaceae, Alismatales, Amaranth, Amaranthaceae, Amborella, American Journal of Botany, Ancient Greek, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, Annonaceae, Anthophyta, AoB Plants, APG II system, APG III system, APG IV system, APG system, Apiaceae, Apiales, Apocynaceae, Apomixis, Apple, Apricot, Aquarium, Aquatic plant, Aquifoliales, Araceae, Aralia, Araliaceae, Archaefructus, Arecaceae, Arecales, Armen Takhtajan, Arthur Cronquist, Arum, Asparagales, Asteraceae, Asterales, Asterids, Atoll, Austrobaileyales, Autogamy, Barley, Basal angiosperms, ..., BBC News, Bean, Bee, Beech, Before Present, Bellis perennis, Berberidopsidales, Biological dispersal, Bird, Black pepper, Borage, Boraginaceae, Boraginales, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Botanical name, Brassica oleracea, Brassicaceae, Brassicales, Bromelia, Bromeliaceae, Bruniales, Buxales, Cabbage, Cactus, Cambium, Campanula, Campanulaceae, Camphor, Canellales, Capsicum, Carl Linnaeus, Caryophyllaceae, Caryophyllales, Celastrales, Cell (biology), Ceratophyllum, Charles Darwin, Charophyceae, Cherry, Chloranthaceae, Clade, Cladogram, Coconut, Commelinales, Commelinids, Companion planting, Competition (biology), Complexity, Convolvulaceae, Convolvulus, Cornales, Cotton, Cotyledon, Cretaceous, Cronquist system, Crossosomatales, Cucurbitaceae, Cucurbitales, Current Opinion (Elsevier), Custard apple, Cycad, Cyperaceae, Dahlgren system, Dehiscence (botany), Dendrochronology, Dianthus, Dicotyledon, Digitalis, Dilleniales, Dioscoreales, Dipsacales, DNA, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA repair, Dogbane, Double fertilization, Early Cretaceous, Ecological niche, Ecoregion, Embryo, Embryophyte, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endosperm, Engler system, Erica, Ericaceae, Ericales, Escalloniaceae, Eudicots, Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae, Evolution, Fabaceae, Fabales, Fagales, Family (biology), Fern, Fertilisation, Fig wasp, Fir, Flax, Floral scent, Flower, Flowering plant, Fossil, Fragaria, Frugivore, Fruit, Fruit anatomy, Function (biology), Gametophyte, Garryales, Gene, Generalist and specialist species, Gentiana, Gentianaceae, Gentianales, Genus, Geraniales, Germanic Basin, Germination, Gesneria, Gesneriaceae, Gigantopterid, Ginkgo, Gnetophyta, Gourd, Grapefruit, Greek language, Gunnerales, Gymnosperm, Gynoecium, Hedera, Helianthus, Hemp, Herbivore, Hermaphrodite, Holocene, Homologous chromosome, Homologous recombination, Huerteales, Hydatellaceae, Icacinales, Inflorescence, Insect, Integument, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Iridaceae, Iris (plant), Island, John Lindley, Jurassic, Kingdom (biology), Lamiaceae, Lamiales, Lauraceae, Laurales, Laurus, Laurus nobilis, Leaf, Lemon, Liliaceae, Liliales, Liliopsida, List of garden plants, List of plant orders, List of plants by common name, List of systems of plant taxonomy, Livestock, Lumber, Macrofossil, Magnolia, Magnolia virginiana, Magnoliales, Magnoliids, Magnoliopsida, Maize, Malpighiales, Malva, Malvaceae, Malvales, Mammillaria, Maple, Mediterranean Basin, Megagametogenesis, Megaspore, Megaspore mother cell, Meiosis, Melastoma, Melastomataceae, Melon, Mentha, Meristem, Merosity, Mesangiospermae, Metteniusaceae, Microsporangia, Microspore, Molecular biology, Molecular phylogenetics, Monocotyledon, Monophyly, Morphology (biology), Moss, Most recent common ancestor, Mustard plant, Mutualism (biology), Myrtaceae, Myrtales, Myrtus, Nature (journal), Nature Communications, Nectar, New Caledonia, Nymphaeaceae, Nymphaeales, Oak, Oat, Oleanane, Olive, Ontogeny, Orange (fruit), Orchidaceae, Orobanchaceae, Orobanche, Ovary (botany), Ovule, Oxalidales, Paleontology, Paleopolyploidy, Pandanales, Paper, Paracryphiaceae, Paraphyly, Parsley, Parthenogenesis, Paul Hermann (botanist), Pear, Pearl millet, Permian, Petal, Petiole (botany), Petrosaviaceae, Petunia, Phloem, Phyllanthaceae, Phyllanthus, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Physiology, Picramniaceae, Pinales, Pine, Pinophyta, Piper (plant), Piperaceae, Piperales, Plant, Plant reproductive morphology, Plum, Poaceae, Poales, Pollen, Pollen tube, Pollination, Pollinator, Potato, Protea, Proteaceae, Proteales, Pteridophyte, Pteridospermatophyta, Pumpkin, Ranunculaceae, Ranunculales, Ranunculus, Rapeseed, Reveal system, Rice, Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert T. Bakker, Rosaceae, Rosales, Rose, Rosids, Rubia, Rubiaceae, Ruta graveolens, Rutaceae, Rye, Santalales, Sapindaceae, Sapindales, Sapindus, Saxifragales, Schmeissneria, Scrophularia, Scrophulariaceae, Season, Secondary metabolite, Seed, Seedling, Selaginella, Self-incompatibility, Sepal, Sex organ, Sister group, Small population size, Solanaceae, Solanales, Sorghum, Speciation, Species, Spermatophyte, Spore, Sporophyll, Stamen, Sugarcane, Superasterids, Superrosids, Takhtajan system, Tepal, Tertiary, Thorne system, Tomato, Triassic, Trochodendraceae, Urticaceae, Vahlia, Vascular bundle, Vascular plant, Viola (plant), Vitaceae, Walter Max Zimmermann, Wasp, Wettstein system, Wheat, Wilhelm Hofmeister, Willow, Wood, Woody plant, Xylem, Zingiberales, Zygophyllales, Zygote. Expand index (347 more) »

Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae is a family (the acanthus family) of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species.

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Acanthus (plant)

Acanthus is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical and warm temperate regions, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean Basin and Asia.

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Achene

An achene (Greek ἀ, a, privative + χαίνειν, chainein, to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants.

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Acorus

Acorus is a genus of monocot flowering plants.

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Adaptation

In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Adaptive radiation

In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Aizoaceae

The Aizoaceae Martynov, nom.

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Alismatales

The Alismatales (alismatids) are an order of flowering plants including about 4500 species.

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Amaranth

Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants.

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Amaranthaceae

Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.

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Amborella

Amborella is a monotypic genus of understory shrubs or small trees endemic to the main island, Grande Terre, of New Caledonia.

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American Journal of Botany

The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.

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Annonaceae

The Annonaceae are a family, the custard apple family, of flowering plants consisting of trees, shrubs, or rarely lianas.

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Anthophyta

The anthophytes were thought to be a clade comprising plants bearing flower-like structures.

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AoB Plants

AoB Plants is a peer-reviewed open-access non-profit scientific journal established in 2009 and published by Oxford University Press.

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APG II system

The APG II system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II system) of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.

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APG III system

The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).

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APG IV system

The APG IV system of flowering plant classification is the fourth version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy for flowering plants (angiosperms) being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).

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APG system

The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy.

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Apiaceae

Apiaceae or Umbelliferae, is a family of mostly aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or simply as umbellifers.

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Apiales

The Apiales are an order of flowering plants.

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Apocynaceae

Apocynaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, herbs, stem succulents, and vines, commonly known as the dogbane family, (Greek for "away from dog" since some taxa were used as dog poison).

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Apomixis

In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization.

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Apple

An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).

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Apricot

An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).

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Aquarium

An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.

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Aquatic plant

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).

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Aquifoliales

The Aquifoliales are an order of flowering plants, including the Aquifoliaceae (or holly) family, and also the Helwingiaceae (2-5 species of temperate Asian shrubs) and the Phyllonomaceae (4 species of Central American trees and shrubs).

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Araceae

The Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix.

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Aralia

Aralia, or spikenard, is a genus of the family Araliaceae, consisting of 68 accepted species of deciduous or evergreen trees, shrubs, and rhizomatous herbaceous perennials.

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Araliaceae

The Araliaceae is a family made of 52 genera and 700 species of flowering plants including perennial herbs, trees, vines and succulents.

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Archaefructus

Archaefructus is an extinct genus of herbaceous aquatic seed plants with 3 known species.

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Arecaceae

The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).

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Arecales

Arecales is an order of flowering plants.

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Armen Takhtajan

Armen Leonovich Takhtajan or Takhtajian (Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet-Armenian botanist, one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography.

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Arthur Cronquist

Arthur John Cronquist (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae.

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Arum

Arum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to Europe, northern Africa, and western and central Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region.

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Asparagales

Asparagales (asparagoid lilies) is an order of plants in modern classification systems such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web.

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Asteraceae

Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).

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Asterales

Asterales is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae (or Compositae) known for composite flowers made of florets, and ten families related to the Asteraceae.

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Asterids

In the APG IV system (2016) for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade (a monophyletic group).

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Atoll

An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.

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Austrobaileyales

Austrobaileyales is an order of flowering plants, consisting of about 100 species of woody plants growing as trees, shrubs and lianas.

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Autogamy

Autogamy, or self-fertilization, refers to the fusion of two gametes that come from one individual.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Basal angiosperms

The basal angiosperms are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bean

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

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Bee

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Beech

Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Bellis perennis

Bellis perennis is a common European species of daisy, of the Asteraceae family, often considered the archetypal species of that name.

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Berberidopsidales

Berberidopsidales is an order of Southern Hemisphere woody flowering plants.

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Biological dispersal

Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Black pepper

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.

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Borage

Borage (Borago officinalis), also known as a starflower, is an annual herb in the flowering plant family Boraginaceae.

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Boraginaceae

Boraginaceae, the '''borage'''- or forget-me-not family, includes a variety of shrubs, trees, and herbs, totaling about 2,000 species in 146 genera found worldwide.

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Boraginales

Boraginales is a valid taxonomic name at the rank of order for a group of flowering plants.

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Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society

The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society is a scientific journal publishing original papers relating to the taxonomy of all plant groups and fungi, including anatomy, biosystematics, cytology, ecology, ethnobotany, electron microscopy, morphogenesis, palaeobotany, palynology and phytochemistry.

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Botanical name

A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).

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Brassica oleracea

Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy, kohlrabi, and gai lan.

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Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.

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Brassicales

The Brassicales (or Cruciales) are an order of flowering plants, belonging to the eurosids II group of dicotyledons under the APG II system.

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Bromelia

Bromelia is the type genus of the botanical family Bromeliaceae, subfamily Bromelioideae.

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Bromeliaceae

The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana.

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Bruniales

Bruniales is a valid botanic name at the rank of order.

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Buxales

The Buxales are a small order of eudicot flowering plants, recognized by the APG IV system of 2016.

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Cabbage

Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.

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Cactus

A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.

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Cambium

A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in botany, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cells for plant growth.

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Campanula

Campanula is one of several genera in the family Campanulaceae with the common name bellflower.

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Campanulaceae

The family Campanulaceae (also bellflower family), of the order Asterales, contains nearly 2400 species in 84 genera of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and rarely small trees, often with milky non-toxic sap.

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Camphor

Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma.

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Canellales

Canellales is the botanical name for an order of flowering plants, one of the four orders of the magnoliids.

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Capsicum

Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Caryophyllaceae

Caryophyllaceae, commonly called the pink family or carnation family, is a family of flowering plants.

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Caryophyllales

Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants.

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Celastrales

The Celastrales are an order of flowering plants found throughout the tropics and subtropics, with only a few species extending far into the temperate regions.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Ceratophyllum

Ceratophyllum is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants including four accepted species in 2016, commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Charophyceae

Charophyceae is a class (biology) of charophyte green algae, and consist of the single order Charales, commonly known as "stoneworts" and "brittleworts".

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Cherry

A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

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Chloranthaceae

Chloranthaceae is a family of flowering plants (angiosperms), the only family in the order Chloranthales.

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Clade

A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladogram

A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.

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Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.

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Commelinales

Commelinales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants.

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Commelinids

In plant taxonomy, commelinids (originally commelinoids) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots, which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms.

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Companion planting

Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is the planting of different crops in proximity for any of a number of different reasons, including pest control, pollination, providing habitat for beneficial creatures, maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase crop productivity.

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Competition (biology)

Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.

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Complexity

Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.

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Convolvulaceae

Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs.

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Convolvulus

Convolvulus is a genus of about 200 to 250 Flora of China.

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Cornales

The Cornales are an order of flowering plants, basal among the asterids, containing about 600 species.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Cotyledon

A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη ''kotýlē'' "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf." Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling.

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Cretaceous

The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cronquist system

The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.

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Crossosomatales

The Crossosomatales are an order, newly recognized by the APG II, of flowering plants, included within the Rosids, which are part of the eudicots.

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Cucurbitaceae

The Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera, the most important of which are.

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Cucurbitales

The Cucurbitales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons.

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Current Opinion (Elsevier)

Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier.

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Custard apple

Custard apple is a common name for a fruit, and the tree which bears it, Annona reticulata. Custard apple may also refer to similar fruits produced by related trees: रामफल Ramphal Custard-apple - India.

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Cycad

Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.

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Cyperaceae

The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.

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Dahlgren system

One of the modern systems of plant taxonomy, the Dahlgren system was published by monocot specialist Rolf Dahlgren in 1975 and revised in 1977, and 1980.

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Dehiscence (botany)

Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.

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Dendrochronology

Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.

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Dianthus

Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe and Asia, with a few species extending south to north Africa, and one species (D. repens) in arctic North America.

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Dicotyledon

The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.

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Digitalis

Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials commonly called foxgloves.

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Dilleniales

The Dilleniales are an order of flowering plants, potentially containing one family, Dilleniaceae.

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Dioscoreales

The Dioscoreales are an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in modern classification systems, such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web.

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Dipsacales

The Dipsacales are an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid group of dicotyledons.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA damage (naturally occurring)

DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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Dogbane

Dogbane, Dog-bane, Dog's bane, and other variations, some of them regional and some transient, are names for certain plants that are reputed to kill or repel dogs; "bane" literally means "death".

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Double fertilization

Double fertilization is a complex fertilization mechanism of flowering plants (angiosperms).

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Early Cretaceous

The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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Ecoregion

An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Embryo

An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Embryophyte

The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endosperm

The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.

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Engler system

One of the prime systems of plant taxonomy, the Engler system was devised by Adolf Engler (1844–1930), and is featured in two major taxonomic texts he authored or coauthored.

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Erica

Erica is a genus of roughly 860 species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae.

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Ericaceae

The Ericaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the heath or heather family, found most commonly in acid and infertile growing conditions.

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Ericales

The Ericales are a large and diverse order of dicotyledons, including, for example, tea, persimmon, blueberry, Brazil nut, and azalea.

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Escalloniaceae

Escalloniaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of about 130 species in seven genera.

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Eudicots

The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.

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Euphorbia

Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).

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Euphorbiaceae

The Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Fabaceae

The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...

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Fabales

The Fabales are an order of flowering plants included in the rosid group of the eudicots in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II classification system.

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Fagales

The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Fern

A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Fertilisation

Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Fig wasp

Fig wasps are wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea which spend their larval stage inside figs.

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Fir

Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.

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Flax

Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.

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Floral scent

Floral scent or flower scent is composed of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), or aroma compounds, emitted by floral tissue (e.g. flower petals).

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Flower

A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Fossil

A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Fragaria

Fragaria is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits.

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Frugivore

A frugivore is a fruit eater.

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Fruit

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Fruit anatomy

Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.

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Function (biology)

In biology, function has been defined in many ways.

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Gametophyte

A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.

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Garryales

The Garryales are a small order of dicotyledons, including only two families and three genera.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Generalist and specialist species

A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet).

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Gentiana

Gentiana is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the gentian family (Gentianaceae), the tribe Gentianeae, and the monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae.

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Gentianaceae

Gentianaceae is a family of flowering plants of 87 genera and about 1600 species.

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Gentianales

Gentianales is an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid clade of eudicots.

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Genus

A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geraniales

Geraniales are a small order of flowering plants, included within the rosid subclade of eudicots.

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Germanic Basin

The Germanic Basin (Germanisches Becken) is a large region of sedimentation in Western and Central Europe that, during the Permian and Triassic periods, extended from England in the west to the eastern border of Poland in the east.

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Germination

Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.

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Gesneria

Gesneria is a genus of approximately 50 species in the flowering plant family Gesneriaceae.

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Gesneriaceae

Gesneriaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of about 152 genera and ca.

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Gigantopterid

Gigantopterids (Gigantopteridales) is the name given to fossils of a group of plants existing in the Permian period, some.

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Ginkgo

Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.

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Gnetophyta

Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).

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Gourd

A gourd is a plant of the family Cucurbitaceae, particularly Cucurbita and Lagenaria or the fruit of the two genera of Bignoniaceae "calabash tree", Crescentia and Amphitecna.

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Grapefruit

The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gunnerales

The Gunnerales are an order of flowering plants.

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Gymnosperm

The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.

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Gynoecium

Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.

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Hedera

Hedera, commonly called ivy (plural ivies), is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.

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Helianthus

Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.

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Hemp

Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.

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Herbivore

A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Hermaphrodite

In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Holocene

The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Homologous chromosome

A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Huerteales

Huerteales is the botanical name for an order of flowering plants.

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Hydatellaceae

Hydatellaceae are a family of small, aquatic flowering plants.

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Icacinales

Icacinales is an order of Angiosperms.

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Inflorescence

An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.

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Insect

Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Integument

In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.

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International Association for Plant Taxonomy

The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.

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International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".

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Iridaceae

Iridaceae is a family of plants in order Asparagales, taking its name from the irises, meaning rainbow, referring to its many colours.

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Iris (plant)

Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers.

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Island

An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.

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John Lindley

John Lindley FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.

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Jurassic

The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Lamiaceae

The Lamiaceae or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family.

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Lamiales

The Lamiales are an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants.

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Lauraceae

Lauraceae are the laurel family, that includes the true laurel and its closest relatives.

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Laurales

The Laurales are an order of flowering plants.

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Laurus

Laurus is a genus of evergreen trees belonging to the laurel family, Lauraceae.

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Laurus nobilis

Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous (smooth and hairless) leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae.

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Leaf

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Lemon

The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.

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Liliaceae

The lily family, Liliaceae, consists of fifteen genera and about 705 known species (Christenhusz & Byng 2016) of flowering plants within the order Liliales.

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Liliales

Liliales (older name: Lilia) is an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Angiosperm Phylogeny Web system, within the lilioid monocots.

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Liliopsida

Liliopsida Batsch (synonym: Liliatae) is a botanical name for the class containing the family Liliaceae (or Lily Family).

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List of garden plants

This is a partial list of garden plants, plants that can be cultivated in the garden, listed alphabetically by genus.

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List of plant orders

This article lists the orders of the Viridiplantae.

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List of plants by common name

This is a list of plants organized by their common names.

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List of systems of plant taxonomy

This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents "taxonomic systems" used in plant classification.

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Livestock

Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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Lumber

Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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Macrofossil

Macrofossils, also known as megafossils, are preserved organic remains large enough to be visible without a microscope.

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Magnolia

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up.

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Magnolia virginiana

Magnolia virginiana, most commonly known as sweetbay magnolia, or merely sweetbay (also laurel magnolia, swampbay, swamp magnolia, whitebay, or beaver tree), is a member of the magnolia family, Magnoliaceae.

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Magnoliales

The Magnoliales comprise an order of flowering plants.

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Magnoliids

Magnoliids (or Magnoliidae or Magnolianae) are a group of flowering plants.

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Magnoliopsida

Magnoliopsida is a valid botanical name for a class of flowering plants.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malpighiales

The Malpighiales comprise one of the largest orders of flowering plants, containing about species, about 7.8% of the eudicots.

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Malva

Malva is a genus of about 25–30 species of herbaceous annual, biennial, and perennial plants in the family Malvaceae (of which it is the type genus), one of several closely related genera in the family to bear the common English name mallow.

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Malvaceae

Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plants estimated to contain 244 genera with 4225 known species.

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Malvales

The Malvales are an order of flowering plants.

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Mammillaria

The genus Mammillaria is one of the largest in the cactus family (Cactaceae), with currently 200 known species and varieties recognized.

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Maple

Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Megagametogenesis

Megagametogenesis is the development of a megaspore into an embryo sac, which is the gametophyte - though a highly reduced one - stage in the life cycle of vascular plants.

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Megaspore

Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore that is present in heterosporous plants.

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Megaspore mother cell

A megaspore mother cell, or megasporocyte, is a diploid cell in plants in which meiosis will occur, resulting in the production of four haploid megaspores.

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Meiosis

Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Melastoma

Melastoma is a genus in the family Melastomataceae.

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Melastomataceae

The family Melastomataceae (alternatively Melastomaceae) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants found mostly in the tropics (two thirds of the genera are from the New World tropics) comprising c. 165 genera and c. 5115 known species.

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Melon

A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.

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Mentha

Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).

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Meristem

A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.

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Merosity

Merosity is the number of component parts in each whorl of a plant structure.

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Mesangiospermae

Mesangiospermae (core angiosperms) is a group of flowering plants (angiosperms), informally called "mesangiosperms".

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Metteniusaceae

Metteniusaceae are a family of flowering plants, the only family in the order Metteniusales.

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Microsporangia

Microsporangia are sporangia that produce microspores and give rise to male gametes.

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Microspore

Microspores are land plant spores that develop into male gametophytes, whereas megaspores develop into female gametophytes.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Monocotyledon

Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

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Monophyly

In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Moss

Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.

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Mustard plant

Mustard plants are any of several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae.

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Mutualism (biology)

Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.

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Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae or the myrtle family is a family of dicotyledonous plants placed within the order Myrtales.

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Myrtales

The Myrtales are an order of flowering plants placed as a sister to the eurosids II clade as of the publishing of the Eucalyptus grandis genome in June 2014.

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Myrtus

Myrtus, with the common name myrtle, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae, described by Swedish botanist Linnaeus in 1753.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Communications

Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.

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Nectar

Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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Nymphaeaceae

Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly called water lilies.

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Nymphaeales

The Nymphaeales are an order of flowering plants, consisting of three families of aquatic plants, the Hydatellaceae, the Cabombaceae, and the Nymphaeaceae (water lilies).

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Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Oat

The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).

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Oleanane

Oleanane is a natural triterpene.

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Olive

The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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Ontogeny

Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.

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Orange (fruit)

The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.

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Orchidaceae

The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

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Orobanchaceae

Orobanchaceae, the broomrapes, is a family of mostly parasitic plants of the order Lamiales, with about 90 genera and more than 2000 species.

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Orobanche

Orobanche (broomrape or broom-rape) is a genus of over 200 species of parasitic herbaceous plants in the family Orobanchaceae, mostly native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.

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Ovary (botany)

In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.

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Ovule

In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.

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Oxalidales

The Oxalidales is an order of flowering plants, included within the rosid subgroup of eudicots.

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Paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Paleopolyploidy

Paleopolyploidy is the result of genome duplications which occurred at least several million years ago (MYA).

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Pandanales

Pandanales (pandans or screw-pines) is the botanical name for an order of flowering plants placed in the monocot clade in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Angiosperm Phylogeny Web systems.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Paracryphiaceae

The Paracryphiaceae are a family of woody shrubs and trees native to Australia, southeast Asia, and New Caledonia.

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Paraphyly

In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Parsley

Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Malta, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as an herb, a spice, and a vegetable.

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Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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Paul Hermann (botanist)

Paul Hermann (30 June 1646, Halle – 29 January 1695, Leiden) was a German born physician and botanist who for 15 years was director of the Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

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Pear

The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.

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Pearl millet

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.

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Permian

The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Petal

Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.

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Petiole (botany)

In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

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Petrosaviaceae

Petrosaviaceae is a family of flowering plants belonging to a monotypic order, Petrosaviales.

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Petunia

Petunia is genus of 20 species of flowering plants of South American origin.

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Phloem

In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.

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Phyllanthaceae

Phyllanthaceae is a family of flowering plants in the eudicot order Malpighiales.

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Phyllanthus

Phyllanthus is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Phyllanthaceae.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Phylum

In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Picramniaceae

Picramniceae is a small, mainly neotropical family of three genera Alvaradoa, Nothotalisia and Picramnia.

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Pinales

The order Pinales in the division Pinophyta, class Pinopsida, comprises all the extant conifers.

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Pine

A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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Pinophyta

The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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Piper (plant)

Piper, the pepper plants or pepper vines (a term used for certain Clematis in older times), are an economically and ecologically important genus in the family Piperaceae.

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Piperaceae

The Piperaceae, also known as the pepper family, are a large family of flowering plants.

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Piperales

Piperales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant reproductive morphology

Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.

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Plum

A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).

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Poaceae

Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Poales

The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, and includes families of plants such as the grasses, bromeliads, and sedges.

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Pollen

Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

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Pollen tube

A pollen tube is a tubular structure produced by the male gametophyte of seed plants when it germinates.

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Pollination

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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Pollinator

A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Protea

Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of South African flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes (Afrikaans: suikerbos) or Fynbos.

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Proteaceae

The Proteaceae are a family of flowering plants predominantly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere.

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Proteales

Proteales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants consisting of two (or three) families.

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Pteridophyte

A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).

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Pteridospermatophyta

The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).

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Pumpkin

A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration.

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Ranunculaceae

Ranunculaceae (buttercup or crowfoot family; Latin rānunculus "little frog", from rāna "frog") is a family of over 2,000 known species of flowering plants in 43 genera, distributed worldwide.

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Ranunculales

Ranunculales is an order of flowering plants.

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Ranunculus

Ranunculus is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae.

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Rapeseed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.

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Reveal system

A 20th-century system of plant taxonomy, the Reveal system (see also the Thorne & Reveal system) of plant classification was drawn up by the American botanist James Reveal (1941-2015).

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)

Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.

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Robert T. Bakker

Robert Thomas Bakker (born March 24, 1945) is an American paleontologist who helped reshape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were endothermic (warm-blooded).

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Rosaceae

Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.

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Rosales

Rosales is an order of flowering plants.

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Rose

A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.

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Rosids

The rosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms.

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Rubia

Rubia is a genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family.

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Rubiaceae

The Rubiaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family.

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Ruta graveolens

Ruta graveolens, commonly known as rue, common rue or herb-of-grace, is a species of Ruta grown as an ornamental plant and herb.

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Rutaceae

The Rutaceae are a family, commonly known as the rue in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database or citrus family, of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales.

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Rye

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Santalales

The Santalales are an order of flowering plants with a cosmopolitan distribution, but heavily concentrated in tropical and subtropical regions.

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Sapindaceae

The Sapindaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Sapindales known as the soapberry family.

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Sapindales

Sapindales is an order of flowering plants.

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Sapindus

Sapindus is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the Lychee family, Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Old World and New World.

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Saxifragales

The Saxifragales are an order of flowering plants.

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Schmeissneria

Schmeissneria is a genus of possible early angiosperms recorded from the Lower Jurassic of Europe and the Middle Jurassic of China, traditionally included in the Ginkgophyta.

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Scrophularia

The genus Scrophularia of the family Scrophulariaceae comprises about 200 species of herbaceous flowering plants commonly known as figworts.

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Scrophulariaceae

The Scrophulariaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the figwort family.

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Season

A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.

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Secondary metabolite

Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.

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Seed

A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Seedling

A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.

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Selaginella

Selaginella is the sole genus of primitive vascular plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses.

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Self-incompatibility

Self-incompatibility (SI) is a general name for several genetic mechanisms in angiosperms, which prevent self-fertilization and thus encourage outcrossing and allogamy.

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Sepal

A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Small population size

Small populations can behave differently from larger populations.

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Solanaceae

The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.

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Solanales

The Solanales are an order of flowering plants, included in the asterid group of dicotyledons.

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Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Speciation

Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spermatophyte

The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.

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Spore

In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

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Sporophyll

A sporophyll is a leaf that bears sporangia.

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Stamen

The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Superasterids

The superasterids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing more than 122,000 species.

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Superrosids

The superrosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing more than 88,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms.

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Takhtajan system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards.

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Tepal

A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower (collectively the perianth) when these parts cannot easily be divided into two kinds, sepals and petals.

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Tertiary

Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.

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Thorne system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Thorne system of plant classification was devised by the American botanist Robert F. Thorne (1920–2015) in 1968, and he continued to issue revisions over many years (1968–2007).

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Tomato

The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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Triassic

The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Trochodendraceae

Trochodendraceae is the only family of flowering plants in the order Trochodendrales.

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Urticaceae

The Urticaceae are a family, the nettle family, of flowering plants.

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Vahlia

Vahlia is a genus of herbs and subshrubs that grow in Africa and the Indian subcontinent.

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Vascular bundle

A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Viola (plant)

Viola (and) is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.

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Vitaceae

The Vitaceae are a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants, with 14 genera and ca 910 known species, including the grapevine and Virginia creeper.

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Walter Max Zimmermann

Walter Max Zimmermann (May 9, 1892 – June 30, 1980) was a German botanist and systematist.

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Wasp

A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.

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Wettstein system

A system of plant taxonomy, the Wettstein system recognised the following main groups, according to Richard Wettstein's Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik (1901–1924).

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Wilhelm Hofmeister

Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister (18 May 1824 – 12 January 1877) was a German biologist and botanist.

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Willow

Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.

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Wood

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Woody plant

A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.

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Xylem

Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.

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Zingiberales

The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.

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Zygophyllales

The Zygophyllales are an order of dicotyledonous plants, comprising the following two families.

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Zygote

A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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Angeosperm, Angiosperm, Angiosperm reproduction, Angiosperma, Angiospermae, Angiospermophyta, Angiosperms, Angliospermae, Angliosperms, Broadleaved, Darwin's abominable mystery, FLOWERING PLANTS, Flower-bearing, Flower-bearing plant, Flowering Plants, Flowering plants, Fruiting plant, Magnoliaphyta, Magnolicae, Magnoliophyta, Magnoliophyte, Proangiosperm.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowering_plant

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