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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was a local chieftain of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid-1330s BC).
Abdullah Yousef el-Tell (عبدالله التل, 17 July 1918–1973) served in the Transjordanian Arab Legion during the 1948 war in Palestine rising from the rank of company commander to become Military Governor of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, MA, LL.M, FRSA, FRSL (عبداللہ یوسف علی‎; 14 April 1872 – 10 December 1953) was a British-Indian barrister and scholar who wrote a number of books about Islam and whose translation of the Qur'an into English is one of the most widely known and used in the English-speaking world.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Abu Dis or Abu Deis (أبو ديس) is a Palestinian village in the Jerusalem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority bordering Jerusalem.
Abu Ghosh (أبو غوش; אבו גוש) is an Arab-Israeli local council in Israel, located west of Jerusalem on the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway.
Abu Tor (أبو طور or الثوري, אבו תור) (lit. "Father of the Bull") is a mixed Jewish and Arab neighborhood in Jerusalem, south of the Old City.
The Academy of the Hebrew Language (הָאָקָדֶמְיָה לַלָּשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית, Ha-Akademya la-Lashon ha-Ivrit) was established by the Israeli government in 1953 as the "supreme institution for scholarship on the Hebrew language in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem of Givat Ram campus." It is an educational institution with the mission of creating new Hebrew words to ensure that the language does not die out.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Aelia Capitolina (Latin in full) was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins following the siege of 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 AD.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Al-Aqsa Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, "the Farthest Mosque"), located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam.
The Night Journey or Sūrat al-Isrāʼ (سورة الإسراء) or Sūrat Banī Isrāʼīl (سورة بني إسرائيل) is the 17th surah of the Quran, with 111 verses.
Al-Kamil (الكامل) (full name: al-Malik al-Kamil Naser ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Muhammad) (c. 1177 – 6 March 1238) was a Kurdish ruler, the fourth Ayyubid sultan of Egypt.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Al-Quds University (جامعة القدس) is a Palestinian university with campuses in Jerusalem, Abu Dis, and al-Bireh.
Al-Ram, A-Ram, Er Ram or al-Ramm (الرّام) is a Palestinian town which lies northeast of Jerusalem, just outside the city's municipal border.
Muhammad ibn Sa'id al-Tamimi (أبو عبد الله محمد بن سعيد التميمي), (d. 990), known by his kunya, "Abu Abdullah," but more commonly as Al-Tamimi, the physician, was a tenth century Arab physician, who came to renown on account of his medical works.
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
The American Colony was a colony established in Jerusalem in 1881 by members of a Christian utopian society led by Anna and Horatio Spafford.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anna Ticho (Hebrew: אנה טיכו) (born October 27, 1894, died March 1, 1980) was a Jewish artist who became famous for her drawings of the Jerusalem hills.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens whose primary language or linguistic heritage is Arabic. Many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the terminology and self-identification sections for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Arculf (later 7th century) was a Frankish Bishop who toured the Levant in around 680.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.
The Armenian Quarter (حارة الأرمن, Harat al-Arman; הרובע הארמני, Ha-Rova ha-Armeni; Հայոց թաղ, Hayots t'agh) is one of the four quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Artaxerxes I (اردشیر یکم., 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, "whose rule (xšaça R. Schmitt.. Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012.; Artaxérxēs) was the fifth King of Persia from 465 BC to 424 BC. He was the third son of Xerxes I. He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a Satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria. In Greek sources he is also surnamed "long-handed" (μακρόχειρ Macrocheir; Longimanus), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left.
Zaheer-ul-Daulah Artuk Beg (also known as "son of Eksük") was a Turkish commander of the Seljuq Empire in the 11th century.
Arutz Sheva (lit), also known in English as Israel National News, is an Israeli media network identifying with Religious Zionism.
The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI) (Hebrew: האגודה לזכויות האזרח בישראל; Arabic: جمعية حقوق المواطن في اسرائيل) was created in 1972 as an independent, non-partisan not-for-profit organization with the mission of protecting human rights and civil rights in Israel and the territories under its control.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Atarot Airport (נמל התעופה ירושלים, مطار القدس الدولي), (also Kalandia Airport, Qalandia Airport, and Jerusalem Airport) is a regional airport, currently not in use, located between Jerusalem and Ramallah.
Atsiz Ibn Uwaq al-Khwarizmi, also known as al-Aqsis, Atsiz ibn Uvaq, Atsiz ibn Oq and Atsiz ibn Abaq (died 1078 or 1079), was a Khwarezmian Turkish mercenary commander who established a principality in Palestine and southern Syria after seizing these from the Fatimid Caliphate in 1071.
Avram Hershko (אברהם הרשקו; born 31 December 1937) is a Hungarian-born Israeli biochemist and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.
is a city located in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Azmi Bishara (عزمي بشارة, עַזְמִי בִשַארָה, born 22 July 1956, Nazareth) is an Arab public intellectual, political philosopher and author.
Ænon, more commonly written Aenon, is the site mentioned by the Gospel of John as the place where John was baptising after his encounter with Jesus.
Shin-Lamedh-Mem is the triconsonantal root of many Semitic words, and many of those words are used as names.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
Te'udat Bagrut is a certificate which attests that a student has successfully passed Israel's high school matriculation examination.
The Bank of Israel (בנק ישראל, بنك إسرائيل) is the central bank of Israel.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Bar-Ilan University (אוניברסיטת בר-אילן Universitat Bar-Ilan) is a public research university in the city of Ramat Gan in the Tel Aviv District, Israel.
Bard College is a private liberal arts college in Annandale-on-Hudson, a hamlet in New York, United States.
The Basic Laws of Israel (חוקי היסוד, ħuqey ha-yesod) are the constitutional laws of the State of Israel, and can only be changed by a supermajority vote in the Knesset.
The Battle for Jerusalem occurred from December 1947 to 18 July 1948, during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine.
The Battle of Jerusalem occurred during the British Empire's "Jerusalem Operations" against the Ottoman Empire, when fighting for the city developed from 17 November, continuing after the surrender until 30 December 1917, to secure the final objective of the Southern Palestine Offensive during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Before Jerusalem could be secured, two battles were recognised by the British as being fought in the Judean Hills to the north and east of the Hebron–Junction Station line.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beit 'Anan (بيت عنان) is a Palestinian village in northwest Jerusalem.
Beit Aghion (בית אגיון), also known as Beit Rosh HaMemshala (lit. House of the Prime Minister) is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Israel.
Beit Dagan (בֵּית דָּגָן, lit. "House of Grain") is a town and local council in the Central District of Israel.
Beit David was the fourth Jewish neighborhood outside the walls of Jerusalem.
Beit Guvrin (בֵּית גֻּבְרִין, lit. House of Men in Aramaic) is a kibbutz in the Lakhish region, west of the ancient city of Beit Guvrin, for which it is named.
Beit HaNassi (בֵּית הַנָּשִׂיא ("President's House"), also known as Mishkan HaNassi (מִשְׁכָּן הַנָּשִׂיא) is the official residence of the President of Israel. It is located in the Talbiya neighborhood of Jerusalem.
Beit Jala (بيت جالا) is a Palestinian Christian town in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank.
Beit Shemesh (בֵּית שֶׁמֶשׁ,; بيت شيمش; Bethsames, Beth Shamesh, Bethshamesh or Bet shemesh and most often Beth-Shemesh in English translations of the Hebrew Bible) is a city located approximately west of Jerusalem in Israel's Jerusalem District, with a population of in.
Beit Ya'akov (Hebrew: בית יעקב) is a small neighborhood in Jerusalem, founded in 1877, the ninth Jewish neighborhood outside the walls of the Old City.
Beitar Jerusalem Football Club (מועדון כדורגל בית"ר ירושלים; Moadon Kaduregel Beitar Yerushalayim), commonly known as Beitar Jerusalem, or simply as Beitar, is an Israeli professional football club based in the city of Jerusalem.
Ben Gurion International Airport (נמל התעופה הבינלאומי בן גוריון; مطار بن غوريون الدولي), commonly referred to as Ben Gurion Airport or Natbag (נתב״ג), is the main international airport of Israel and the busiest airport in the country, located to the southeast of Tel Aviv.
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design is Israel's national school of art.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible Lands Museum (מוזיאון ארצות המקרא ירושלים.) is an archaeological museum in Jerusalem, Israel, that explores the culture of the peoples mentioned in the Bible, among them the ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, Arameans, Hittites, Elamites, Phoenicians and Persians.
The Binding of Isaac (עֲקֵידַת יִצְחַק Aqedat Yitzhaq, in Hebrew also simply "The Binding", הָעֲקֵידָה Ha-Aqedah), is a story from the Hebrew Bible found in Genesis 22.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bnei Brak (בְּנֵי בְרַק, bənê ḇəraq) is a city located on the central Mediterranean coastal plain in Israel, just east of Tel Aviv.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Mandate for Mesopotamia (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق) was a Mandate proposed to be entrusted to Britain at the San Remo, Italy-based conference,The new Cambridge modern history.
The Broad Wall is an ancient defensive wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
Al-Burāq (البُراق al-Burāq or "lightning") is a steed in Islamic mythology, a creature from the heavens that transported the prophets.
The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Calvary, or Golgotha (Biblical Greek Γολγοθᾶ Golgotha, traditionally interpreted as reflecting Syriac (Aramaic) golgolta, as it were Hebrew gulgōleṯ "skull" Strong's Concordance.), was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The Cenacle (from Latin cēnāculum "dining room", later spelt coenaculum and semantically drifting towards "upper room"), also known as the "Upper Room", is a room in the David's Tomb Compound in Jerusalem, traditionally held to be the site of the Last Supper.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Channel 2 (Arutz Shtaim), also called "The Second Channel" (HaArutz HaSheni) was an Israeli commercial television channel.
Channel Eser (ערוץ עשר), formerly known as Israel 10 (ישראל 10, Yisra'el Eser) and Channel 10 (10 ערוץ) is a commercial broadcasting television channel licensed in Israel.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chords Bridge (גשר המיתרים, Gesher HaMeitarim), also called the Bridge of Strings or Jerusalem Light Rail Bridge, is a side-spar cable-stayed bridge in Jerusalem, Israel.
The Christian Quarter (حارة النصارى, Ḥārat al-Naṣārā; הרובע הנוצרי, Ha-Rova ha-Notsri) is one of the four quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem, the other three being the Jewish Quarter, the Muslim Quarter and the Armenian Quarter.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
City Line (הקו העירוני, Pronounced: HaKav HaIroni) is the name given to a segment of the Green Line that divided the city of Jerusalem from 1948 to 1967.
The City of David (עיר דוד, Ir David; literal translation to مدينة داوود, Madina Dawud, common Arabic name: وادي حلوه, Wadi Hilweh) is an Israeli settlement and the archaeological site which is speculated to compose the original urban core of ancient Jerusalem.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Conference of Lausanne was a conference held in Lausanne, Switzerland, during 1922 and 1923.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Corpus separatum (Latin for "separated body") is a term used to describe the Jerusalem area in the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Czesław Dźwigaj (born 18 June 1950 in Nowy Wiśnicz) is a Polish artist, sculptor, and professor.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damascus Gate (Bāb al-ʿĀmūd, שער שכם, Sha'ar Sh'khem) is one of the main entrances to the Old City of Jerusalem.
Dan Bus Company (דן חברה לתחבורה ציבורית) is an Israeli bus company based in Tel Aviv.
Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral economics, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with Vernon L. Smith).
Daniel Libeskind (born May 12, 1946) is a Polish-American architect, artist, professor and set designer.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Jonathan Gross (born February 19, 1941) is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist.
King David's Tomb (קבר דוד המלך) is a site considered by some to be the burial place of David, King of Israel, according to a tradition beginning in the 12th century.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
Jerusalem's population size and composition has shifted many times over its 5,000 year history.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
The Diskin Orphanage was an orphanage in the Old City of Jerusalem, established in 1881 by Yehoshua Leib Diskin.
There are six main administrative districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and Arabic as mintaqah and fifteen sub-districts (also referred to as counties) known as nafot (singular: nafa). Each sub-district is further divided into Cities, municipalities, and Regional councils it contains.
The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Dore Gold (דורי גולד, born 1953) is an Israeli diplomat who has served in various positions under several Israeli governments.
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
The East Jerusalem Central Bus Station is an Arab transportation hub serving Arab neighborhoods in Jerusalem and the West Bank.
East Talpiot or Armon HaNetziv is a Jewish neighborhood in southern East Jerusalem, established by Israel in 1973 on land captured in the Six-Day War and occupied since.
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Egged Israel Transport Cooperative Society Ltd (אֶגֶד), a cooperative owned by its members, is the largest transit bus company in Israel.
Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Ehud Barak (Ehud_barak.ogg, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001.
Ein Karem (עֵין כֶּרֶם, lit. "Spring of the Vineyard", and عين كارم - ʿEin Kārem or ʿAyn Kārim; also Ain Karem, Ein Kerem) is an ancient village of the Jerusalem District and now a neighbourhood in southwest Jerusalem and the site of the Hadassah Medical Center.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
Eric H. Cline (born September 1, 1960) is an author, historian, archaeologist, and professor of ancient history and archaeology at The George Washington University (GWU) in Washington DC, where he is Professor of Classics and Anthropology and the former Chair of the Department of Classical and Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, as well as Director of the GWU Capitol Archaeological Institute.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
EuroCup Basketball, commonly known as EuroCup and currently called the 7DAYS EuroCup for name sponsorship reasons, is an annual European-wide second tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2002, for eligible European basketball clubs.
Eutychius of Alexandria (Arabic: Sa'id ibn Batriq or Bitriq; 10 September 877 – 12 May 940) was the Melkite Patriarch of Alexandria.
Execration texts, also referred to as Proscription Lists, are ancient Egyptian hieratic texts, listing enemies of the Pharaoh, most often enemies of the Egyptian state or troublesome foreign neighbors.
The expansion of Jerusalem in the 19th century, also referred to as the departure from the walls, was the process of building new residences outside of the Old City walls, and shifting the city center to the new neighborhoods.
In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions or ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other countries.
This article describes extreme locations on Earth.
Faisal al-Husseini International Stadium is an association football stadium on Dahiat al'Barid St in Al-Ram.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Félix-Marie Abel (December 29, 1878 – March 24, 1953) was a French archaeologist, a geographer, and a professor at the École Biblique in Jerusalem.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
French Hill (הגבעה הצרפתית, HaGiv'a HaTzarfatit, التلة الفرنسية, at-tel al-faransiya), also Giv'at Shapira (גִּבְעַת שַׁפִּירָא) is a neighborhood and Israeli settlement in northern East Jerusalem.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Gehenna (from Γέεννα, Geenna from גיא בן הינום, Gei Ben-Hinnom; Mishnaic Hebrew: /, Gehinnam/Gehinnom) is a small valley in Jerusalem.
The Genesis Apocryphon (1Q20), also called the Tales of the Patriarchs or the Apocalypse of Lamech and labeled 1QapGen, is one of the original seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1946 by Bedouin shepherds in Cave 1 near Qumran, a city in the northwest corner of the Dead Sea.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Gerard Behar Center (מרכז ז'ראר בכר) is a major arts centre in Jerusalem, Israel, for independent theatre, dance, and musical productions, children's shows, art exhibitions, artist workshops, and festivals.
The German Colony (המושבה הגרמנית, HaMoshava HaGermanit) is a neighborhood in Jerusalem, established in the second half of the 19th century by members of the German Temple Society.
The Gihon Spring or Fountain of the Virgin in the Kidron Valley was the main source of water for the Pool of Siloam in the City of David, the original site of Jerusalem.
Giv'at Ze'ev (גִּבְעַת זְאֵב) is an Israeli settlement BBC News, 22 September 2009.
Givat Ram (גִּבְעַת רָם) is a neighborhood in central Jerusalem.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
GOD TV is an international Christian media network that started in the UK and is now worldwide.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Governorates of the Palestinian National Authority are the administrative divisions of the Palestinian Territories.
Jerusalem metropolitan area is the area encompassing the approximately one hundred square miles surrounding the Old City of Jerusalem with population of 1,253,900.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Green Line, or (pre-) 1967 border or 1949 Armistice border, is the demarcation line set out in the 1949 Armistice Agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its neighbors (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Hadassah Medical Center (מרכז רפואי הדסה) is an Israeli medical organization established in 1934 that operates two university hospitals at Ein Kerem and Mount Scopus in Jerusalem as well as schools of medicine, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacology affiliated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
HaKirya, or The Kirya (הַקִּרְיָה, lit. The Campus), is an area in central Tel Aviv, containing the Tel-Aviv District government center and the major Israel Defense Forces base, Camp Rabin (מַחֲנֶה רַבִּין, Mahaneh Rabin), named for Yitzhak Rabin.
Hans Köchler (born 18 October 1948) is a retired professor of philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and president of the International Progress Organization, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the United Nations.
Hapoel Jerusalem Basketball Club (הפועל ירושלים), for sponsorships reasons Hapoel Bank Yahav Jerusalem, is the premier professional basketball club of the City of Jerusalem and competes in the EuroCup, Israeli Premier League, and the Israeli State Cup.
Hapoel Jerusalem Football Club (מועדון כדורגל הפועל ירושלים, Mo'adon Kadouregel Hapoel Yerushalayim) is an Israeli football club in Liga Alef.
Har Hotzvim (הר חוצבים, lit. Stonecutter's Mountain), also Campus of Science-Rich Industries (Kiryat Ta'asiyot Atirot Mada) is a high-tech industrial park located in northwest Jerusalem.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Herod Agrippa II (AD 27/28 – or 100) officially named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes shortened to Agrippa, was the eighth and last ruler of Judea from the Herodian dynasty.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Highway 50, officially called Begin Boulevard (שדרות בגין, Sderot Begin) and also referred to as Menachem Begin Expressway or Begin Highway, is an urban freeway in western Jerusalem named after Israel's sixth Prime Minister, Menachem Begin.
Highway 60 or Route 60 (כביש 60, "Kvish Shishim") is a south-north intercity road in Israel and the West Bank that stretches from Beersheba to Nazareth.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Historiography is the study of how history is written.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been attacked 52 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, besieged 23 times, and destroyed twice.
There are sites, which are mentioned or referred to in the Quran, that are considered holy to Islam.
Holy city is a term applied to many cities, all of them central to the history or faith of specific religions.
The Holy of Holies (Tiberian Hebrew: Qṓḏeš HaQŏḏāšîm) is a term in the Hebrew Bible which refers to the inner sanctuary of the Tabernacle where God dwelt.
Hossein Askari (حسین عسگری., born March 23, 1975 in Khomein) is an Iranian professional racing cyclist, who was suspended for one year for doping in 2013 and 2014.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hurva Synagogue, (בית הכנסת החורבה, translit: Beit ha-Knesset ha-Hurva, lit. "The Ruin Synagogue"), also known as Hurvat Rabbi Yehudah he-Hasid ("Ruin of Rabbi Judah the Pious"), is a historic synagogue located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Najm ad-Din Ilghazi ibn Artuq (died November 8, 1122) was the Turkmen Artukid ruler of Mardin from 1107 to 1122.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
An international city is an autonomous or semi-autonomous city-state that is separate from the direct supervision of any single nation-state.
The International Convention Center (מרכז הקונגרסים הבינלאומי, Merkaz HaKongresim HaBeinLeumi), commonly known as Binyenei HaUma (בנייני האומה, lit. Buildings of the nation), is a concert hall and convention center in Giv'at Ram in Jerusalem.
Ir Amim (עיר עמים; "City of Peoples" or "City of Nations") is an Israeli left-wing activist non-profit organization founded in 2004 that focuses on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in Jerusalem.
Isabel Kershner is a journalist and author who began reporting from Jerusalem for The New York Times in 2007.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Museum is a museum on the Temple Mount in the Old City section of Jerusalem.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
The Isra and Mi'raj (الإسراء والمعراج) are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam, Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621 CE.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, based in Jerusalem, was established in 1961 by the State of Israel to foster contact between Israeli scholars in the sciences and humanities and create a think tank for advising the government on research projects of national importance.
The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA, רשות העתיקות rashut ha-'atiqot; داﺌرة الآثار, before 1990, the Israel Department of Antiquities) is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities.
The Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was Israel's state broadcasting organization from 1948 until May 2017.
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Israel Festival (פסטיבל ישראל) is a multidisciplinary arts festival held every spring in Israel.
Israel Finkelstein (ישראל פינקלשטיין, born March 29, 1949) is an Israeli archaeologist and academic.
The Israel Meteorological Service (השירות המטאורולוגי הישראלי, HaSherut HaMete'orologi HaYisra'eli) is a unit of the Israeli Ministry of Transportation that is responsible for forecasting weather, meteorological data supply and climate research in Israel.
The Israel Museum (מוזיאון ישראל, Muze'on Yisrael) was established in 1965 as Israel's national museum.
The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisre'elit) is an Israeli symphony orchestra based in Tel Aviv.
Israel Railways corporation Ltd., dba Israel Railways (רַכֶּבֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Rakevet Yisra'el, خطوط السكك الحديدية الإسرائيلية) is the state-owned principal railway company responsible for all inter-city, commuter, and freight rail transport in Israel.
Israel Standard Time (IST) (שעון ישראל, lit. "Israel Time") is the standard time zone in Israel.
Israel State Archives (ISA) is the national archive of Israel, located in Jerusalem.
The State Cup of Israel (גביע המדינה, Gvia HaMedina), is a knockout cup competition in Israeli football, run by the Israeli Football Association.
Israel Summer Time (שעון קיץ "Summer Clock"), also in English, Israel Daylight Time (IDT) is the practice in Israel by which clocks are advanced by one hour, beginning on the Friday before the last Sunday of March, and ending on the last Sunday of October.
Ligat HaAl (ליגת העל, lit., Super League or Premier League), or the Israeli Basketball Premier League, is the top-tier level league of professional competition in Israeli club basketball, making it Israel's primary basketball competition.
The Israeli Basketball State Cup (גביע המדינה בכדורסל) is the second most important professional basketball competition in Israel, after the Israeli Super League.
Israel's Coastal Plain (מישור החוף, Mishor HaḤof) is the coastal plain along Israel's Mediterranean Sea coast, extending north to south.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
Israeli Jews (יהודים ישראלים, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.
The Israeli Premier League (ליגת העל, Ligat HaAl, lit. The Super League), commonly known as Ligat Winner (ליגת ווינר) for sponsorship reasons with Toto Winner, is an Israeli professional league for association football clubs.
The Israeli West Bank barrier or wall (for further names see here) is a separation barrier in the West Bank or along the Green Line.
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
The Israelite Tower (המגדל הישראלי) is an archaeological site in Jerusalem's Jewish Quarter.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jabal Al Mukaber is a Palestinian football team from the city of East Jerusalem, that plays in the West Bank Premier League.
Jabel Mukaber (جبل مكبر, ג'בל מוכאבר) is a predominantly Arab neighborhood in southern East Jerusalem.
Saint Jacob Baradaeus (Greek: Βαραδαῖος; Arabic: مار يعقوب البرادعي; Syriac: ܝܥܩܘܒ ܒܘܪܕܥܝܐ), also known as Jacob bar Addai or Jacob bar Theophilus, was the Bishop of Edessa from 543/544 until his death in 578.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jaffa Gate (שער יפו, Sha'ar Yafo; باب الخليل, Bab al-Khalil, "Hebron Gate"; also Arabic, Bab Mihrab Dawud, "Gate of David's Chamber"; Crusader name: "David's Gate") is a stone portal in the historic walls of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Jaffa Road (רחוב יפו, Rehov Yaffo, شارع يافا) is one of the longest and oldest major streets in Jerusalem, Israel.
Jannah (جنّة; plural: Jannat), lit.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Jebusites (ISO 259-3 Ybusi) were a Canaanite tribe who inhabited Jerusalem prior to its conquest by Joshua (11:3 and 12:10) or King David (2 Samuel 5:6-10).
The Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance (האקדמיה למוסיקה ולמחול בירושלים), is a school for the music and the performing arts in Jerusalem, Israel.
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens in Jerusalem (גן החיות התנ"כי בירושלים על שם משפחת טיש, حديقة الحيوان الكتابية في أورشليم القدس), popularly known as the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo, is a zoo located in the Malha neighborhood of Jerusalem, Israel.
The Jerusalem Central Bus Station (התחנה המרכזית של ירושלים, HaTahanah HaMerkazit Shel Yerushalayim) is the main bus depot in Jerusalem, Israel and one of the busiest bus stations in the country.
The Jerusalem Cinematheque is a cinematheque and film archive in Jerusalem, Israel.
The Jerusalem College of Technology - Lev Academic Center (JCT) (המרכז האקדמי לב), is an Orthodox Jewish college, recognized by the Council for Higher Education.
The Jerusalem Development Authority, or JDA, is a joint agency of the Israeli government and the Jerusalem Municipality that works to promote and develop the economy of the city of Jerusalem.
The Jerusalem District (מחוז ירושלים; منطقة اورشليم (القدس)) is one of six administrative districts of Israel.
The Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 is a public law of the United States passed by the post-Republican Revolution 104th Congress on October 23, 1995.
The Jerusalem Film Festival (פסטיבל הקולנוע ירושלים) is an international film festival held annually in Jerusalem.
The Jerusalem Forest is a municipal pine forest located in the Judean Mountains in the outskirts of Jerusalem.
The Jerusalem Gateway, Rova Mevo Ha'ir in (Hebrew: רובע מבוא העיר), is a project for improving and developing the area that is the main entrance to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv and the coast.
The Jerusalem Governorate (محافظة القدس; (נפת אל-קודס (ירושלים) is one of the 16 Governorates of Palestine and located in the central part of the West Bank.
The Jerusalem Historical City Hall Building (as it is now called) was one of the four public buildings constructed in Jerusalem by the British administration.
For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
Since the 10th century BCE Jerusalem has been the holiest city, focus and spiritual center of the Jews.
The Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research (JIPR), formerly the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, is an independent policy think tank located in Jerusalem, Israel.
Jerusalem Khan Theatre (תיאטרון החאן - Teat'ron HaKhan, lit. "The Caravanserai Theatre") is a Repertory theatre based in Jerusalem, Israel.
The Jerusalem Law (חוק יסוד: ירושלים בירת ישראל, قانون القدس) is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Knesset on 30 July 1980 (17th Av, 5740).
The Jerusalem Light Rail (הרכבת הקלה בירושלים, HaRakevet HaKala Birushalayim) is a light rail system in Jerusalem.
The Jerusalem Marathon is an annual marathon running event held in Jerusalem during the month of March.
Jerusalem March is an annual march in Jerusalem that takes place during the week-long festival of Sukkot.
The Municipality of Jerusalem (עיריית ירושלים) is a municipality of the city of Jerusalem, located in the Jerusalem District.
The Jerusalem Music Centre is an institute for musical education in Mishkenot Sha’ananim, Jerusalem, Israel.
Jerusalem stone (Arabic: حجر القدس; Hebrew: אבן ירושלמית) is a name applied to various types of pale limestone, dolomite and dolomitic limestone, common in and around Jerusalem that have been used in building since ancient times.
The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra of the Israel Broadcasting Authority (Hebrew: התזמורת הסימפונית ירושלים, רשות השידור, ha-Tizmoret ha-Simfonit Yerushalayim Rashut ha-Shidur) is a major orchestra of Israel.
Jerusalem Technology Park (גט"י - הגן הטכנולוגי.), also Malha Technology Park (הגן הטכנולוגי מלחה, Hagan HaTechnologi Malha) is a high-tech industrial park located in the Malha neighborhood of southwest Jerusalem, Israel.
The Jerusalem Theatre (תאטרון ירושלים, The Jerusalem Centre for the Performing Arts) is a centre for the performing arts in Jerusalem.
The Jerusalem Trail, (שביל ירושלים, Shvil Yerushalaim) is a hiking path that extends the Israel National Trail into Jerusalem.
Jerusalem: The Biography is a 2011 bestselling non-fiction book by British popular historian and writer Simon Sebag Montefiore.
Jerusalem–Malha railway station is the main Israel Railways station in Jerusalem.
Jerusalem–Yitzhak Navon railway station (תחנת הרכבת ירושלים – יצחק נבון, Tahanat HaRakevet Yerushalaim–Yitzhak Navon, called previously Jerusalem–HaUma railway station) is a future railway station on the future high-speed railway to Jerusalem near Binyanei HaUma in Jerusalem, Israel.
The Jewish Quarter (הרובע היהודי, HaRova HaYehudi; حارة اليهود, Harat al-Yehud) is one of the four traditional quarters of the Old City of Jerusalem (part of Israeli-occupied East Jerusalem).
Jewish secularism comprises the non-religious Jewish people and the body of work produced by them.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordanian annexation of the West Bank was the occupation and consequent annexation of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) by Jordan (formerly Transjordan) in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
The Jordanian dinar (دينار; code: JOD; unofficially abbreviated as JD) has been the currency of Jordan since 1950.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Joshua or Jehoshua (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehōšuʿa) or Isho (Aramaic: ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܒܲܪ ܢܘܿܢ Eesho Bar Non) is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua.
The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills (הרי יהודה Harei Yehuda, جبال الخليل Jibal Al Khalil), is a mountain range in Israel and the West Bank where Jerusalem and several other biblical cities are located.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judaization of Jerusalem (تهويد القدس, tahweed il-quds; יהוד ירושלים, yehud yerushalaim) is a term used to describe the view that Israel has sought to transform the physical and demographic landscape of Jerusalem to enhance its Jewish character at the expense of its Muslim and Christian ones.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Katamon or Qatamon (قطمون Katamun, קטמון, Καταμώνας Katamónas) is a Jewish neighbourhood in south-central Jerusalem.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khirbet Beit Lei or Beth Loya is an archaeological tell in the Judean lowlands of Israel.
Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
The Kidron Valley (classical transliteration, Cedron, from נחל קדרון, Naḥal Qidron, literally Qidron River; also Qidron Valley; وادي الجوز, Wadi al-Joz for the upper segment near the Temple Mount, and Wadi an-Nar for the rest of it) is the valley on the eastern side of The Old City of Jerusalem, separating the Temple Mount from the Mount of Olives.
King George Street (רחוב המלך ג׳ורג׳, Rehov ha-Melekh Jorj, شارع الملك جورج Shara'a al-Malik Jurj) is a street in central Jerusalem, Israel which joins Ben Yehuda Street and Jaffa Road to form the Downtown Triangle central business district.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
Kiryat HaLeom (קריית הלאום), also known as Kiryat HaUma (קריית האומה) and referred to in English as the National Quarter, is the official label of a complex in central Jerusalem that includes Kiryat HaMemshala (the government precinct), the Knesset (parliament), Sacher Park, the Menorah Garden, Wohl Rose Park and Binyanei HaUma convention center.
Kiryat HaMemshala (קריית הממשלה, lit. Government complex), also known as Kiryat Ben-Gurion, (lit. Ben-Gurion complex) is the government precinct of the State of Israel.
Kiryat Menachem Begin, named after former Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and also known as Kiryat HaMemshala, is a complex of government buildings in East Jerusalem located between Sheikh Jarrah in the north, adjacent to Mount Scopus in the east and Ammunition Hill in the west.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.
Kohl (كُحْل) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara.
Kol Ha'ir (lit The Whole City, also a homophone for Voice of the City) is a weekly local newspaper published in Jerusalem, Israel.
Kol Yisrael (lit. "Voice of Israel", also "Israel Radio") is Israel's public domestic and international radio service.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
The Large Stone Structure (Mivne haEven haGadol) is the name given to the remains of a large public building in the City of David neighborhood of central Jerusalem, south of the Old City, tentatively dated to tenth to ninth century BC.
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Legends of the Jews is a chronological compilation of Haggada from hundreds of biblical legends in Mishnah, Talmud and Midrash.
Levi Eshkol (לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל;, born Levi Yitzhak Shkolnik (לוי יצחק שקולניק)‎ 25 October 1895 – 26 February 1969) was an Israeli statesman who served as the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death from a heart attack in 1969.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Liga Leumit (ליגה לאומית, lit. National League) is the second tier in the Israeli football league system below the Premier League.
Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit., The Consolidation), officially, the Likud-National Liberal Movement, is a centre-right to right-wing political party in Israel.
The countries which operate these consulates do not regard them as diplomatic missions to Israel or the Palestinian Authority, but as diplomatic missions to Jerusalem.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This is a list of notable people who were born, lived or are/were famously associated with Jerusalem.
This is a list of songs about Jerusalem, including major parts of the city such as individual neighborhoods and sections.
The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention,Full title: Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites.
Local councils - plural: (מוֹעָצוֹת מְקוֹמִיּוֹת Mo'atzot Mekomiot (מועצות מקומיות) / singular: (מוֹעָצָה מְקוֹמִית Mo'atza Mekomit (מועצה מקומית) - are one of the three types of local government found in Israel, the other two being cities and regional councils. There are 265 local councils in Israel. Local councils should not be confused with local committees, which are lower-level administrative entities.
The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.
Ma'ale Adumim (מַעֲלֵה אֲדֻמִּים, معالي أدوميم) is an urban Israeli settlement and a city in the West Bank, seven kilometers from Jerusalem.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
Mahane Israel (Hebrew: מחנה ישראל) is the second Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem after Mishkenot Shaananim, and the first built by residents of the Old City on their own behalf, as part of the process to "leave the walls" (Hebrew: היציאה מן החומות).
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
Mamilla (ממילא) is a neighbourhood of Jerusalem that was established in the late 19th century outside the Old City, west of the Jaffa Gate.
Mamilla Cemetery is a historic Muslim cemetery located just to the west of the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, Israel.
Mamilla Mall, also known as Alrov Mamilla Avenue, is an upscale shopping street and the only open-air mall in Jerusalem, Israel.
Mamilla Pool is one of several ancient reservoirs that supplied water to the inhabitants of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Mandelbaum Gate is a former checkpoint between Israeli and Jordanian sectors of Jerusalem, just north of the western edge of the Old City along the Green Line.
Maqdisi (مقدسي) is an Arabic nisba referring to a Jerusalemite.
Mar Elias Monastery is a Greek Orthodox monastery in south Jerusalem, on a hill overlooking Bethlehem and Herodium.
The Maronites are a Christian group who adhere to the Syriac Maronite Church with the largest population around Mount Lebanon in Lebanon.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) or Master of Science in Teaching (MST) degree is generally a pre-service degree that usually requires a minimum of 30 semester hours beyond the bachelor's degree.
Matriculation is the formal process of entering a university, or of becoming eligible to enter by fulfilling certain academic requirements such as a matriculation examination.
Mattathias ben Johanan (מַתִּתְיָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בֶּן יוֹחָנָן, Matiṯyāhu haKohēn ben Yōḥānān) (died 165 BCE) was a Kohen (Jewish priest) whose role in the religion-driven Maccabean Revolt against the Greek Seleucid Empire is related in the Books of the Maccabees.
The Mayor of the City of Jerusalem is head of the executive branch of the political system in Jerusalem, Israel.
The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government.
Mea She'arim (מאה שערים, lit. "hundred gates"; contextually "a hundred fold") is one of the oldest Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem, Israel.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Medtronic plc is a medical device company.
Melchizedek, Melkisetek, or Malki Tzedek (Hebrew: malkī-ṣeḏeq, "king of righteousness"; Amharic: መልከ ጼዴቅ malkī-ṣeḏeq; Armenian: Մելքիսեդեք, Melkisetek), was the king of Salem and priest of El Elyon ("God most high") mentioned in the 14th chapter of the Book of Genesis.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Mevaseret Zion (מְבַשֶּׂרֶת צִיּוֹן) is a suburb of Jerusalem with the administrative status of a local council.
Michael the Syrian (ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ; died 1199 AD), also known as Michael the Great (ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܪܒܐ) or Michael Syrus or Michael the Elder, to distinguish him from his nephew,William Wright, A short history of Syriac literature, p.250, n.3. was a patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1166 to 1199. He is best known today as the author of the largest medieval Chronicle, which he composed in Syriac. Various other materials written in his own hand have survived.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Midrash Shmuel is a Haredi yeshiva catering to English-speaking students, located in the Sha'arei Hesed neighborhood in Jerusalem, Israel.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Israel (משרד החקלאות ופיתוח הכפר, Misrad HaHakla'ut UFitu'ah HaKfar) is the ministry of the Israeli government that oversees the country's agricultural industry.
The Ministry of Defense (מִשְׂרַד הַבִּטָּחוֹן, Misrad HaBitahon) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats.
The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (מִשְׂרַד הַחוּץ, translit. Misrad HaHutz; وزارة الخارجية الإسرائيلية) is one of the most important ministries in the Israeli government.
The Mir Yeshiva (ישיבת מיר, Yeshivas Mir), known as the Mirrer Yeshiva or The Mir, is an Orthodox Jewish yeshiva in Beit Yisrael, Jerusalem, Israel.
Mishkenot Sha’ananim (משכנות שאננים, lit. Peaceful Habitation) was the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Mizrah is the Hebrew word for "east" and the direction that Jews in the Diaspora face during prayer.
Mobileye is an Israeli subsidiary of Intel corporation that develops vision-based advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) providing warnings for collision prevention and mitigation.
Modi'in Illit (מוֹדִיעִין עִלִּית; موديعين عيليت, lit. "Upper Modi'in") is a Haredi Israeli settlement and city in the West Bank, situated midway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.
Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut (מוֹדִיעִין-מַכַּבִּים-רֵעוּת) is an Israeli city located in central Israel, about southeast of Tel Aviv and west of Jerusalem, and is connected to those two cities via Highway 443.
Mongol raids into Palestine took place towards the end of the Crusades, following the temporarily successful Mongol invasions of Syria, primarily in 1260 and 1300.
The Monolith of Silwan, also known as the Tomb of Pharaoh's daughter is a cuboid rock-cut tomb located in Silwan, Jerusalem dating from the period of the Kingdom of Judah; the latter name refers to a 19th-century hypothesis that the tomb was built by Solomon for his Egyptian wife.
Moriah (Marwah) is the name given to a mountainous region by the Book of Genesis, in which context it is the location of the sacrifice of Isaac.
The Moroccan Quarter or Mughrabi Quarter (حارَة المَغارِبة Hārat al-Maghāriba, שכונת המוגרבים, Sh'khunat HaMughrabim) was a 770-year-old neighborhood in the southeast corner of the Old City of Jerusalem, bordering on the western wall of the Temple Mount on the east, the Old City walls on the south (including the Dung Gate) and the Jewish Quarter to the west.
Moshe Amirav is an expert on the conflict in Jerusalem.
Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.
Moshe Kahlon (משה כחלון, born 19 November 1960) is an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Likud and as Minister of Communications and Minister of Welfare & Social Services.
The Ayyubid Mosque of Omar (مسجد عمر بن الخطاب) in Jerusalem is located opposite the southern courtyard of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Muristan area of the Christian Quarter.
Mount Ebal (جبل عيبال Jabal ‘Aybāl; הר עיבל Har ‘Eival) is one of the two mountains in the immediate vicinity of the city of Nablus in the West Bank (biblical Shechem), and forms the northern side of the valley in which Nablus is situated, the southern side being formed by Mount Gerizim.
Mount Herzl (הר הרצל Har Hertsl), also Har ha-Zikaron (lit. "Mount of Remembrance"), is the site of Israel's national cemetery and other memorial and educational facilities, found on the west side of Jerusalem beside the Jerusalem Forest.
The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet (הַר הַזֵּיתִים, Har ha-Zeitim; جبل الزيتون, الطور, Jabal al-Zaytun, Al-Tur) is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to Jerusalem's Old City.
The Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of Olives, including the Silwan necropolis, is the most ancient and most important cemetery in Jerusalem.
Mount Scopus (הַר הַצּוֹפִים Har HaTsofim, "Mount of the Watchmen/Sentinels"; جبل المشارف Ǧabal al-Mašārif, lit. "Mount Lookout", or جبل المشهد Ǧabal al-Mašhad "Mount of the Scene/Burial Site", or جبل الصوانة is a mountain (elevation: 2710 feet or 826 meters above sea level) in northeast Jerusalem. In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Mount Scopus became a UN-protected Israeli exclave within Jordanian-administered territory until the Six-Day War in 1967. Today, Mount Scopus lies within the municipal boundaries of the city of Jerusalem.
Mount Zion (הַר צִיּוֹן, Har Tsiyyon; جبل صهيون, Jabal Sahyoun) is a hill in Jerusalem just outside the walls of the Old City.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
The Museum of Tolerance (MOT), a multimedia museum in Los Angeles, California, United States, is designed to examine racism and prejudice around the world with a strong focus on the history of the Holocaust.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Muslim Quarter (حَـارَة الـمُـسْـلِـمِـيْـن Ḥāraṫ al-Muslimīn; הרובע המוסלמי Ha-Rovah ha-Muslemi) is one of the four quarters of the ancient, walled Old City of Jerusalem.
Musrara (مصرارة, מוסררה) also known by its Hebrew name, Morasha is a neighborhood in Jerusalem.
The Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem (Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı; متصرفية القدس الشريف), also known as the Sanjak of Jerusalem, was an Ottoman district with special administrative status established in 1872.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.
Nahalat Shiv'a (נחלת שבעה) is a former courtyard neighborhood in Jerusalem, Israel.
Nathan Thrall is an American writer, journalist, and analyst on the Middle East.
The National Headquarters of the Israel Police (בניין המטה הארצי של משטרת ישראל) (Hamateh HeArtzi) is the headquarters of the Israel Police, located in Kiryat Menachem Begin in Jerusalem.
The National Library of Israel (NLI; translit; المكتبة الوطنية في إسرائيل), formerly Jewish National and University Library (JNUL; translit), is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
Neve Yaakov also Neve Ya'aqov, (נווה יעקב; lit. Jacob's Oasis), is an Israeli settlement and neighborhood located in East Jerusalem, north of Pisgat Ze'ev and south of al-Ram.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nir Barkat (ניר ברקת; born 19 October 1959) is an Israeli businessman, entrepreneur, philanthropist, and politician.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Old City (הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָה, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, البلدة القديمة, al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.
Orach Chayim (אורח חיים; manner of life) is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's compilation of Halakha (Jewish law), Arba'ah Turim.
Orient House (האוריינט האוס, بيت الشرق; bayt ʾal-šarq) is a building located in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in the 1980s and 1990s.
The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I was a Byzantine province from 390, until the 7th century.
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew), also spelt Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet, is a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Palestine Summer Time is the practice in the State of Palestine by which clocks are advanced by one hour.
The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS; الجهاز المركزي للإحصاء الفلسطيني) is the official statistical institution of the State of Palestine.
Palestinian Christians (مسيحيون فلسطينيون) are Christian citizens of the State of Palestine.
The Palestinian Declaration of Independence is a statement written by the Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish and proclaimed by Yasser Arafat on 15 November 1988 (5 Rabi' al-Thani 1409).
The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) is the unicameral legislature of the Palestinian Authority, elected by the Palestinian residents of the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
The Palestinian National Theatre or El-Hakawati Theatre (المسرح الوطني الفلسطيني) is a Palestinian-owned theatre in Jerusalem's American Colony neighbourhood, near New Orient House.
Palestinian nationalism is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Peasants' Revolt was a rebellion against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies in Palestine.
The Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐ) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.
Pisgat Ze'ev (פסגת זאב, lit. Ze'ev's Peak) is an Israeli settlement in East Jerusalem and the largest residential neighborhood in Jerusalem with a population of over 50,000.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Politics in Israel is dominated by Zionist parties.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Pool of Siloam (بركهسلوانבריכת השילוח, Breikhat Hashiloah) was a rock-cut pool on the southern slope of the City of David, the original site of Jerusalem, located outside the walls of the Old City to the southeast.
Postal codes in Israel (מיקוד, Mikud) are numeric and consist of seven digits.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs "Ptolemy the Illustrious"); 210–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty from 204 to 181 BC. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. The Rosetta Stone was produced during his reign as an adult.
Q-D-Š is a triconsonantal Semitic root meaning "sacred, holy", derived from a concept central to ancient Semitic religion.
Qasim Pasha al-Ahmad (died 1834) was the chief of the Jamma'in subdistrict of Jabal Nablus during the Ottoman and Egyptian periods in Palestine in the mid-19th century.
The Qibla (قِـبْـلَـة, "Direction", also transliterated as Qiblah, Qibleh, Kiblah, Kıble or Kibla), is the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during Ṣalāṫ (صَـلَاة).
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Qumran Caves are a series of caves, some natural, some artificial, found around the archaeological site of Qumran in the Judaean Desert of the West Bank.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramallah (رام الله) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
Ras al-Amud (راس العامود) is an Arab neighborhood in East Jerusalem, located southeast of the Old City, overlooking Silwan to the south, Abu Dis and al-Eizariya to the east, and the Temple Mount (known to Arabs as Haram ash-Sharif) to the north.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
The city of Jerusalem is significant in a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which consider it a holy city.
Religious Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת דָּתִית, translit. Tziyonut Datit, or Dati Leumi "National Religious", or Kippah seruga, literally, "knitted skullcap") is an ideology that combines Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.
A repertory theatre (also called repertory, rep or stock) can be a Western theatre or opera production in which a resident company presents works from a specified repertoire, usually in alternation or rotation.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
The Reunification of Jerusalem refers to the June 1967 administrative merger of West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem by Israel, following the conquest of the Eastern half of the city (including the walled Old City) from Jordan during the Six Day War.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Righteous Among the Nations (חֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, khasidei umót ha'olám "righteous (plural) of the world's nations") is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis.
The Ring Neighborhoods of Jerusalem (שכונות הטבעת) are eight suburban neighborhoods built as satellites to central Jerusalem.
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Rishon LeZion (רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן, lit. First to Zion) is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain south of Tel Aviv.
Robinson's Arch is the name given to a monumental staircase carried by an unusually wide stone arch, which once stood at the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount.
The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandate Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Route 443 (כביש 443, מעלה בית חורון) is also known as Ma'ale Beit Horon (Bethoron Ascent), following the ancient east-west trade route connecting the Via Maris and the Way of the Patriarchs.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Compound (מִגְרַשׁ הָרוּסִים, Migraš ha-Rusim, المسكوبية, al-Muskubīya) is one of the oldest districts in central Jerusalem, featuring a large Russian Orthodox church and several former pilgrim hostels, some of which are used as Israeli government buildings (such as the Moscovia Detention Centre) and for the Museum of Underground Prisoners.
Professor Ruth Lapidoth is a Senior Researcher at the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies and Professor Emeritus of International Law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Safra Square (כיכר ספרא, Kikar Safra) is the site of Jerusalem's city hall.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Salem (שָׁלֵם; Σαλήμ) is an ancient Middle Eastern town mentioned in the Bible.
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
Sanhedria (סנהדריה) is a Haredi neighborhood in northern Jerusalem.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
The Sasanian Empire conquered Jerusalem after a brief siege in 614, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, after the Persian Shah Khosrau II appointed his general Shahrbaraz to conquer the Byzantine controlled areas of the Near East.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
Sökmen (also called Muineddin Sokman, Muʿīn ad-Dīn Soqman or Soqman ibn Ortoq) was a Turkish bey in the early 12th century.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II.
Shahen or Shahin (Middle Persian: Shāhēn Vahūmanzādagān, in Greek sources: Σαὴν; died ca. 626) was a senior Sasanian general (spahbed) during the reign of Khosrau II (590–628).
Shahrbaraz or Shahrvaraz (died 9 June 630) was king of the Sasanian Empire from 27 April 630 to 9 June 630.
Shalim (Shalem, Salem, and Salim) is a god in the Canaanite religion pantheon, mentioned in inscriptions found in Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria.
Shechem, also spelled Sichem (שְׁכָם / Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.
Shem (שֵׁם Šēm; Σήμ Sēm; Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic: سام Sām) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.
Shimon HaTzadik is a Jewish neighborhood in East Jerusalem, established around the Tomb of Simeon the Just, after whom it was named.
The Shrine of the Book (היכל הספר, Heikhal HaSefer), a wing of the Israel Museum in the Givat Ram neighborhood of Jerusalem, houses the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Shuafat (شعفاط), also Shu'fat and Sha'fat, is a mostly Arab neighborhood of East Jerusalem, forming part of north-eastern Jerusalem.
The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Jebus is a siege described in biblical passages as having occurred when Israelites under King David of Israel besieged the Jebusite city of Jerusalem, then known as Jebus.
The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Siloam inscription or Shiloah inscription (כתובת השילוח) or Silwan inscription is a passage of inscribed text found in the Siloam tunnel which brings water from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam, located in the City of David in East Jerusalem neighborhood of Shiloah or Silwan.
The Siloam Tunnel (נקבת השילוח, Nikbat HaShiloah), also known as Hezekiah's Tunnel, is a water tunnel that was carved underneath the City of David in Jerusalem in ancient times.
Silwan (سلوان, כְּפַר הַשִּׁילוֹחַ) is a predominantly Palestinian neighborhood on the outskirts of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Silwan necropolis is the most important ancient cemetery in Israel, and is assumed to have been used by the highest-ranking officials residing in Jerusalem.
Simon Jonathan Sebag Montefiore (born 27 June 1965) is a British historian, television presenter and award-winning author of popular history books and novels.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Sophronius (c. 560 – March 11, 638; Σωφρόνιος) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
The status of Jerusalem is disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice.
The Stepped Stone Structure is the name given to the remains at a particular archaeological site (sometimes termed Area G) on the eastern side of the City of David, the oldest part of Jerusalem.
Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951–54).
Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Superbus (סופרבוס) is an Israeli bus company, which provides intercity and urban service in Afula, Tiberias and Yokneam.
The Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The Vilayet of Syria (Vilâyet-i Suriye), also known as Vilayet of Damascus,.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
Talbiya or Talbiyeh (الطالبية, טלביה), officially Komemiyut, is an upscale neighborhood in Jerusalem, located between Rehavia and Katamon.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
Targum Neofiti (or Targum Neophyti) is the largest of the Western Targumim on the Torah, or Palestinian Targumim.
Aramaic Targum Onkelos from the British Library. Targum Onkelos (or Onqelos),, is the official eastern (Babylonian) targum (Aramaic translation) to the Torah.
Targum Pseudo-Jonathan is a western targum (translation) of the Torah (Pentateuch) from the land of Israel (as opposed to the eastern Babylonian Targum Onkelos).
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Theodor "Teddy" Kollek (טדי קולק; 27 May 1911 – 2 January 2007) was an Israeli politician who served as the mayor of Jerusalem from 1965 to 1993, and founder of the Jerusalem Foundation.
Teddy Stadium (אצטדיון טדי, Itztadion Teddy) is a sports stadium in Jerusalem, Israel.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
The Branch Office of the Embassy of the United States of America in Tel Aviv is part of the diplomatic mission of the United States of America in the State of Israel.
The Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway (also high-speed railway to Jerusalem, Plan A1, and Railway 29) is a railway line that will connect the cities of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem in Israel.
Telephone numbers in Israel consist of an area code and a subscriber number.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (טבע תעשיות פרמצבטיות בע"מ) is an Israeli multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Petah Tikva, Israel.
The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and Student Affairs professionals (staff members and administrators).
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music (معهد ادورد سعيد الوطني للموسيقى Ma`had Edward Sa`īd al-Waṭaniy lil-Musīqā) is a Palestinian music conservatory with branches in Ramallah, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nablus and Gaza City.
The Garden Tomb is a rock-cut tomb in Jerusalem, which was unearthed in 1867 and is considered by some Christians to be the site of the burial and resurrection of Jesus.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The Jerusalem Times is a newspaper founded by the BILADI Publishing Co.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
Ticho House (בית טיכו, Beit Tikho) is a historical home in Jerusalem, Israel, now functioning as a museum, administered as part of the national Israel Museum, which includes a restaurant and cultural center.
Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue (בית הכנסת תפארת ישראל; Yiddish: Tiferes Yisroel), most often spelled Tiferet Israel, was a prominent synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time in Palestine is represented by Palestine Standard Time.
Tisha B'Av (תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב, "the ninth of Av") is an annual fast day in Judaism, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem.
The Tolerance Monument (Hebrew פסל הסובלנות) is an outdoor sculpture located in a park near Goldman Promenade in Jerusalem.
The Tomb of Benei Hezir (קבר בני חזיר) is the oldest of four monumental rock-cut tombs that stand in the Kidron Valley, Jerusalem and dates to the period of the Second Temple.
Tombs of the Sanhedrin (קברי הסנהדרין, Kivrei HaSanhedrin), also called Tombs of the Judges, is an underground complex of 63 rock-cut tombs located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Sanhedria.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
The Tower of David (מגדל דוד, Migdal David, برج داود, Burj Daud), also known as the Jerusalem Citadel, is an ancient citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to western edge of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Travel + Leisure is a travel magazine based in New York City, New York.
According to the Torah, the Tribe of Benjamin (Hebrew: שֵׁבֶט בִּנְיָמִֽן, Shevet Binyamin) was one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (I.) (died 1095) was the Seljuq emir of Damascus from 1078 to 1092, and Seljuq sultan of Damascus from 1092 to 1094.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel (שבטי ישראל) were said to have descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel) by two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.
Tyropoeon Valley (i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemakers") is the name given by Josephus the historian (Wars 5.140) to the valley or rugged ravine, in the Old City of Jerusalem, which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion and emptied into the valley of Hinnom.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 was adopted on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 58/292 of 6 May 2004 was a resolution in which the United Nations General Assembly affirmed that the status of the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem, remains one of military occupation, and that Israel has only the duties and obligations of an occupying Power under the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons and the Hague Convention.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967, in the aftermath of the Six-Day War.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, adopted on 20 August 1980, is one of seven UNSC resolutions condemning Israel's attempted annexation of East Jerusalem.
On December 6, 2017, US President Donald Trump announced the United States recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel,Proclamation 9683 of December 6, 2017, and ordered the planning of the relocation of the U.S. Embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (UK), is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality.
Uri Lupolianski (אורי לופוליאנסקי) was mayor of Jerusalem from 2003 to 2008 and founder of Yad Sarah.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Wadi al-Joz (وادي الجوز), also Wadi Joz, meaning Valley of the Walnuts, is an Arab neighborhood in East Jerusalem, located at the head of the Kidron Valley, north of the Old City.
Walid Khalidi (وليد خالدي, born 1925 in Jerusalem) is an Oxford University-educated Palestinian historian who has written extensively on the Palestinian exodus.
The Walls of Jerusalem (أسوار القدس; חומות ירושלים) surround the Old City of Jerusalem (approx. 1 km²).
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (also known as The Washington Report and WRMEA) magazine, published eight times per year, focuses on "news and analysis from and about the Middle East and U.S. policy in that region".
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
West Bank Premier League is one of the two top divisions of the Palestinian Football Federation (PFA).
West Jerusalem or Western Jerusalem refers to the section of Jerusalem that remained under Israeli control after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, whose ceasefire lines delimited the boundary with the rest of the city, which was then under Jordanian control.
The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, or Kotel, known in Arabic as Al-Buraq Wall, is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Yemin Moshe (ימין משה "Moses Memorial") is a historic neighborhood in Jerusalem, Israel overlooking the Old City.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Zaki al-Ghul (Arabic: زكي الغول; born 1926) is a Palestinian politician based in Jordan.
Zion (צִיּוֹן Ṣîyōn, modern Tsiyyon; also transliterated Sion, Sayon, Syon, Tzion, Tsion) is a placename often used as a synonym for Jerusalem as well as for the biblical Land of Israel as a whole.
Zion Blumenthal Orphanage (בית ציון בלומנטל ירושלים, Zion Blumenthal Home Jerusalem) is an Orthodox Jewish orphanage and educational institution in Jerusalem.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The 1920 Nebi Musa riots or 1920 Jerusalem riots took place in British-controlled part of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (which would shortly become Mandatory Palestine) between Sunday, 4 and Wednesday, 7 April 1920 in and around the Old City of Jerusalem.
The 1929 Arab riots in Palestine, or the Buraq Uprising (ثورة البراق), also known as the 1929 Massacres, (מאורעות תרפ"ט,, lit. Events of 5689 Anno Mundi) refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of armistice agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949 Lebanon, UN Doc S/1296 23 March 1949 Jordan, UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 3 April 1949 and Syria UN Doc S/1353 20 July 1949 to formally end the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line. The United Nations established supervising and reporting agencies to monitor the established armistice lines.
Al-Quds Arab Capital of Culture (القدس عاصمة الثقافة العربية) was the name given to Arab Capital of Culture programme in 2009.
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
Al Kuds, Al Quds, Al-Kuds, Al-Quds, Al-Quds al-Sharif, Alquds, Bait al-Maqdis, Bait-ul-Maqdis, Bait-ul-Moqaddas, Baitul Maqdis, Baitulmuqaddis, Bayt al-Maqdis, Bayt al-Muqaddas, Beit al-Maqdis, Beit al-Muqaddas, Beit al-Quds, Capital of Israel, El Kuds, El Quds, El-Kuds, El-Quds, Hierosolyma, Hierousalem, Holy City of Jerusalem, Ierusalem, Ir Hakodesh, J'lem, Jersalem, Jersualem, Jerusalam, Jerusalem, Israel, Jerusalem, Palestine, Jeruselem, Jeruselum, Jeruslam, Jeruslem, Jerusulam, Jerusulem, Jeruzalem, Jorsal, Kudüs, Modern Jerusalem, Neighbourhoods of Jerusalem, Quds, Ur Shalim, Ursalim, Urusalima, Yeru-Shalayim, Yerusalem, Yerushalaim, Yerushalayim, Yerushaláyim, Ιερουσαλήμ, י-ם, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, ירושלים, القدس, القُدس.