160 relations: Acetoacetic acid, Acid–base reaction, Adenosine triphosphate, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Allotropes of oxygen, Aluminium, Ammonia, Anode, Antioxidant, Antoine Lavoisier, Aromaticity, Atom, Automotive industry, Bessemer process, Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid, Biology, Bioremediation, Bonfire, Bromine, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Catalysis, Cathode, Cathodic protection, Cellular respiration, Charge-transfer complex, Chemical equation, Chemical looping combustion, Chemical reaction, Chemical species, Chlorine, Chrome plating, Citric acid cycle, Cofactor (biochemistry), Combustion, Copper, Copper(II) sulfate, CoRR hypothesis, Corrosion, Covalent bond, Cutlery, Dehydroascorbic acid, Denitrification, Depositional environment, Deprotonation, Electrochemical cell, ..., Electrochemical gradient, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrode potential, Electrolysis, Electron, Electron acceptor, Electron donor, Electron equivalent, Electron transfer, Electron transport chain, Electronegativity, Electroplating, Electrosynthesis, Energy, Enzyme, Exothermic process, Fertilizer, Fluoride, Fluorine, Galvanic anode, Galvanic cell, Galvanization, Geology, Glucose, Glutathione, Gold plating, Half-reaction, Homeostasis, Hydrocarbon, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen ion, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogenation, Hydroxide, Hypoxia (medical), Internal combustion engine, Ion, Iron, Iron oxide, Iron(III) oxide, Jewellery, John Bockris, Ketone, Lactic acid, Light-independent reactions, Lithium, Lithium aluminium hydride, Magnesium, Manganese, Membrane potential, Metal, Methane, Mitochondrion, Mnemonic, Molecule, Nickel, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Nucleophilic abstraction, Ore, Organic chemistry, Organic redox reaction, Oxidation state, Oxidative addition, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Palladium, Partial oxidation, Peroxide, Photon, Photosynthesis, Platinum, Portmanteau, Potassium permanganate, Pro-oxidant, Properties of water, Proton, Protonation, Pyruvic acid, Radical (chemistry), Reduced gas, Reducing agent, Reducing atmosphere, Reduction potential, Rust, Sepsis, Shock (circulatory), Smelting, Sodium, Sodium bismuthate, Sodium borohydride, Sodium sulfite, Standard electrode potential (data page), Standard hydrogen electrode, Standard state, Sugar, Superoxide, Transmetalation, Uranium mining, Vitamin C, Voltage, Water, Zinc. Expand index (110 more) » « Shrink index
Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
There are several known allotropes of oxygen.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.
β-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as 3-hydroxybutyric acid, is an organic compound and a beta hydroxy acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(OH)CH2CO2H; its conjugate base is β-hydroxybutyrate, also known as 3-hydroxybutyrate.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
A charge-transfer complex (CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities.
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a technological process typically employing a dual fluidized bed system (circulating fluidized bed process) where a metal oxide is employed as a bed material providing the oxygen for combustion in the fuel reactor.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical species is a chemical substance or ensemble composed of chemically identical molecular entities that can explore the same set of molecular energy levels on a characteristic or delineated time scale.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating), often referred to simply as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.
The CoRR hypothesis states that the location of genetic information in cytoplasmic organelles permits regulation of its expression by the reduction-oxidation ("redox") state of its gene products.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in Western culture.
Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is an oxidized form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.
Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electrode potential, E, in chemistry or electrochemistry, according to a IUPAC definition, is the electromotive force of a cell built of two electrodes.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
Electron equivalent is a concept commonly used in redox chemistry, reactions involving electron transfer, to define a quantity (e.g. energy or moles) relative to one electron.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electrosynthesis in chemistry is the synthesis of chemical compounds in an electrochemical cell.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
A galvanic anode is the main component of a galvanic cathodic protection (CP) system used to protect buried or submerged metal structures from corrosion.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Gold plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of another metal, most often copper or silver (to make silver-gilt), by chemical or electrochemical plating.
A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction component of a redox reaction.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Bernhardt Patrick John O’Mara Bockris (5 January 1923 – 7 July 2013) was a professor in the physical sciences, chiefly electrochemistry.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nucleophilic abstraction is a type of an organometallic reaction which can be defined as a nucleophilic attack on a ligand which causes part or all of the original ligand to be removed from the metal along with the nucleophile.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxidative addition and reductive elimination are two important and related classes of reactions in organometallic chemistry.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Partial oxidation (POX) is a type of chemical reaction.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.
Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce oxidative stress, either by generating reactive oxygen species or by inhibiting antioxidant systems.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A reduced gas is a gas with a low oxidation number (or high reduction), and is usually hydrogen-rich.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
A reducing atmosphere is an atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal of oxygen and other oxidizing gases or vapours, and which may contain actively reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and gases such as hydrogen sulphide that would be oxidized by any present oxygen.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium bismuthate is the inorganic compound with the formula NaBiO3.
Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4.
Sodium sulfite (sodium sulphite) is a soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid (sulfite) with the chemical formula Na2SO3.
The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions.
The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Transmetalation (alt. spelling: transmetallation) is a type of organometallic reaction that involves the transfer of ligands from one metal to another.
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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