205 relations: A. D. Gordon, Abu Shusha, Adolf Eichmann, Agudat Yisrael, Ahdut HaAvoda, Al-Dawayima, Alignment (Israel), Aliyah, Altalena Affair, Arab Legion, Ari Shavit, Ariel Sharon, Atheism, Balfour Declaration, BBC, Beersheba, Ben Gurion Airport, Ben-Gurion House, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Ben-Gurion's Hut, Benny Morris, Ber Borochov, Berl Katznelson, Bethlehem, Bialik Prize, Blue plaque, British Army, Cabinet of Israel, Centurion (tank), Chaim Weizmann, Chaytor's Force, Chief of General Staff (Israel), Congress Poland, Constantinople, Crimes against humanity, David Landau (journalist), Deir al-Asad, Deir Yassin, East Jerusalem, Egypt, Egyptian–Czechoslovak arms deal, Eilabun, Ein Harod, Eliezer Kaplan, English Heritage, Fedayeen, Foreign policy, Galilee, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaza Strip, ..., General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, Gentile, Golan Heights, Golda Meir, Gordian Knot, Haaretz, Haganah, HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed, Hapoel Hatzair, Hashomer, Havlagah, Hebraization of surnames, Hebrew language, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hebron, HeHalutz, Histadrut, Historic house museum, History of the Jews in Thessaloniki, Ho Chi Minh, Hovevei Zion, Ilaniya, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Irgun, Irreligion, Isle of Man, Israel, Israel Defense Forces, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Israel Police, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Israeli legislative election, 1955, Israeli legislative election, 1965, Israeli legislative election, 1969, Istanbul University, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Jewish Agency for Israel, Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, Jewish Legion, Jish, Joachim Prinz, John Bagot Glubb, Josippon, Kafr Kanna, Kashrut, Kibbutz, King David Hotel bombing, Knesset, Konrad Adenauer, Labor Zionism, Lavon Affair, Levi Eshkol, List of attacks against Israeli civilians before 1967, List of Axis personnel indicted for war crimes, List of national founders, List of Prime Ministers of Israel, Maida Vale, Majd al-Krum, Mandatory Palestine, Mapai, Mapam, Menachem Begin, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Ministry of Defense (Israel), Moshe Dayan, Moshe Sharett, Mossad, Mount Hebron, Nahum Goldmann, National List, National unity government, National Water Carrier of Israel, Nazi Germany, Negev, Nuclear weapon, Operation Focus, Operation Hiram, Operation Magic Carpet (Yemen), Operation Olive Leaves, Ottoman Empire, Palestinian fedayeen, Palestinians, Palmach, Pantheism, Paul Johnson (writer), Paula Ben-Gurion, Płońsk, Peel Commission, Petah Tikva, Pinhas Lavon, Poale Zion, Pomona, California, President of Israel, Prime Minister of Israel, Rafi (political party), Ramat Gan, Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany, Reprisal operations, Royal Fusiliers, Russian Empire, Sa'sa', Safsaf, Saliha, Sde Boker, Sea of Galilee, Seine, Shabbat, Shabtai Teveth, Sheba Medical Center, Shimon Peres, Shlomo Kaplansky, Simha Flapan, Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Sinai Peninsula, Six-Day War, Solomon Bublick Award, Status quo (Israel), Straits of Tiran, Suez Canal, Suez Crisis, Tantura, Teddy Kollek, Tel HaShomer, The Generals' Revolt, The Holocaust, Theocracy, Thessaloniki, Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century, Turkish language, Unit 101, United Nations, United Nations Emergency Force, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, University of Warsaw, War of Attrition, West Bank, West Germany, White Paper of 1939, World War I, World Zionist Organization, Yeshayahu Leibowitz, Yigal Hurvitz, Yishuv, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Yitzhak Rabin, Yom Kippur War, Zalman Shazar, Ze'ev Jabotinsky, Zionism, 1905 Russian Revolution, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 7th arrondissement of Paris. Expand index (155 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron David Gordon (אהרן דוד גורדון; 9 June 1856 – 22 February 1922), more commonly known as A. D. Gordon, was a Zionist ideologue and the spiritual force behind practical Zionism and Labor Zionism.
Abu Shusha (ابو شوشة) was a Palestinian Arab village in the Ramle Subdistrict of Mandatory Palestine, located 8 km southeast of Ramle.
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Agudat Yisrael (אֲגוּדָּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. Union of Israel, also transliterated Agudath Israel, or, in Yiddish, Agudas Yisroel) is an ultra-Orthodox Jewish political party in Israel.
Ahdut HaAvoda (אַחְדוּת הַעֲבוֹדָה, lit. Labour Unity) was the name used by a series of political parties.
Al-Dawayima, Dawaymeh or Dawayma (الدوايمة) was a Palestinian town, located in the former Hebron Subdistrict of Mandatory Palestine, and in what is now the Lakhish region, some 15 kilometres south-east of Kiryat Gat.
The Alignment (המערך, translit. HaMa'arakh) is the name of two political alliances in Israel.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
The Altalena Affair was a violent confrontation that took place in June 1948 by the newly created Israel Defense Forces against the Irgun (also known as IZL), one of the Jewish paramilitary groups that were in the process of merging to form the IDF.
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.
Ari Shavit (born November 26, 1957) is an Israeli reporter and writer.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע; بئر السبع), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
Ben Gurion International Airport (נמל התעופה הבינלאומי בן גוריון; مطار بن غوريون الدولي), commonly referred to as Ben Gurion Airport or Natbag (נתב״ג), is the main international airport of Israel and the busiest airport in the country, located to the southeast of Tel Aviv.
The Ben-Gurion House is a historic house museum in Tel Aviv, which served as the family home of pre-State Zionist leader and then first Defense and Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion, between 1931 and 1953.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), (אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב, Universitat Ben-Guriyon baNegev) is a public research university in Beersheba, Israel.
Ben-Gurion's hut (צריף בן גוריון, Tzrif Ben Gurion) was the retirement home of Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and his wife Paula (Pola) from the years 1953 until Ben-Gurion's death in 1973.
Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.
Dov Ber Borochov (Дов-Бер Борохов; July 3, 1881 – December 17, 1917) was a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement and unusually for a Zionist, as a pioneer in the study of Yiddish as a language.
Berl Katznelson (ברל כצנלסון, 25 January 1887 – 12 August 1944) was one of the intellectual founders of Labor Zionism, instrumental to the establishment of the modern state of Israel, and the editor of Davar, the first daily newspaper of the workers' movement.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
The Bialik Prize is an annual literary award given by the municipality of Tel Aviv, Israel for significant accomplishments in Hebrew literature.
A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period.
Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.
Chaytor's Force (13 August – 31 October 1918) named after its commander, Major General Edward Chaytor, was a composite division-sized force which served in the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Chief of the General Staff, also known as the Commander-in-Chief of the Israel Defense Forces (Rosh HaMateh HaKlali, abbr. Ramatkal—), is the supreme commander and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
David Landau OBE (22 June 1947 – 27 January 2015) was a British/Israeli journalist and newspaper editor.
Deir al-Asad (דֵיר אֶל-אַסַד; دير الأسد) is an Arab town in the Galilee region of Israel, near Karmiel.
Deir Yassin (دير ياسين, Dayr Yāsīn) was a Palestinian Arab village of around 600 inhabitants about west of Jerusalem.
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian-Czechoslovak arms deal was an agreement between the USSR and Egypt led by Gamal Abdel Nasser, announced in September 1955, to supply Egypt with more than $250 million worth of modern Soviet weaponry, through Czechoslovakia.
Eilabun (عيلبون Ailabun, עַילַבּוּן, עֵילַבּוּ) is an Israeli Arab local council in northern Israel.
Ein Harod (עֵין חֲרוֹד) was a kibbutz in Israel between 1921 and 1952, when it split into Ein Harod (Ihud) and Ein Harod (Meuhad).
Eliezer Kaplan (אליעזר קפלן; Эліэзер Каплан; 27 January 1891–13 July 1952) was a Zionist activist, Israeli politician, one of the signatories of the Israeli declaration of independence and the country's first Minister of Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.
English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection.
Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Israeli General Staff (המטה הכללי של צה"ל), abbreviated Matkal (מטכ"ל), is the supreme command of the Israel Defense Forces.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Golda Meir (גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר;, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.
The Gordian Knot is a legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Haganah (הַהֲגָנָה, lit. The Defence) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine (1921–48), which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
Histadrut HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed (הסתדרות הנוער העובד והלומד, lit. "Federation of Young Students and Workers" and most commonly translated as Working and Studying Youth), abbreviated No'al, is an Israeli youth movement, a sister movement of Habonim Dror, and affiliated with the Labor Zionist movement.
Hapoel Hatzair (The Young Worker) was a Zionist group active in Palestine from 1905 until 1930.
Hashomer (השומר, "The Watchman") was a Jewish defense organization in Palestine founded in April 1909.
Havlagah (ההבלגה, "The Restraint") was a strategic policy used by the Haganah members with regard to actions taken against Arab groups who were attacking the Jewish settlement during the British Mandate of Palestine.
The Hebraization of surnames (also Hebraicization) (עברות, Ivrut, "Hebraization") is the act of adopting a Hebrew surname in exchange for their diaspora names.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
HeHalutz or Hechalutz (החלוץ, lit. The Pioneer) was a Jewish youth movement that trained young people for agricultural settlement in the Land of Israel.
Histadrut or the General Organization of Workers in Israel originally (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל, HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim B'Eretz Yisrael) is Israel's national trade union centre, representing the majority of trade unionists in the State of Israel.
A historic house museum is a house that has been transformed into a museum.
The history of the Jews of Thessaloniki, (Greece) reaches back two thousand years.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Hovevei Zion (חובבי ציון, lit. Lovers of Zion), also known as Hibbat Zion (חיבת ציון), refers to a variety of organizations which began in 1881 in response to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire and were officially constituted as a group at a conference led by Leon Pinsker in 1884.
Ilaniya (אִילָנִיָּה) is a moshav in northern Israel.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
The Irgun (ארגון; full title:, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) is an Israeli government defense research institute specializing in biology, medicinal chemistry and environmental science.
The Israel Police (Mišteret Yisra'el; Shurtat Isrāʼīl) is the civilian police force of Israel.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
Elections for the third Knesset were held in Israel on 26 July 1955.
Elections for the sixth Knesset were held in Israel on 2 November 1965.
Elections for the seventh Knesset were held in Israel on 28 October 1969.
Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish Agency for Israel (הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world.
The Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine involved paramilitary actions carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine.
The Jewish Legion (1917–1921) is an unofficial name used to refer to five battalions of Jewish volunteers, the 38th to 42nd (Service) Battalions of the Royal Fusiliers, raised in the British Army to fight against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
Jish (الجش; גִ'שׁ, גּוּשׁ חָלָב, Gush Halav) is a local council in Upper Galilee, located on the northeastern slopes of Mount Meron, north of Safed, in Israel's Northern District.
Joachim Prinz (May 10, 1902 – September 30, 1988) was a German-American rabbi who was outspoken against Nazism and became a Zionist leader.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb, KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC, KStJ, KPM (16 April 1897 – 17 March 1986), known as Glubb Pasha, was a British soldier, scholar and author, who led and trained Transjordan's Arab Legion between 1939 and 1956 as its commanding general.
Josippon is a chronicle of Jewish history from Adam to the age of Titus believed to have been written by Josippon or Joseph ben Gorion.
Kafr Kanna (كفر كنا, Kafr Kanā; כַּפְר כַּנָּא) is an Arab town, in Galilee, part of the Northern District of Israel.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
The King David Hotel bombing was a terrorist attack carried out on Monday, July 22, 1946, by the militant right-wing Zionist underground organization the Irgun on the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
Labor Zionism or Socialist Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת סוֹצְיָאלִיסְטִית, translit. tziyonut sotzyalistit) is the left-wing of the Zionist movement.
The Lavon affair refers to a failed Israeli covert operation, code named Operation Susannah, conducted in Egypt in the Summer of 1954.
Levi Eshkol (לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל;, born Levi Yitzhak Shkolnik (לוי יצחק שקולניק)‎ 25 October 1895 – 26 February 1969) was an Israeli statesman who served as the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death from a heart attack in 1969.
This article deals with acts of Palestinian political violence against Israeli civilians between the establishment of the 1949 Armistice Agreements and the 1967 Six-Day War.
The following is a list of people suspected of committing war crimes on behalf of Nazi Germany or any of the Axis powers during World War II.
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.
This article lists the Prime Ministers of Israel since the adoption of the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948.
Maida Vale is an affluent residential district comprising the northern part of Paddington in west London, west of St John's Wood and south of Kilburn.
Majd al-Krum (مجد الكروم, מַגְ'ד אל-כֻּרוּם Majd al-Kurum) is an Arab town located in the Upper Galilee in Israel's Northern District about 16 kilometers (10 miles) east of Acre.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Mapai (מַפָּא"י, an acronym for, Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael, lit. "Workers' Party of the Land of Israel") was a centre-left political party in Israel, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the modern-day Israeli Labor Party in 1968.
Mapam (מפ"ם, an acronym for Mifleget HaPoalim HaMeuhedet, lit. United Workers Party, حزب العمال الموحد, abbreviated 'مبام') was a left-wing political party in Israel.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
Midreshet Ben-Gurion (מִדְרֶשֶׁת בֶּן גּוּרְיוֹן), also known as Midreshet Sde Boker, is an educational center and boarding school in southern Israel.
The Ministry of Defense (מִשְׂרַד הַבִּטָּחוֹן, Misrad HaBitahon) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats.
Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.
Moshe Sharett (משה שרת, born Moshe Shertok (Hebrew)‎ 15 October 1894 – 7 July 1965) was the second Prime Minister of Israel (1954–55), serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurion's two terms.
Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
Mount Hebron (הר חברון, جبل الخليل) is a Mountian ridge and geographic region and geologic formation, comprising the bulk of the central Judean Mountains.
Nahum Goldmann (נחום גולדמן) (July 10, 1895 – August 29, 1982) was a leading Zionist and the founder and longtime president of the World Jewish Congress.
The National List (רשימה ממלכתית, Reshima Mamlakhtit), sometimes translated as the State List, was a political party in Israel.
A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.
National Water Carrier of Israel The National Water Carrier of Israel (המוביל הארצי, HaMovil HaArtzi) is the largest water project in Israel.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Operation Focus (מבצע מוקד, Mivtza Moked) was the opening airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six-Day War in 1967.
Operation Hiram was a military operation conducted by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Operation Magic Carpet is a widely known nickname for Operation On Wings of Eagles (כנפי נשרים, Kanfei Nesharim), an operation between June 1949 and September 1950 that brought 49,000 Yemenite Jews to the new state of Israel.
Operation Olive Leaves (מבצע עלי זית, Mivtza ʿAlei Zayit) also known as Operation Kinneret (the Hebrew name for the Sea of Galilee) was an Israeli reprisal operation undertaken on December 10–11, 1955, against fortified Syrian emplacements near the north-eastern shores of the Sea of Galilee.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palestinian fedayeen (from the Arabic fidā'ī, plural fidā'iyūn, فدائيون) are militants or guerrillas of a nationalist orientation from among the Palestinian people.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Palmach (Hebrew:, acronym for Plugot Maḥatz (Hebrew), lit. "strike forces") was the elite fighting force of the Haganah, the underground army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Paul Bede Johnson (born 2 November 1928) is an English journalist, popular historian, speechwriter, and author.
Paula Ben-Gurion (April פולה בן גוריון; 1892 – 29 June 1968) was the Russian-born wife of David Ben-Gurion, the first Prime Minister of the State of Israel.
Płońsk (פּלאָנסק) is a town in north-central Poland with 22,500 inhabitants (2010).
The Peel Commission, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry, headed by Lord Peel, appointed in 1936 to investigate the causes of unrest in Mandatory Palestine, which was administered by Britain, following the six-month-long Arab general strike in Mandatory Palestine.
Petah Tikva (פֶּתַח תִּקְוָה,, "Opening of Hope"), also known as Em HaMoshavot ("Mother of the Moshavot"), is a city in the Central District of Israel, east of Tel Aviv.
Pinhas Lavon (פנחס לבון, 12 July 1904 – 24 January 1976) was an Israeli politician, minister and labor leader, best known for the Lavon Affair.
Poale Zion (also spelled Poalei Tziyon or Poaley Syjon, meaning "Workers of Zion") was a movement of Marxist–Zionist Jewish workers founded in various cities of Poland, Europe and the Russian Empire in about the turn of the 20th century after the Bund rejected Zionism in 1901.
Pomona is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States.
The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
Rafi (רַפִ"י, an acronym for Reshimat Poalei Yisrael (רְשִׁימָת פּוֹעַלֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), lit. Israeli Workers List) was a center-left political party in Israel, founded by former Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion in 1965.
Ramat Gan (help; رَمَات چَان) is a city in the Tel Aviv District of Israel, located east of Tel Aviv.
The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Luxemburger Abkommen "Luxembourg Agreement" or Wiedergutmachungsabkommen "Wiedergutmachung Agreement", Hebrew: הסכם השילומים Heskem HaShillumim "Reparations Agreement") was signed on September 10, 1952,USHMM:, USHMM photograph #11019.
Reprisal operations (פעולות התגמול) were raids carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in the 1950s and 1960s in response to frequent fedayeen attacks during which armed Arab militants infiltrated Israel from Syria, Egypt and Jordan to carry out attacks on Israeli civilians and soldiers.
The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in continuous existence for 283 years.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sa'sa' (سعسع, סעסע) was a Palestinian village, located 12 kilometres northwest of Safed that was depopulated by Israeli forces during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.
Safsaf (صفصاف, the weeping willow, also known in Roman times as Safsofa) was a Palestinian village located 9 kilometres northwest of Safed, present-day Israel.
Saliha (صَلْحَة), sometimes trasliterated Salha, meaning 'the good/healthy place', was a Palestinian Arab village located 12 kilometres northwest of Safed.
Sde Boker (שְׂדֵה בּוֹקֵר, lit. Herding Field) is a kibbutz in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shabtai Teveth (שבתי טבת; 1925 – 1 November 2014), was an Israeli historian and an anti-Revisionist author.
The Chaim Sheba Medical Center at Tel HaShomer (המרכז הרפואי ע"ש חיים שיבא – תל השומר), also Tel HaShomer Hospital, is the largest hospital in Israel, located in the Tel HaShomer neighborhood of Ramat Gan, in the Tel Aviv District.
Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס,; born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel (2007–2014), the Prime Minister of Israel (twice), and the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s.
Shlomo Kaplansky (שלמה קפלנסקי; b. 7 March 1884 in Białystok, d. 7 December 1950 in Haifa) was a Labour Zionist politician, who served as the secretary of the World Union of Poalei Zion.
Simha Flapan (1911–1987) was an Israeli historian and politician.
The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
The Solomon Bublick Award (Solomon Bublick Public Service Award or Solomon Bublick Prize) is an award made by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem to a person who has made an important contribution to the advancement and development of the State of Israel.
In Israel, the term status quo (or the secular–religious status quo) refers to the political understanding between religious and secular political parties not to alter the communal arrangement in relation to religious matters, in a predominantly secular population.
The Straits of Tiran (مضيق تيران) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea proper.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Tantura (الطنطورة, al-Tantura, lit. The Peak; Hebrew and Phoenician: דור, Dor) was a Palestinian Arab fishing village located northwest of Zikhron Ya'akov on the Mediterranean coast of Palestine.
Theodor "Teddy" Kollek (טדי קולק; 27 May 1911 – 2 January 2007) was an Israeli politician who served as the mayor of Jerusalem from 1965 to 1993, and founder of the Jerusalem Foundation.
Tel HaShomer (תֵּל הַשּׁוֹמֵר, lit. Hill of the Guardsman) or Kiryat Krinitzi is a Neighborhood in Ramat Gan, Israel.
Prior to the establishment of the state of Israel the leader of the Yishuv, David Ben-Gurion, made several attempts to reorganise the main underground militia, the Haganah, and its elite force, the Palmach.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Commando Unit 101 (Hebrew: יחידה 101) was a special forces unit of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), founded and commanded by Ariel Sharon on orders from Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion in August 1953.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland.
The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف Ḥarb al-Istinzāf, מלחמת ההתשה Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The White Paper of 1939Occasionally also known as the MacDonald White Paper (e.g. Caplan, 2015, p.117) after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over its creation.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The World Zionist Organization (הַהִסְתַּדְּרוּת הַצִּיּוֹנִית הָעוֹלָמִית; HaHistadrut HaTzionit Ha'Olamit), or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization (ZO; 1897–1960) at the initiative of Theodor Herzl at the First World Zionist Congress, which took place in August 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.
Yeshayahu Leibowitz (ישעיהו ליבוביץ; 29 January 1903 – 18 August 1994) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual, professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and neurophysiology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a polymath known for his outspoken opinions on Judaism, ethics, religion, and politics.
Yigal Hurvitz (יִגָּאֵל הורביץ 1918 – 10 January 1994) was an Israeli politician who served as a government minister in the late 1970s and 1980s.
The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (יצחק בן־צבי Yitshak Ben-Tsvi; 24 November 188423 April 1963) was a historian, Labor Zionist leader and the second and longest-serving President of Israel.
Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Zalman Shazar (זלמן שז"ר; November 24, 1889 – October 5, 1974) was an Israeli politician, author and poet.
Ze'ev Jabotinsky, MBE (זאב ז'בוטינסקי, Ze'ev Zhabotinski; זאב זשאבאטינסקי; born Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky, Влади́мир Евге́ньевич Жаботи́нский; 5 (17) October 1880, Odessa – 4 August 1940, Hunter, New York), was a Russian Jewish Revisionist Zionist leader, author, poet, orator, soldier and founder of the Jewish Self-Defense Organization in Odessa.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.
The 7th arrondissement of Paris (VIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.
Ben Gurian, Ben Gurion, Ben-Gurion, Ben-Gurionism, David Ben Gurion, David Ben Guryan, David Ben-Guryan, David Bengurion, David Gruen, David Grun, David Grüen, David Grün, David ben Gurion, David ben-Gurion, דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן.