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Index Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. [1]

983 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abrahamic religions, Academic Ranking of World Universities, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Academy Awards, Achaemenid Empire, Acre, Israel, Adolf Eichmann, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Adversarial system, African Plate, Agranat Commission, Agricultural research in Israel, Agriculture in Israel, Ahmadiyya in Israel, Ajami (film), Al Hussein (missile), Al-Aqsa Mosque, Albert of Aix, Alhambra Decree, Aliyah, Aliyah Bet, Aliyah from Ethiopia, All-Palestine Protectorate, All-time Paralympic Games medal table, Amal Murkus, Amharic, Amnesty International, Amos Oz, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Anemone coronaria, Annexation, Anno Mundi, Annunciation, Anti-ballistic missile, Anti-tank missile, Anwar Sadat, Appeal, Apple Inc., April 2011 Miyagi earthquake, Arab Christians, Arab citizens of Israel, Arab cuisine, Arab Gas Pipeline, Arab Higher Committee, Arab League, Arab nationalism, Arab world, Arabah, ..., Arab–Israeli conflict, Arabian Plate, Arabic alphabet, Arabic language in Israel, Arabs, Arava Power Company, Arc (Bahá'í), Archaeology, Archaeology of Israel, Architecture of Israel, Ariel (city), Ariel Sharon, Ariel University, Arms industry, Arrow (Israeli missile), Art of Europe, Arthur Balfour, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ashkenazi Jews, Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, Association football, Atlit detainee camp, Austerity in Israel, Austria-Hungary, Ayelet Shaked, Ayyubid dynasty, Azerbaijan–Israel relations, Babylonian captivity, Babylonian Chronicles, Baghdad, Bagrut certificate, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í pilgrimage, Bahá'í World Centre, Baibars, Balfour Declaration, Ban Ki-moon, Bank of Israel, Bar Kokhba revolt, Bar-Ilan University, Barak Marshall, Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, Basic Laws of Israel, Basketball, Batsheva Dance Company, Battle of Gaza (2007), Battle of Hattin, Beersheba, Beersheba metropolitan area, Beitar Jerusalem F.C., Ben Gurion Airport, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Benjamin Netanyahu, Benny Morris, Berkshire Hathaway, Beta Israel, Beth din, Bethlehem, Better Place (company), Bilad al-Sham, Bill Clinton, Bill Gates, Blockade of the Gaza Strip, Bloomberg L.P., BM-21 Grad, Book of Genesis, Book of Joshua, Borders of Israel, Boris Gelfand, Boston College, Boycotts of Israel in sports, British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument), Bronze Age, Buddhism, Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Cabinet of Israel, Caesarea, Cairo, Caliphate, Camp David Accords, Canaan, Canaanite languages, Canada–Israel Free Trade Agreement, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Capital city, Casus belli, Cave of the Patriarchs, Central District (Israel), Charging station, Cheshvan, Chess, Chess World Cup 2009, Chief of General Staff (Israel), Chief Rabbinate of Israel, Christianity, Christianity in Israel, Church of Saint George, Lod, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Church of the Nativity, Cisco Systems, City council (Israel), Civil law (legal system), Coastal Road massacre, 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Economy of Israel, Egged (company), Egypt, Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, Egypt–Israel relations, Egyptian crisis (2011–14), Ehud Barak, Eilat, Ein Harod (Meuhad), Elections in Israel, Electric vehicle network, Emile Habibi, Emirate of Transjordan, English language, English law, Entebbe International Airport, Esther Hayut, Etgar Keret, Ethiopia–Israel relations, Ethiopian Jews in Israel, EUobserver, EuroAsia Interconnector, EuroBasket 2017, European Free Trade Association, European Neighbourhood Policy, Eurovision Song Contest, Evolutionary Anthropology (journal), Exclusive economic zone, Exemption from military service in Israel, Expulsions and exoduses of Jews, External debt, Extreme points of Earth, Facebook, Fajr-5, Falafel, Fertile Crescent, FIBA European Champions Cup and EuroLeague records and statistics, FIDE, Fifteenth government of Israel, Fifth Aliyah, First Aliyah, First Crusade, First Intifada, First Zionist Congress, Folk music, Foreign Assistance Act, Foreign-exchange reserves, Foundation for Middle East Peace, Four Holy Cities, Fourth Aliyah, Free-trade area, Freedom House, Freedom of the Press (report), French fries, French Jews in Israel, French language, Fusion cuisine, Galilee, Galilee earthquake of 363, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaza City, Gaza flotilla raid, Gaza Strip, Gaza War (2008–09), Gaza–Egypt border, Geography of Israel, Germany–Israel relations, Global Competitiveness Report, Global Peace Index, GOC Army Headquarters, Golan Heights, Golan Heights Law, Golda Meir, Google, Governance of the Gaza Strip, Grandmaster (chess), Great Rift Valley, Greater Jerusalem, Greece–Israel relations, Greek music in Israel, Green Line (Israel), Gross domestic product, Gross national income, Guatemala, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf War, Gush Dan, Gush Etzion, Gush Katif, Habima Theatre, Haganah, Haifa, Haifa District, Haifa metropolitan area, Halakha, Hamas, Hamburger, Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C., Haredi Judaism, Harish, Israel, Hashomer, Hasidic Judaism, Hasmonean Civil War, 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checkpoint, Israeli Chess Championship, Israeli coastal plain, Israeli cuisine, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Israeli disengagement from Gaza, Israeli folk dancing, Israeli general election, 1999, Israeli Jews, Israeli Labor Party, Israeli legislative election, 1977, Israeli legislative election, 1992, Israeli literature, Israeli Military Governorate, Israeli nationality law, Israeli Navy, Israeli new shekel, Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon, Israeli Premier League, Israeli prime ministerial election, 2001, Israeli security forces, Israeli settlement, Israeli West Bank barrier, Israeli-occupied territories, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Israeli–Palestinian peace process, Israelis, Israelites, Itzhak Perlman, Jacob, Jazz, Jenin, Jenin, Jerusalem, Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance, Jerusalem District, Jerusalem Law, Jerusalem Talmud, Jewish Agency for Israel, Jewish and democratic state, Jewish ceremonial art, Jewish cuisine, Jewish diaspora, Jewish ethnic divisions, 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attainment, List of countries by vehicles per capita, List of development aid country donors, List of diplomatic missions of Israel, List of earthquakes in the Levant, List of endemic flora of Israel, List of football clubs in Israel, List of Israeli attacks on Palestine, List of Israeli chess players, List of Israeli companies quoted on the Nasdaq, List of Israeli inventions and discoveries, List of Israeli Nobel laureates, List of Israeli submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, List of Israeli universities and colleges, List of Jews in sports, List of Knesset speakers, List of military occupations, List of multinational companies with research and development centres in Israel, List of national symbols of Israel, List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2012, List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2014, List of Palestinian suicide attacks, List of places in Jerusalem, List of political parties in Israel, List of wars involving Israel, List of 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Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of the Báb, Siege of Jerusalem (1099), Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC), Silicon Valley, Silicon Wadi, Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Sinai Peninsula, Six-Day War, Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, Slate (magazine), Snow in Israel, Solar energy, Solar power in Israel, Solo Man, Solomon's Temple, South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000), South Lebanon security belt administration, Southern District (Israel), Southern Lebanon, Southern Syria, Soviet Union, Space Competitiveness Index, Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Spike (missile), Standard of living in Israel, Startup company, State of Palestine, Status of Jerusalem, Status of territories occupied by Israel in 1967, Status quo (Israel), Stem cell, Straits of Tiran, STS-107, Subtitle (captioning), Suez Canal, Suez Crisis, Suntech Power, Supreme Court of Israel, Syria, Syria Palaestina, Syrian Republic (1946–63), Tabun Cave, Tal committee, Tamar gas field, Tanakh, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv District, Tel Aviv University, Temple Mount, Tertiary education, The Exodus, The Holocaust, The Jerusalem Post, The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, The New York Times, The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist, The Syrian Bride, The Weather Channel, Theodor Herzl, Third Aliyah, Thomas L. 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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Academic Ranking of World Universities

Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings.

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Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Acre, Israel

Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.

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Adolf Eichmann

Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.

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Adolf Hitler's rise to power

Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).

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Adversarial system

The adversarial system or adversary system is a legal system used in the common law countries where two advocates represent their parties' case or position before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth and pass judgment accordingly.

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African Plate

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.

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Agranat Commission

The Agranat Commission (Hebrew: ועדת אגרנט) was a National Commission of Inquiry set up to investigate failings in the Israel Defense Forces in the prelude to the Yom Kippur War, when Israel was found unprepared for the Egyptian attack against the Bar Lev Line and a simultaneous attack by Syria in the Golan—the first phase in a war in which 2,812 Israeli soldiers were killed.

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Agricultural research in Israel

Agricultural research in Israel is based on close cooperation and interaction between scientists, consultants, farmers and agriculture-related industries.

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Agriculture in Israel

Agriculture in Israel is a highly developed industry: Israel is a major exporter of fresh produce and a world-leader in agricultural technologies despite the fact that the geography of Israel is not naturally conductive to agriculture.

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Ahmadiyya in Israel

Ahmadiyya in Israel (أحمدية في إسرائيل) is a small Islamic community in Israel.

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Ajami (film)

Ajami (عجمي; עג'מי) is a 2009 Israeli Arab drama film.

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Al Hussein (missile)

Al Hussein or al-Husayn (Arabic: الحسين) is the designation of an Iraqi short-range ballistic missile.

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Al-Aqsa Mosque

Al-Aqsa Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, "the Farthest Mosque"), located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam.

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Albert of Aix

Albert of Aix(-la-Chapelle) or Albert of Aachen (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon (priest) and custos (guardian) of the church of Aachen.

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Alhambra Decree

The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.

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Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).

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Aliyah Bet

Aliyah Bet (עלייה ב', "Aliyah 'B'" – bet being the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet) was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews, most of whom were Holocaust survivors and refugees from Nazi Germany, to Mandatory Palestine between 1934-48, in violation of the restrictions laid out in the British White Paper of 1939.

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Aliyah from Ethiopia

The Jewish aliyah from Ethiopia, or the immigration of ethnically and religiously Jewish Ethiopians to Israel, began during the mid-1970s, during which the majority of the Beta Israel community emigrated to Israel.

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All-Palestine Protectorate

The All-Palestine Protectorate, or simply All-Palestine, also known as Gaza Protectorate and Gaza Strip, was a short-living client state with limited recognition, corresponding to the area of modern Gaza Strip, which was established in area captured by the Kingdom of Egypt during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and allowed to run as a protectorate under the All-Palestine Government.

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All-time Paralympic Games medal table

An all-time medal table for all Paralympic Games from 1960 to 2018 Winter Paralympic Games ant publish all-time tables, and publishes unofficial tables only per single Games.

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Amal Murkus

Amal Murkus (أمل مرقس, אמל מורקוס, born 11 July 1968) is a Palestinian singer.

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Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Amos Oz

Amos Oz (עמוס עוז; born Amos Klausner; May 4, 1939) is an Israeli writer, novelist, journalist and intellectual.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples

Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, Arabian peninsula, and Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity.

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Anemone coronaria

Anemone coronaria, the poppy anemone, Spanish marigold, or windflower, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Anemone, native to the Mediterranean region.

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Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.

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Anno Mundi

Anno Mundi (Latin for "in the year of the world"; Hebrew:, "to the creation of the world"), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.

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The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.

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Anti-ballistic missile

An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).

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Anti-tank missile

An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.

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Anwar Sadat

Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.

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In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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April 2011 Miyagi earthquake

The April 2011 Miyagi earthquake (Japanese) was a magnitude 7.1 Mw earthquake, with an epicentre off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture, approximately east of Sendai, Japan.

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Arab Christians

Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.

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Arab citizens of Israel

Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens whose primary language or linguistic heritage is Arabic. Many identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians.See the terminology and self-identification sections for an extended discussion of the various terms used to refer to this population. The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities. According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, the Arab population in 2013 was estimated at 1,658,000, representing 20.7% of the country's population. The majority of these identify themselves as Arab or Palestinian by nationality and Israeli by citizenship.. "The issue of terminology relating to this subject is sensitive and at least partially a reflection of political preferences. Most Israeli official documents refer to the Israeli Arab community as "minorities". The Israeli National Security Council (NSC) has used the term "Arab citizens of Israel". Virtually all political parties, movements and non-governmental organisations from within the Arab community use the word "Palestinian" somewhere in their description – at times failing to make any reference to Israel. For consistency of reference and without prejudice to the position of either side, ICG will use both Arab Israeli and terms the community commonly uses to describe itself, such as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel."An IDI Guttman Study of 2008 shows that most Arab citiens of Israel identify as Arabs (45%). While 24% consider themselves Palestinian, 12% consider themselves Israelis, and 19% identify themselves according to religion. Arab citizens of Israel mostly live in Arab-majority towns and cities; with eight of Israel's ten poorest cities being Arab. The vast majority attend separate schools to Jewish Israelis, and Arab political parties have never joined a government coalition. Many have family ties to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as well as to Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Negev Bedouins and the Druze tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel. Most of the Arabs living in East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967 and later annexed, were offered Israeli citizenship, but most have refused, not wanting to recognize Israel's claim to sovereignty. They became permanent residents instead. They have the right to apply for citizenship, are entitled to municipal services and have municipal voting rights.

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Arab cuisine

Arab cuisine (مطبخ عربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Arab Gas Pipeline

The Arab Gas Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in the Middle East.

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Arab Higher Committee

The Arab Higher Committee (اللجنة العربية العليا) or the Higher National Committee was the central political organ of the Arab Palestinians in Mandatory Palestine.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab nationalism

Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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The Arabah (وادي عربة, Wādī ʻAraba), or Arava/Aravah (הָעֲרָבָה, HaAravah, lit. "desolate and dry area"), as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east.

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Arab–Israeli conflict

The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.

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Arabian Plate

The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Arabic language in Israel

The Arabic language in Israel is spoken natively by a large proportion of the population, reaching over 20 percent of the total population - mainly by the Arab citizens of Israel and among the Arabic-speaking Jews from the Arab world.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Arava Power Company

Arava Power Company (APC) is a solar energy company founded in 2006 on Ketura in the Arava Valley.

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Arc (Bahá'í)

The Arc is a number of Bahá'í administrative buildings at the Bahá'í World Centre on Mount Carmel located at Haifa, Israel.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Archaeology of Israel

The archaeology of Israel is the study of the archaeology of the present-day Israel, stretching from prehistory through three millennia of documented history.

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Architecture of Israel

The architecture of Israel has been influenced by the different styles of architecture brought in by those who have occupied the country over time, sometimes modified to suit the local climate and landscape.

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Ariel (city)

Ariel (אֲרִיאֵל; اريئيل) is an Israeli settlement and city, belonging to the Judea and Samaria administrative area in the central West Bank, part of the Israeli-occupied territories, approximately east of the Green Line and west of the Jordan border.

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Ariel Sharon

Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.

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Ariel University

Ariel University (אוניברסיטת אריאל), previously a public college known as the Ariel University Center of Samaria, is an Israeli university located in the Israeli settlement of Ariel in the West Bank.

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Arms industry

The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.

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Arrow (Israeli missile)

The Arrow or Hetz (חֵץ) is a family of anti-ballistic missiles designed to fulfill an Israeli requirement for a missile defense system that would be more effective against ballistic missiles than the MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile.

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Art of Europe

The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.

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Arthur Balfour

Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.

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Ashdod (help; أَشْدُود or إِسْدُود) is the sixth-largest city and the largest port in Israel accounting for 60% of the country's imported goods.

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Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin

The assassination of Yitzhak Rabin took place on 4 November 1995 (12th of Marcheshvan, 5756 on the Hebrew calendar) at 21:30, at the end of a rally in support of the Oslo Accords at the Kings of Israel Square in Tel Aviv.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atlit detainee camp

The Atlit detainee camp was a detention camp established by the authorities of the British Mandate for Palestine at the end of the 1930s on the Israeli coastal plain (what is now Israel's northern coast), south of Haifa.

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Austerity in Israel

From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (Tzena), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Ayelet Shaked

Ayelet Shaked (איילת שקד; born 7 May 1976) is an Israeli politician, activist, and computer engineer.

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Ayyubid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.

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Azerbaijan–Israel relations

Azerbaijan and Israel have engaged in intense cooperation since 1992.

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Babylonian captivity

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.

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Babylonian Chronicles

The Babylonian Chronicles are many series of tablets recording major events in Babylonian history.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Bagrut certificate

Te'udat Bagrut is a certificate which attests that a student has successfully passed Israel's high school matriculation examination.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Bahá'í pilgrimage

A Bahá'í pilgrimage currently consists of visiting the holy places in Haifa, Acre, and Bahjí at the Bahá'í World Centre in Northwest Israel.

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Bahá'í World Centre

The Bahá'í World Centre is the name given to the spiritual and administrative centre of the Bahá'í Faith.

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Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.

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Balfour Declaration

The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).

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Ban Ki-moon

Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.

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Bank of Israel

The Bank of Israel (בנק ישראל, بنك إسرائيل) is the central bank of Israel.

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Bar Kokhba revolt

The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.

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Bar-Ilan University

Bar-Ilan University (אוניברסיטת בר-אילן Universitat Bar-Ilan) is a public research university in the city of Ramat Gan in the Tel Aviv District, Israel.

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Barak Marshall

Barak Marshall is an American-born Israeli choreographer and singer.

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Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty

Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty is a Basic Law in the State of Israel, enacted to protect the country's main human rights.

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Basic Laws of Israel

The Basic Laws of Israel (חוקי היסוד, ħuqey ha-yesod) are the constitutional laws of the State of Israel, and can only be changed by a supermajority vote in the Knesset.

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Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Batsheva Dance Company

The Batsheva Dance Company (Hebrew: להקת בת שבע) is a renowned dance company based in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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Battle of Gaza (2007)

The Battle of Gaza, also referred to as Hamas' takeover of Gaza, was a military conflict between Fatah and Hamas, that took place in the Gaza Strip between the June 10 and 15, 2007.

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Battle of Hattin

The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.

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Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע; بئر السبع), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.

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Beersheba metropolitan area

The Metropolitan area of Beersheba (מטרופולין באר שבע) is a metropolitan area including areas from both the Beersheba and the Southern Districts of Israel.

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Beitar Jerusalem F.C.

Beitar Jerusalem Football Club (מועדון כדורגל בית"ר ירושלים; Moadon Kaduregel Beitar Yerushalayim), commonly known as Beitar Jerusalem, or simply as Beitar, is an Israeli professional football club based in the city of Jerusalem.

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Ben Gurion Airport

Ben Gurion International Airport (נמל התעופה הבינלאומי בן גוריון; مطار بن غوريون الدولي), commonly referred to as Ben Gurion Airport or Natbag (נתב״ג), is the main international airport of Israel and the busiest airport in the country, located to the southeast of Tel Aviv.

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Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), (אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב, Universitat Ben-Guriyon baNegev) is a public research university in Beersheba, Israel.

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Benjamin Netanyahu

Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009, previously holding the position from 1996 to 1999.

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Benny Morris

Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.

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Berkshire Hathaway

Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.

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Beta Israel

Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Beth din

A beth din (בית דין Bet Din, "house of judgement", Ashkenazic: beis din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism.

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Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.

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Better Place (company)

Better Place was a venture-backed international company that developed and sold battery-charging and battery-switching services for electric cars.

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Bilad al-Sham

Bilad al-Sham (بِـلَاد الـشَّـام Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.

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Blockade of the Gaza Strip

The blockade of the Gaza Strip is the ongoing land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip imposed by Israel and Egypt since 2007.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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BM-21 Grad

The BM-21 "Grad" (БМ-21 "Град"), is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.

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Book of Joshua

The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.

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Borders of Israel

The current borders of the State of Israel are the result both of war and of diplomatic agreements among Israel, her neighbors, and colonial powers.

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Boris Gelfand

Boris Abramovich Gelfand (Барыс Абрамавіч Гельфанд, Barys Abramavich Hel'fand; Борис Абрамович Гельфанд, Boris Abramovich Gel'fand; בוריס אברמוביץ' גלפנד; born 24 June 1968) is an Israeli chess Grandmaster.

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Boston College

Boston College (also referred to as BC) is a private Jesuit Catholic research university located in the affluent village of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States, west of downtown Boston.

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Boycotts of Israel in sports

Boycotts of Israel in sports refer to various diqualifications and denial of Israeli athletes.

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British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument)

The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September 1923 - 15 May 1948), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Mandatory Palestine – in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established – and a separate Arab Emirate of Transjordan, both of which were conceded by the Ottoman Empire under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran.

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Cabinet of Israel

The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.

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Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.

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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Camp David Accords

The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.

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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.

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Canaanite languages

The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.

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Canada–Israel Free Trade Agreement

The Canada–Israel Free Trade Agreement (CIFTA) is a free trade agreement between Canada and Israel.

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Casus belli

Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").

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Cave of the Patriarchs

The Cave of the Patriarchs, also called the Cave of Machpelah (Hebrew: מערת המכפלה,, trans. "cave of the double tombs") and known by Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham or the Ibrahimi Mosque (الحرم الإبراهيمي), is a series of subterranean chambers located in the heart of the old city of Hebron (Al-Khalil) in the Hebron Hills. According to tradition that has been associated with the Holy Books Torah, Bible and Quran, the cave and adjoining field were purchased by Abraham as a burial plot. The site of the Cave of the Patriarchs is located beneath a Saladin-era mosque, which had been converted from a large rectangular Herodian-era Judean structure. Dating back over 2,000 years, the monumental Herodian compound is believed to be the oldest continuously used intact prayer structure in the world, and is the oldest major building in the world that still fulfills its original function. The Hebrew name of the complex reflects the very old tradition of the double tombs of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Leah, considered the Patriarchs and Matriarchs of the Jewish people. The only Jewish matriarch missing is Rachel, described in one biblical tradition as having been buried near Bethlehem. The Arabic name of the complex reflects the prominence given to Abraham, revered by Muslims as a Quranic prophet and patriarch through Ishmael. Outside biblical and Quranic sources there are a number of legends and traditions associated with the cave. In Acts 7:16 of the Christian Bible the cave of the Patriarchs is located in Shechem (Neapolis; Arabic: Nablus).

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Central District (Israel)

The Central District (מְחוֹז הַמֶּרְכָּז, Meḥoz haMerkaz; المنطقة الوسطى) of Israel is one of six administrative districts, including most of the Sharon region.

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Charging station

An electric vehicle charging station, also called EV charging station, electric recharging point, charging point, charge point, ECS (Electronic Charging Station) and EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment), is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, such as plug-in electric vehicles, including electric cars, neighborhood electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids.

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Marcheshvan (מַרְחֶשְׁוָן, Standard Marḥešvan Tiberian Marḥešwān; from Akkadian waraḫsamnu, literally, "eighth month"), sometimes shortened to Cheshvan (Standard Ḥešvan Tiberian Ḥešwān), is the second month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei), and the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.

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Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Chess World Cup 2009

The Chess World Cup 2009 was a 128-player single-elimination tournament, played between 20 November and 14 December 2009, in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia.

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Chief of General Staff (Israel)

The Chief of the General Staff, also known as the Commander-in-Chief of the Israel Defense Forces (Rosh HaMateh HaKlali, abbr. Ramatkal—), is the supreme commander and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.

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Chief Rabbinate of Israel

The Chief Rabbinate of Israel (הרבנות הראשית לישראל, Ha-Rabanut Ha-Rashit Li-Yisra'el) is recognized by law as the supreme rabbinic and spiritual authority for Judaism in Israel.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Israel

Christianity is one of the recognized religions in Israel and is practiced, as of December 2016, by more than 169,000 Israeli citizens (about 2.0% of the population).

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Church of Saint George, Lod

The Church of Saint George (كنيسة القديس جيورجوس or كنيسة مار جريس, Hebrew: כנסיית גאורגיוס הקדוש קוטל הדרקון) is one among the two major shrines for the fourth-century Christian martyr Saint George and is located in Lod, Israel.

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Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Church of the Nativity

The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.

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Cisco Systems

Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.

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City council (Israel)

City councils - plural: (עִירִיּוֹת Iriyot (עיריות) / singular: (עִירִיָּה Iriya (עיריה) - are the official designations of the cities within Israel's system of local government. Municipality status may be granted by the Interior Minister to a municipality, usually a local council, whose population surpasses 20,000 and whose character is urban, defined as having areas zoned for distinct land use like residential, commercial, and industrial areas. City mayors and members of the city councils are elected every five years.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Coastal Road massacre

The Coastal Road massacre of 1978 was an attack involving the hijacking of a bus on Israel's Coastal Highway in which 38 Israeli civilians, including 13 children, were killed, and 71 were wounded.

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Coele-Syria, Coele Syria, Coelesyria (Κοίλη Συρία, Koílē Syría), also rendered as Coelosyria and Celesyria, otherwise Hollow Syria (Cava Syria, Hohl Syrien), was a region of Syria in classical antiquity.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Compulsory education

Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.

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Conscription in Israel

Conscription exists in Israel for all Israeli citizens over the age of 18 who are Jewish, Druze, or Circassian; Arab citizens of Israel are not conscripted.

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Constitution of Israel

The State of Israel has an unwritten constitution.

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Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories

The Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT) is a unit in the Israeli Ministry of Defense that engages in coordinating civilian issues between the Government of Israel, the Israel Defense Forces, international organizations, diplomats, and the Palestinian Authority.

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Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)

Corpus separatum (Latin for "separated body") is a term used to describe the Jerusalem area in the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.

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Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small (about diameter) steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina that is traditionally served with a stew spooned on top.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Cuisine of the Mizrahi Jews

The cuisine of the Mizrahi Jews is an assortment of cooking traditions that developed among the Jews of The Middle East, North Africa, Asia, and Arab countries.

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Cuisine of the Sephardic Jews

The cuisine of the Sephardi Jews is an assortment of cooking traditions that developed among the Sephardi Jews – the Jews of Spain and Portugal, and those of this Iberian origin who were dispersed in the Sephardic Diaspora, and ultimately became the Eastern Sephardim and North African Sephardim as they settled throughout the Mediterranean in places such as Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, as well as the Arab countries of West Asia and North Africa.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Cyprus internment camps

Cyprus internment camps were camps run by the British government for internment of Jews who had immigrated or attempted to immigrate to Mandatory Palestine in violation of British policy.

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Cyprus–Israel relations

Cyprus–Israel relations refer to the bilateral relations between Cyprus and Israel.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Dan Bahat

Dan Bahat (דן בהט, born 1938) is an Israeli archaeologist especially known for his excavations in Jerusalem, particularly at the western wall tunnels.

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David Ben-Gurion

David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.

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David Grossman

David Grossman (דויד גרוסמן; born January 25, 1954) is an Israeli author.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.

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Dead Sea Transform

The Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system, also sometimes referred to as the Dead Sea Rift, is a series of faults that run from the Maras Triple Junction (a junction with the East Anatolian Fault in southeastern Turkey) to the northern end of the Red Sea Rift (just offshore of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula).

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Defense industry of Israel

The Defense industry of Israel is a strategically important sector and a large employer, as well as major supplier of the Israel Defense Forces.

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Demographic history of Palestine (region)

The demographic history of Palestine refers to the study of the historical population of the region of Palestine, which approximately corresponds to modern Israel and the Palestinian territories, and in some sources also western parts of Jordan.

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Demographics of Israel

The demographics of Israel are monitored by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.

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Demographics of the Palestinian territories

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the area which is commonly described as Palestinian territories and includes information on ethnicity, education level, health of the populous, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of that population.

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Der Judenstaat

Der Judenstaat (German, literally The Jews' State, commonly rendered as The Jewish State) is a pamphlet written by Theodor Herzl and published in February 1896 in Leipzig and Vienna by M. Breitenstein's Verlags-Buchhandlung.

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Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.

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Desalination by country

Estimates vary widely between 15,000–20,000 desalination plants producing more than 20,000 m3/day.

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Desert climate

The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Diamond industry in Israel

The diamond industry of Israel is an important world player in producing cut diamonds for wholesale.

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Diocese of the East

The Diocese of the East or Diocese of Orient (Dioecesis Orientis, Ἑῴα Διοίκησις Heoa Dioíkesis) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of the western Middle East, between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia.

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District court

District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations.

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Districts of Israel

There are six main administrative districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and Arabic as mintaqah and fifteen sub-districts (also referred to as counties) known as nafot (singular: nafa). Each sub-district is further divided into Cities, municipalities, and Regional councils it contains.

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Djahi, Djahy or Tjahi was the Egyptian designation for southern Retenu.

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Dolphin-class submarine

The Dolphin class (Hebrew: הצוללות מסדרת דולפין) is a diesel-electric submarine developed and constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) in Kiel, Germany, for the Israeli Navy.

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Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface.

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The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).

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Druze in Israel

The Israeli Druze (الدروز الإسرائيليون, דְּרוּזִים יִשְׂרְאֵלִים) are a unique religious and ethnic minority among Arab citizens of Israel.

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).

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Ease of doing business index

The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.

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East Jerusalem

East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.

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Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).

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Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.

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Economy of Israel

The economy of Israel is technologically advanced by global standards.

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Egged (company)

Egged Israel Transport Cooperative Society Ltd (אֶגֶד), a cooperative owned by its members, is the largest transit bus company in Israel.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty

The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية, Mu`āhadat as-Salām al-Misrīyah al-'Isrā'īlīyah; הסכם השלום בין ישראל למצרים, Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim) was signed in Washington, D.C., United States on 26 March 1979, following the 1978 Camp David Accords.

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Egypt–Israel relations

Egypt–Israel relations are foreign relations between Egypt and Israel.

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Egyptian crisis (2011–14)

The Egyptian crisis began with the Egyptian revolution of 2011, when hundreds of thousands of Egyptians took to the streets in an ideologically and socially diverse mass protest movement that ultimately forced longtime president Hosni Mubarak from office.

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Ehud Barak

Ehud Barak (Ehud_barak.ogg, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001.

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Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.

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Ein Harod (Meuhad)

Ein Harod (Meuhad) (עֵין חֲרוֹד מְאֻחָד) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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Elections in Israel

Elections in Israel are based on nationwide proportional representation.

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Electric vehicle network

An electric vehicle network is an infrastructure system of publicly accessible charging stations and possibly battery swap stations to recharge electric vehicles.

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Emile Habibi

Imil (Emile) Shukri Habiby (إميل حبيبي, אמיל חביבי, 28 January 1922 – 2 May 1996) was an Israeli Arab writer of Arabic literature and a politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the communist parties Maki and Rakah.

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Emirate of Transjordan

The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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Entebbe International Airport

Entebbe International Airport is the principal international airport of Uganda.

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Esther Hayut

Esther Hayut (אסתר חיות; born 16 October 1953) is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel.

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Etgar Keret

Etgar Keret (אתגר קרת, born August 20, 1967) is an Israeli writer known for his short stories, graphic novels, and scriptwriting for film and television.

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Ethiopia–Israel relations

Ethiopia–Israel relations are foreign relations between Ethiopia and Israel.

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Ethiopian Jews in Israel

Ethiopian Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Beta Israel communities of Ethiopia, who now reside in Israel.

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EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.

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EuroAsia Interconnector

The EuroAsia Interconnector is an interconnector between Greek, Cypriot, and Israeli power grids via the world's longest submarine power cable.

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EuroBasket 2017

The EuroBasket 2017 was the 40th edition of the EuroBasket championship that was organized by FIBA Europe and held between 31 August and 17 September 2017.

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European Free Trade Association

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.

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European Neighbourhood Policy

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

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Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.

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Evolutionary Anthropology (journal)

Evolutionary Anthropology is a review journal of anthropology.

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Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

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Exemption from military service in Israel

Exemption from military service in Israel is covered by the Israeli Security Service Law (חוק שירות ביטחון) which states the grounds for exemption from serving in the Israel Defense Forces Exemptions are given based on the following criteria.

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Expulsions and exoduses of Jews

In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions or ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other countries.

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External debt

External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.

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Extreme points of Earth

This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the geographical locations that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.

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Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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The Fajr-5 (فجر-۵, meaning "dawn-5") is an artillery rocket developed by Iran in the 1990s.

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Falafel or felafelOxford University Press,, Oxford Dictionaries Online, Retrieved 2017-06-26.

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Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.

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FIBA European Champions Cup and EuroLeague records and statistics

This page details statistics of the FIBA European Champions Cup and EuroLeague.

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The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.

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Fifteenth government of Israel

The fifteenth government of Israel was formed by Golda Meir on 15 December 1969 following the October elections.

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Fifth Aliyah

The Fifth Aliyah (העלייה החמישית, HaAliyah HaHamishit) refers to the fifth wave of the Jewish immigration to Palestine from Europe and Asia between the years 1929 and 1939, with the arrival of 225,000 to 300,000 Jews.

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First Aliyah

The First Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה הראשונה, HaAliyah HaRishona), also known as the agriculture Aliyah, is a term used to describe a major wave of Zionist immigration (aliyah) to Palestine between 1882 and 1903.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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First Intifada

The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.

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First Zionist Congress

First Zionist Congress (הקונגרס הציוני הראשון) was the inaugural congress of the Zionist Organization (ZO) (to become the World Zionist Organization (WZO) in 1960) held in Basel (Basle), Switzerland, from August 29 to August 31, 1897.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Foreign Assistance Act

The Foreign Assistance Act (et seq.) is a United States Act of Congress.

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Foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.

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Foundation for Middle East Peace

The Foundation for Middle East Peace (FMEP) is an American nonprofit organization that promotes a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

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Four Holy Cities

The Four Holy Cities is the collective term in Jewish tradition applied to the cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and, later, Tiberias, the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of Israel.

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Fourth Aliyah

The Fourth Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה הרביעית, HaAliyah HaRevi'it) refers to the fourth wave of the Jewish immigration to Palestine from Europe and Asia who came based on Zionist motives between the years 1924 and 1928.

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Free-trade area

A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom of the Press (report)

Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.

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French fries

French fries (North American English), chips (British and Commonwealth English), finger chips (Indian English), or French-fried potatoes are ''batonnet'' or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes.

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French Jews in Israel

French Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the French Jewish communities, who now reside within the state of Israel.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fusion cuisine

Fusion cuisine is cuisine that combines elements of different culinary traditions.

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Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.

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Galilee earthquake of 363

The Galilee earthquake of 363 was a pair of severe earthquakes that shook the Galilee and nearby regions on May 18 and 19.

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.

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Gaza City

Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.

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Gaza flotilla raid

The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six civilian ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Gaza Strip

The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.

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Gaza War (2008–09)

The Gaza War, also known as Operation Cast Lead, also known as the Gaza Massacre and the Battle of al-Furqan by Hamas, Secondary source, Abdul-Hameed al-Kayyali, Studies on the Israeli Aggression on Gaza Strip: Cast Lead Operation / Al-Furqan Battle, 2009 was a three-week armed conflict between Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and Israel that began on 27 December 2008 and ended on 18 January 2009 in a unilateral ceasefire.

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Gaza–Egypt border

The Gaza–Egypt border is the 12 km long border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt.

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Geography of Israel

The geography of Israel is very diverse, with desert conditions in the south, and snow-capped mountains in the north.

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Germany–Israel relations

Germany–Israel relations refers to the diplomatic relationship between Israel and Germany.

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Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Global Peace Index

Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.

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GOC Army Headquarters

The Israeli GOC Army headquarters (זרוע היבשה, Zro'a ha-Yabasha, "Ground Arm"), known unofficially as Mazi, is a multi-corps command headquarters created in 1998, which amalgamates the ground forces of the Israel Defense Forces.

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Golan Heights

The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.

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Golan Heights Law

The Golan Heights Law is the Israeli law which applies Israel's government and laws to the Golan Heights.

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Golda Meir

Golda Meir (גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר;, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Governance of the Gaza Strip

The governance of the Gaza Strip is carried out by the Hamas administration, led by Ismail Haniyeh, from 2007, until 2014 and again from 2016.

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Grandmaster (chess)

The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.

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Great Rift Valley

The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.

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Greater Jerusalem

Jerusalem metropolitan area is the area encompassing the approximately one hundred square miles surrounding the Old City of Jerusalem with population of 1,253,900.

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Greece–Israel relations

Greek-Israeli relations refers to the bilateral relations between Greece and Israel.

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Greek music in Israel

Greek music in Israel is very popular and Greek musicians often visit Israel while on world tours.

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Green Line (Israel)

The Green Line, or (pre-) 1967 border or 1949 Armistice border, is the demarcation line set out in the 1949 Armistice Agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its neighbors (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gross national income

The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).

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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Gulf of Aqaba

The Gulf of Aqaba (خليج العقبة, Khalij al-Aqabah) or Gulf of Eilat (מפרץ אילת, Mifrats Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Gush Dan

Gush Dan (גּוּשׁ דָּן; غوش دان) is a conurbation, including areas from both the Tel Aviv and the Central Districts of Israel, or sometimes the whole of Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area (מֶטְרוֹפּוֹלִין תֵּל אָבִיב), which in current official designations includes a small part of the Southern District (Israel) as well.

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Gush Etzion

Gush Etzion (גּוּשׁ עֶצְיוֹן, Etzion Bloc) is a cluster of Jewish settlements located in the Judaean Mountains, directly south of Jerusalem and Bethlehem in the West Bank.

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Gush Katif

Gush Katif (גוש קטיף, lit. Harvest Bloc) was a bloc of 17 Israeli settlements in the southern Gaza strip.

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Habima Theatre

The Habima Theatre (תיאטרון הבימה Te'atron HaBima, lit. "The Stage Theatre") is the national theatre of Israel and one of the first Hebrew language theatres.

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Haganah (הַהֲגָנָה, lit. The Defence) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine (1921–48), which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).

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Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.

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Haifa District

Haifa District (מחוז חיפה, Mehoz Ḥeifa; منطقة حيفا) is an administrative district surrounding the city of Haifa, Israel.

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Haifa metropolitan area

The Haifa metropolitan area (מטרופולין חיפה) is a metropolitan area including areas from both the Haifa and the Northern districts of Israel.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.

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A hamburger, beefburger or burger is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bread roll or bun.

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Hapoel Tel Aviv F.C.

Hapoel Tel-Aviv Football Club (מועדון כדורגל הפועל תל-אביב, Moadon Kaduregel Hapoel Tel Aviv) is an Israeli football club based in Tel Aviv.

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Haredi Judaism

Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.

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Harish, Israel

Harish (חָרִישׁ pron. ha-reesh) meaning "ploughed furrow", is a town (local council) in the Haifa District of Israel.

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Hashomer (השומר, "The Watchman") was a Jewish defense organization in Palestine founded in April 1909.

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Hasidic Judaism

Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.

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Hasmonean Civil War

The Hasmonean Civil War was a civil war between two claimants to the Hasmonean Jewish Crown.

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Hasmonean dynasty

The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.

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"Hatikvah" (הַתִּקְוָה,, الأمل, lit. English: "The Hope") is a Jewish poem and the national anthem of Israel.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.

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Hebrew Book Week

Hebrew Book Week (שבוע הספר העברי) is an annual week-long event in Israel celebrating Hebrew literature.

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Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.

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Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.

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Hellenic Air Force

The Hellenic Air Force (HAF; Πολεμική Αεροπορία, Polemikí Aeroporía, literally "War Aviation", sometimes abbreviated as ΠΑ) is the air force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).

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Hellenistic Greece

In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic.

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Herod the Great

Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.

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Herodian dynasty

The Herodian Dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as vassals of the Roman Empire.

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Herodian kingdom

The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate.

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The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

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Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.

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Hiloni (חִלּוֹנִי), plural hilonim (חִלּוֹנִים), derived from the Hebrew word hulin, meaning "secular" or "mundane," is the term used in Israel for non-religious Jews, some of whom identify with Jewish secularism and secular Jewish culture.

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Hinduism in Israel

Hinduism in Israel refers to the Hindu population in Israel.

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Historicity of the Bible

The historicity of the Bible is the question of the Bible's "acceptability as a history," in the words of Thomas L. Thompson, a scholar who has written widely on this topic as it relates to the Old Testament.

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History of ancient Israel and Judah

The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.

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History of education in ancient Israel and Judah

Education has been defined as, "teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible, but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgement and well-developed wisdom.

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History of Israel

Modern Israel is roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah.

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History of the Jews and Judaism in the Land of Israel

The Jewish people originated in the land of Israel, and have maintained physical, cultural, and religious ties to it ever since.

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Holy Land

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

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Home Front Command

The Israeli Home Front Command (פיקוד העורף, Pikud Ha-ʿOref) is an Israel Defense Forces regional command, created in February 1992 following the Gulf War, which was the first war since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War in which centres of civilian population faced significant threat.

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Homeland for the Jewish people

A homeland for the Jewish people is an idea rooted in Jewish culture and religion.

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The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

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Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Hora (dance)

Hora, also known as horo and oro, is a type of circle dance originating in the Balkans but also found in other countries.

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Hula Valley

The Hula Valley (עמק החולה, translit. Emek Ha-Ḥula; also transliterated as Huleh Valley) is an agricultural region in northern Israel with abundant fresh water.

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Human rights in Israel

Human rights in Israel refers to the human rights record of the State of Israel as evaluated by intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and human rights activists, often in the context of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the wider Arab–Israeli conflict and Israel internal politics.

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Hummus (or; حُمُّص, full Arabic name: hummus bi tahini حمص بالطحينة) is a Levantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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Ilan Ramon

Ilan Ramon (אילן רמון,, born Ilan Wolferman; June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003) was an Israeli fighter pilot and later the first Israeli astronaut for NASA.

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Illegal immigration from Africa to Israel

Illegal immigration from Africa to Israel (often also referred to as infiltration by the Israeli media and by Israeli government organizations; however, the use of the term has been criticized) refers to the act of African nationals entering Israel in violation of Israeli law.

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Index of Israel-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Israel.

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India–Israel relations

India–Israel relations refers to the bilateral ties between the Republic of India and the State of Israel.

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Infobae is an Argentinian news website that was created in 2002 by businessman Daniel Hadad.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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Iran–Israel proxy conflict

The Iran–Israel proxy conflict, or Iran–Israel proxy war, and Iran–Israel Cold War is the ongoing proxy war between Iran and Israel.

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Iran–Israel relations

Iranian–Israeli relations can be divided into four major phases: the period from 1947–53, the friendly period during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty, the worsening period from the 1979 Iranian Revolution to 1990, and finally the hostility since the end of the First Gulf War.

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Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War

The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Syrian Arab Republic are close strategic allies, and Iran has provided significant support for the Syrian Government in the Syrian Civil War, including logistical, technical and financial support, as well as training and some combat troops.

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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The Irgun (ארגון; full title:, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Iron Dome

Iron Dome (כִּפַּת בַּרְזֶל) is a mobile all-weather air defense system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel Aerospace Industries.

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In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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ISCAR Metalworking

ISCAR Metalworking is an Israeli multinational metal cutting tools company affiliated with one of the world's largest metalworking conglomerates, the IMC Group (International Metalworking Companies).

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in Israel

Islam is a major religion in Israel.

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The Israel Forum for International Humanitarian Aid (IsraAID) is an Israel-based humanitarian organization that responds to emergencies all over the world with targeted help.

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Israel (name)

Israel is a Biblical given name.

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Israel and weapons of mass destruction

Israel is widely believed to possess weapons of mass destruction, and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

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Israel at the Asian Games

Israel competed at the Asian Games five times, from 1954 to 1974.

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Israel at the Olympics

Israel has competed at the Olympic Games as a nation since 1952.

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Israel at the Paralympics

Israeli athletes have participated in the Paralympic Games since 1960.

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Israel Bar Association

The Israel Bar Association (IBA) is the bar association for all Israeli lawyers.

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Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.

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Israel Defense Forces

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.

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Israel Democracy Institute

Israel Democracy Institute (IDI; המכון הישראלי לדמוקרטיה), established in 1991, is an independent center of research and action dedicated to strengthening the foundations of Israeli democracy.

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Israel Hayom

Israel Hayom (lit) is an Israeli national Hebrew-language free daily newspaper, first published in 2007.

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Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest

Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 41 times since making its debut in 1973.

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Israel Museum

The Israel Museum (מוזיאון ישראל, Muze'on Yisrael) was established in 1965 as Israel's national museum.

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Israel national football team

The Israel national football team (נבחרת ישראל בכדורגל) is the national football team of Israel, governed by the Israel Football Association (IFA).

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Israel Philharmonic Orchestra

The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisre'elit) is an Israeli symphony orchestra based in Tel Aviv.

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Israel Railways

Israel Railways corporation Ltd., dba Israel Railways (רַכֶּבֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Rakevet Yisra'el, خطوط السكك الحديدية الإسرائيلية) is the state-owned principal railway company responsible for all inter-city, commuter, and freight rail transport in Israel.

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Israel Space Agency

The Israel Space Agency (ISA; סוכנות החלל הישראלית, Sochnut HaChalal HaYisraelit) is a governmental body, a part of Israel's Ministry of Science and Technology, that coordinates all Israeli space research programs with scientific and commercial goals.

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Israel Standard Time

Israel Standard Time (IST) (שעון ישראל, lit. "Israel Time") is the standard time zone in Israel.

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Israel Summer Time

Israel Summer Time (שעון קיץ "Summer Clock"), also in English, Israel Daylight Time (IDT) is the practice in Israel by which clocks are advanced by one hour, beginning on the Friday before the last Sunday of March, and ending on the last Sunday of October.

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Israel, Palestine, and the United Nations

Issues relating to the State of Israel, the State of Palestine and other aspects of the Arab–Israeli conflict occupy repeated annual debate times, resolutions and resources at the United Nations.

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Israel–Gaza barrier

The Israel−Gaza security barrier is a border barrier first constructed by Israel in 1994 between the Gaza Strip and Israel.

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Israel–Jordan peace treaty

The Israel–Jordan peace treaty or in full "Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" (הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: Heskem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisra'el Le-Yarden; معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; Arabic transliteration: Mu'ahadat as-Salaam al-'Urdunniyah al-Isra'yliyah), sometimes referred to as Wadi Araba Treaty, was signed in 1994.

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Israel–Jordan relations

Israel–Jordan relations refers to the diplomatic, economic and cultural relations between Israel and Jordan.

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Israel–Palestine Liberation Organization letters of recognition

Israel–Palestine Liberation Organization letters of recognition (or Israel-PLO Recognition or Letters of Mutual Recognition) were a series of official letters of recognition between the government of Israel and its Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the Palestine Liberation Organization's Chairman Yasser Arafat dated September 9, 1993.

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Israel–Russia relations

Israel–Russia relations refers to the bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Israel and Russia.

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Israel–Turkey relations

Israeli–Turkish relations refer to the bilateral ties between the State of Israel and the Republic of Turkey.

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Israel–United Kingdom relations

Israel–United Kingdom relations, or Anglo-Israeli relations, are the diplomatic and commercial ties between the United Kingdom and Israel.

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Israel–United States Free Trade Agreement

The United States–Israel Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is a trade pact between the State of Israel and the United States established in 1985 to lower trade barriers in some goods.

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Israel–United States military relations

Military relations between Israel and the United States have been consistently close, reflecting shared security interests in the Middle East.

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Israel–United States relations

Israel–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the State of Israel and the United States of America.

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Israeli Air Force

The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.

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Israeli Basketball Premier League

Ligat HaAl (ליגת העל, lit., Super League or Premier League), or the Israeli Basketball Premier League, is the top-tier level league of professional competition in Israeli club basketball, making it Israel's primary basketball competition.

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Israeli checkpoint

An Israeli checkpoint (מחסום, mahsom, حاجز, hajez), is a barrier erected by the Israeli Security Forces with the stated aim of enhancing the security of Israel and Israeli settlements and preventing those who wish to do harm from crossing.

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Israeli Chess Championship

The Israeli Chess Championship is a chess event held every year in Israel.

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Israeli coastal plain

Israel's Coastal Plain (מישור החוף, Mishor HaḤof) is the coastal plain along Israel's Mediterranean Sea coast, extending north to south.

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Israeli cuisine

The Israeli cuisine (המטבח הישראלי ha-mitbaḥ ha-yisra’eli) comprises both local dishes and dishes brought back to Israel by Jews from the Diaspora.

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Israeli Declaration of Independence

The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.

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Israeli disengagement from Gaza

The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תוכנית ההתנתקות,; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from inside the Gaza Strip, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005.

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Israeli folk dancing

Israeli folk dancing (Hebrew: ריקודי עם, rikudei 'am, lit. "Folk dances") is a form of dance usually performed to songs in Hebrew, or to other songs which have been popular in Israel, with dances choreographed for specific songs.

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Israeli general election, 1999

Early general elections for both the Prime Minister and the Knesset were held in Israel on 17 May 1999 following a vote of no confidence in the government; the incumbent Likud Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, ran for re-election.

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Israeli Jews

Israeli Jews (יהודים ישראלים, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.

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Israeli Labor Party

The Israeli Labor Party (מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית, translit.), commonly known as HaAvoda (הָעֲבוֹדָה), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel.

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Israeli legislative election, 1977

The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May 1977.

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Israeli legislative election, 1992

Elections for the 13th Knesset were held in Israel on 23 June 1992.

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Israeli literature

Israeli literature is literature written in the State of Israel by Israelis.

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Israeli Military Governorate

The Israeli Military Governorate was a military government established following the Six-Day War in June 1967, in order to govern the civilian population of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula and the Western part of Golan Heights.

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Israeli nationality law

Israeli nationality law defines the criteria under which a person can be granted citizenship of Israel.

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Israeli Navy

The Israeli Navy (חיל הים הישראלי, Ḥeil HaYam HaYisraeli (English: Sea Corps of Israel); البحرية الإسرائيلية) is the naval warfare service arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea theater.

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Israeli new shekel

The Israeli new shekel (שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ; شيقل جديد; sign: ₪; code: ILS), also known as simply the Israeli shekel and formerly known as the New Israeli Sheqel (NIS), is the currency of Israel and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

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Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon

The Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon took place after Israel invaded Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War and subsequently retained its forces to support the Christian South Lebanon Army in Southern Lebanon.

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Israeli Premier League

The Israeli Premier League (ליגת העל, Ligat HaAl, lit. The Super League), commonly known as Ligat Winner (ליגת ווינר) for sponsorship reasons with Toto Winner, is an Israeli professional league for association football clubs.

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Israeli prime ministerial election, 2001

Elections for Prime Minister were held in Israel on 6 February 2001 following the resignation of the incumbent, Labour's Ehud Barak.

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Israeli security forces

Security forces in Israel (also known as Israel security establishment, מערכת הבטחון, Ma'arechet ha'Bitachon) include a variety of organizations, including law enforcement, military, paramilitary, governmental, and intelligence agencies.

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Israeli settlement

Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.

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Israeli West Bank barrier

The Israeli West Bank barrier or wall (for further names see here) is a separation barrier in the West Bank or along the Green Line.

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Israeli-occupied territories

The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.

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Israeli–Palestinian conflict

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.

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Israeli–Palestinian peace process

The peace process in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict refers to intermittent discussions held during the ongoing violence which has prevailed since the beginning of the conflict.

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Israelis (ישראלים Yiśraʾelim, الإسرائيليين al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin) are citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel, a multiethnic state populated by people of different ethnic backgrounds.

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The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

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Itzhak Perlman

Itzhak Perlman (יצחק פרלמן; born 31 August 1945) is an Israeli-American violinist, conductor, and music teacher.

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Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.

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Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Jenin, Jenin

Jenin, Jenin is a film directed by Mohammed Bakri, a prominent Arab actor and Israeli citizen, in order to portray what Bakri calls "the Palestinian truth" about the "Battle of Jenin", a clash between the Israeli army and Palestinians in April 2002 which drew Palestinian accounts of the "Battle of Jenin" (مجزرة جنين).

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance

The Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance (האקדמיה למוסיקה ולמחול בירושלים), is a school for the music and the performing arts in Jerusalem, Israel.

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Jerusalem District

The Jerusalem District (מחוז ירושלים; منطقة اورشليم (القدس)) is one of six administrative districts of Israel.

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Jerusalem Law

The Jerusalem Law (חוק יסוד: ירושלים בירת ישראל, قانون القدس) is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Knesset on 30 July 1980 (17th Av, 5740).

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Jerusalem Talmud

The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.

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Jewish Agency for Israel

The Jewish Agency for Israel (הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world.

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Jewish and democratic state

"Jewish and democratic state" is the Israeli legal definition of the nature and character of the State of Israel.

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Jewish ceremonial art

Jewish ceremonial art, also known as Judaica, refers to an array of objects used by Jews for ritual purposes.

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Jewish cuisine

Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide.

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Jewish diaspora

The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.

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Jewish ethnic divisions

Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.

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Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries

The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, or Jewish exodus from Arab countries, was the departure, flight, expulsion, evacuation and migration of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Muslim countries, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.

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Jewish holidays

Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.

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Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine

The Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine involved paramilitary actions carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine.

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Jewish Legion

The Jewish Legion (1917–1921) is an unofficial name used to refer to five battalions of Jewish volunteers, the 38th to 42nd (Service) Battalions of the Royal Fusiliers, raised in the British Army to fight against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.

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Jewish question

The Jewish question was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.

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Jewish religious movements

Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

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Jewish revolt against Heraclius

The Jewish revolt against Heraclius was part of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 and is considered the last serious Jewish attempt for gaining autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times.

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Jewish state

The "Jewish state" is a political term used to describe the nation state of Israel.

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Jewish Telegraphic Agency

The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency and wire service serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world, with about 70 syndication clients listed on its web site.

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Jewish Virtual Library

The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).

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Jewish–Babylonian war

The Jewish–Babylonian war was a military conflict between the Kingdom of Judah and Babylonia that lasted from 601 to 586 BC.

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Jewish–Roman wars

The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 136 CE.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jezreel Valley

The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.

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John B. Quigley

John B. Quigley (born 1940) is a professor of law at the Moritz College of Law at the Ohio State University, where he is the Presidents' Club Professor of Law.

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Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Jordan Rift Valley

The Jordan Rift Valley (בִּקְעָת הַיַרְדֵּן Bik'at HaYarden, الغور Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr), also called the Syro-African Depression, is an elongated depression located in modern-day Israel, Jordan, and Palestine.

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Jordan River

The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.

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Jordanian annexation of the West Bank

The Jordanian annexation of the West Bank was the occupation and consequent annexation of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) by Jordan (formerly Transjordan) in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

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Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank

Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank (in Arabic: قرار فك الارتباط), in which Jordan surrendered the claim to sovereignty over the West Bank, took place on 31 July 1988.

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Joseph Saragossi

Joseph Saragossi, (יוסף סרגוסי) (1460 – 1507) was a Spanish-born rabbi and kabbalist of the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Joseph's Tomb

Joseph's Tomb (קבר יוסף, Qever Yosef, قبر يوسف, Qabr Yūsuf) is a funerary monument located at the eastern entrance to the valley that separates Mounts Gerizim and Ebal, 300 metres northwest of Jacob's Well, on the outskirts of the West Bank city of Nablus, near Tell Balata, the site of Shakmu in the Late Bronze Age and later biblical Shechem.

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Joshua Prawer

Joshua Prawer (יהושע פרַאוֶור; November 22, 1917 – April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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Judah Halevi

Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.

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Judea (Roman province)

The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

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Judea and Samaria Area

Judea and Samaria Area (אֵזוֹר יְהוּדָה וְשׁוֹמְרוֹן, Ezor Yehuda VeShomron, also an acronym יו"ש Yosh or ש"י Shai; يهودا والسامرة, Yahuda was-Sāmerah) is the Israeli government term for the administrative division encompassing Israeli-controlled Jewish-majority civilian areas of Area C of the West Bank, excluding East Jerusalem.

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Judicial Selection Committee (Israel)

The Israeli Judicial Committee (hawa'aada livchirat shoftim) is the body that appoints judges to Israeli courts.

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Judiciary of Israel

The judicial system of Israel consists of secular courts and religious courts.

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Kababir (كبابير; כבאביר) is a mixed neighbourhood of with a majority of Ahmadi Muslim Arabs and a significant minority of Jews in Haifa, Israel.

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Kahan Commission

The Kahan Commission (ועדת כהן), formally known as the Commission of Inquiry into the Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut, was established by the Israeli government on 28 September 1982, to investigate the Sabra and Shatila massacre (16–18 September 1982).

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Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.

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Kasif, Israel

Kasif (Hebrew: כסיף, lit. "Silver") is a future planned Haredi city in the Negev region of Israel.

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Ketura Sun

Ketura Sun is Israel’s first commercial solar field.

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Ketura, Israel

Ketura (קְטוּרָה) is a kibbutz in southern Israel.

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Khartoum Resolution

The Khartoum Resolution of 1 September 1967 was issued at the conclusion of the 1967 Arab League summit convened in the wake of the Six-Day War, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.

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Khidr or al-Khidr (الخضر al-Khiḍr; also transcribed as al-Khadir, Khader/Khadr, Khidr, Khizr, Khizir, Khyzer, Qeezr, Qhezr, Qhizyer, Qhezar, Khizar, Xızır, Hızır) is a name ascribed to a figure in the Quran as a righteous servant of God possessing great wisdom or mystic knowledge.

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A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.

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Kibbutz Contemporary Dance Company

The Kibbutz Contemporary Dance Company (KCDC) is an Israeli dance company established in 1970 by the Israel Prize laureate Yehudit Arnon, who served as its artistic director and CEO until 1996.

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King David Hotel

The King David Hotel (מלון המלך דוד, فندق الملك داود) is a 5-star hotel in Jerusalem.

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King David Hotel bombing

The King David Hotel bombing was a terrorist attack carried out on Monday, July 22, 1946, by the militant right-wing Zionist underground organization the Irgun on the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.

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Kingdom of Egypt

The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.

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Kingdom of Iraq

The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.

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Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.

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Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.

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Kingdom of Judah

The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.

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Kishinev pogrom

The Kishinev pogrom was an anti-Jewish riot that took place in Kishinev, then the capital of the Bessarabia Governorate in the Russian Empire, on April 19 and 20, 1903.

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The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Kosher restaurant

A kosher restaurant is an establishment that serves food that complies with Jewish dietary laws (kashrut).

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Krav Maga

Krav Maga (קְרַב מַגָּע, lit. "contact-combat") is a military self-defense and fighting system developed for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and Israeli security forces (Shin Bet and Mossad) that derived from a combination of techniques sourced from boxing, wrestling, aikido, judo and karate, along with realistic fight training.

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KTAV Publishing House

KTAV Publishing House is a publishing house located in Brooklyn, New York.

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Kurihara, Miyagi

Kurihara City Hall is a city located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

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L. A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art

The L.A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art (Hebrew: מוזיאון ל. א. מאיר לאמנות האסלאם, Arabic: معهد ل. أ. مئير للفن الإسلامي) is a museum in Jerusalem, established in 1974.

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Labor Courts of Israel

In the Israeli legal system, the Labor Courts system (בתי הדין לעבודה) is a system of courts established under the Law of the Labor Court, 1969.

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Labor Zionism

Labor Zionism or Socialist Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת סוֹצְיָאלִיסְטִית, translit. tziyonut sotzyalistit) is the left-wing of the Zionist movement.

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Land for peace

Land for peace is a legalistic interpretation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 which has been used as the basis of subsequent Arab-Israeli peace making.

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Land of Israel

The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.

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Israeli Humanitarian Aid was established with the aim to reduce poverty in order to build a better and just society.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Launch vehicle

A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).

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Law of Return

The Law of Return (חֹוק הַשְׁבוּת, ḥok ha-shvūt) is an Israeli law, passed on 5 July 1950, which gives Jews the right to come and live in Israel and to gain Israeli citizenship.

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Le Trio Joubran

Le Trio Joubran (الثلاثي جبران) is an oud trio playing traditional Palestinian music.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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League of Nations mandate

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.

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Leah Goldberg

Leah Goldberg or Lea Goldberg (לאה גולדברג; May 29, 1911, Königsberg – January 15, 1970, Jerusalem) was a prolific Hebrew-language poet, author, playwright, literary translator, and comparative literary researcher.

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Lehi (militant group)

Lehi (לח"י – לוחמי חרות ישראל Lohamei Herut Israel – Lehi, "Fighters for the Freedom of Israel – Lehi"), often known pejoratively as the Stern Gang,"This group was known to its friends as LEHI and to its enemies as the Stern Gang." Blumberg, Arnold.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Levantine cuisine

Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant, known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-Sham and Mashriq, which covers a large area of the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Levantine Sea

The Levantine Sea is the easternmost part of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Leviathan gas field

The Leviathan gas field is a large natural gas field located in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Israel, south-west of the Tamar gas field.

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Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit., The Consolidation), officially, the Likud-National Liberal Movement, is a centre-right to right-wing political party in Israel.

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List of adventive wild plants in Israel

List of adventive wild plants in Israel refers to species of vascular plants in Israel that were either introduced there by human activity or are of a cultivated origin, and meet at least one of the following criteria.

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List of airports in Israel

This is a list of airports in Israel, sorted by location.

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List of assets owned by Berkshire Hathaway

This is a list of assets owned by the multinational holding company Berkshire Hathaway, including private subsidiaries and large common stock holdings, as well as Berkshire's sizeable cash position.

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List of attacks against Israeli civilians before 1967

This article deals with acts of Palestinian political violence against Israeli civilians between the establishment of the 1949 Armistice Agreements and the 1967 Six-Day War.

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List of beaches in Israel

This is an incomplete list of beaches in Israel broken down by bodies of water they are on.

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List of biblical places

This is an incomplete list of places, lands, and countries mentioned in the Bible.

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List of cities administered by the Palestinian Authority

The following is a list of cities administered by the Palestinian National Authority.

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List of cities in Israel

Israeli cities in this list are the cities in Israel, and Israeli settlements with city status in the occupied West Bank; Jerusalem includes occupied East Jerusalem.

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List of countries by external debt

This is a list of countries by external debt, which is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by life expectancy

This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.

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List of countries by literacy rate

This is a list of countries by literacy rate.

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List of countries by military expenditure share of GDP

This is a list of countries by military expenditure share of GDP, the amount spent by a nation on its military as a share of its GDP.

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List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.

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List of countries by research and development spending

This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

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List of countries by tertiary education attainment

This is a list of countries by 25- to 64-year-olds having completed tertiary education as published by the OECD.

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List of countries by vehicles per capita

This article is a list of countries by the number of road motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants.

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List of development aid country donors

This is a list of countries by spending on development aid.

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List of diplomatic missions of Israel

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Israel, excluding honorary consulates.

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List of earthquakes in the Levant

This is a list of earthquakes in the Levant, including earthquakes that either had their epicenter in the Levant or caused significant damage in the region.

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List of endemic flora of Israel

List of endemic flora of Israel refers to flowers, plants and trees endemic to Israel.

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List of football clubs in Israel

The following is a list of football clubs in Israel by their league and division as of the 2015–16 season.

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List of Israeli attacks on Palestine

The following are a List of Israeli attacks on Palestinians.

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List of Israeli chess players

This is a list of Israeli chess title-holders (active players only), as of April 2016.

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List of Israeli companies quoted on the Nasdaq

Israel had more companies listed in 2012 on the NASDAQ stock exchange than any country outside the United States, save China.

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List of Israeli inventions and discoveries

This is a list of inventions and discoveries by Israeli scientists and researchers, working locally or overseas.

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List of Israeli Nobel laureates

Since 1966, there have been twelve Israelis who were awarded Nobel Prize, the most honorable award in various fields including chemistry, economics, literature and peace.

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List of Israeli submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

Israel has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since 1964.

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List of Israeli universities and colleges

This is a list of universities and colleges in Israel.

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List of Jews in sports

This list of Jewish athletes in sports contains athletes who are Jewish and have attained outstanding achievements in sports.

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List of Knesset speakers

The Speaker of the Knesset (יושב ראש הכנסת, Yoshev Rosh HaKnesset, literally: Chairman of the Knesset) is the presiding officer of the Knesset, the unicameral legislature of Israel.

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List of military occupations

This article presents a list of military occupations.

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List of multinational companies with research and development centres in Israel

There are over 250 R&D Centers in Israel owned by multinational companies.

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List of national symbols of Israel

National symbols of Israel are the symbols that are used in Israel and abroad to represent the country and its people.

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List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2012

This is a detailed list of Palestinian rocket and mortar attacks on Israel in 2012.

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List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2014

This is a detailed list of Palestinian rocket and mortar attacks on Israel in 2014.

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List of Palestinian suicide attacks

This article contains Lists of Palestinian suicide attacks carried out by Palestinian individuals and militant groups.

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List of places in Jerusalem

No description.

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List of political parties in Israel

Israel's political system, based on proportional representation, allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties represented in the 120-seat Knesset.

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List of wars involving Israel

Since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel has fought eight recognized wars, two Palestinian intifadas, and a series of armed conflicts in the broader Arab–Israeli conflict.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Israel

This is a list of World Heritage Sites in Israel with properties of cultural and natural heritage in Israel as inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List or as on the country's tentative list.

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Litani River

The Litani River (نهر الليطاني, Nahr al-Līṭānī), the classical Leontes (Λέοντες, Léontes, "Lions"), is an important water resource in southern Lebanon.

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Loan guarantee

A loan guarantee, in finance, is a promise by one party (the guarantor) to assume the debt obligation of a borrower if that borrower defaults.

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Lod (לוֹד; اللُّدّ; Latin: Lydda, Diospolis, Ancient Greek: Λύδδα / Διόσπολις - city of Zeus) is a city southeast of Tel Aviv in the Central District of Israel.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Ma'abarot (מַעְבָּרוֹת) were refugee absorption camps in Israel in the 1950s.

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Maariv (newspaper)

Maariv (מַעֲרִיב, lit. Evening) is a national Hebrew-language daily newspaper published in Israel.

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Maccabean Revolt

The Maccabean Revolt (מרד החשמונאים) was a Jewish rebellion, lasting from 167 to 160 BC, led by the Maccabees against the Seleucid Empire and the Hellenistic influence on Jewish life.

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Maccabi Haifa F.C.

Maccabi Haifa Football Club (מועדון הכדורגל מכבי חיפה, Moadon HaKaduregel Maccabi Haifa) is an Israeli professional football club, based in City of Haifa, a section of Maccabi Haifa sports club.

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Maccabi Tel Aviv B.C.

Maccabi Tel Aviv B.C. (מועדון כדורסל מכבי תל-אביב), for sponsorship reasons Maccabi FOX Tel Aviv, is a professional basketball club based in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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Maccabi Tel Aviv F.C.

Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club (מועדון כדורגל מכבי תל אביב; Moadon Kaduregel Maccabi Tel Aviv) is an Israeli football club and part of the Maccabi Tel Aviv sports club.

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Maccabiah Games

The Maccabiah Games (a.k.a. the World Maccabiah Games; משחקי המכביה, or משחקי המכביה העולמית; often referred to as the "Jewish Olympics"), first held in 1932, are an international Jewish and Israeli multi-sport event now held quadrennially in Israel.

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Maghrebi Jews

Maghrebi Jews (מַגּרֶבִּים Maghrebim or) or North African Jews (Yehudei Tzfon Africa) are Jews who had traditionally lived in the Maghreb region of North Africa (al-Maghrib, Arabic for "the west") under Arab rule during the Middle Ages.

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The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.

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Mahmood Mosque, Haifa

Mahmood Mosque (مسجد محمود, מסגד האחמדים) is a mosque in Kababir, Haifa, built by the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in the late 1970s.

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Mahmoud Abbas

Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.

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Mahmoud Darwish

Mahmoud Darwish (maḥmūd darwīsh, 13 March 1941 – 9 August 2008) was a Palestinian poet and author who was regarded as the Palestinian national poet.

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Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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A makhtesh (מַכְתֵּשׁ, plural: (– Makhteshim) is a geological landform considered typical for the Negev desert of Israel and the Sinai peninsula of Egypt. A makhtesh has steep walls of resistant rock surrounding a deep closed valley, which is usually drained by a single wadi. The valleys have limited vegetation and soil, containing a variety of different colored rocks and diverse fauna and flora. The best known and largest makhtesh is Makhtesh Ramon.

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Makhtesh Ramon

Makhtesh Ramon (מכתש רמון; lit. Ramon Crater/Makhtesh; وادي الرمان) is a geological feature of Israel's Negev desert.

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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)

The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.

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Mandatory Palestine

Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.

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Manot Cave

Manot Cave (Me'ara Manot) is a cave in Western Galilee, Israel, discovered in 2008.

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Marriage in Israel

Marriages in Israel can be performed only under the auspices of the religious community to which couples belong, and no religious intermarriages can be performed legally in Israel.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Mashav is Israel's Agency for International Development Cooperation in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

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Masortim (מסורתיים, lit. "Traditional ", also known as Shomrei Masoret,, "upholders of tradition")' is an Israeli term of self-definition, describing those who perceive and describe themselves as neither strictly religious (Dati) nor secular (Hiloni).

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean cuisine

Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Memorandum of understanding

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is a type of agreement between two (bilateral) or more (multilateral) parties.

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MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.

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Menachem Begin

Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.

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Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.

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Merkhav Mugan

Merkhav Mugan (מרחב מוגן) (lit. protected space), also known as a "miklat" and popularly known as a mamad, is a reinforced security room required in all new buildings by Israeli law.

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Merneptah Stele

The Merneptah Stele—also known as the Israel Stele or the Victory Stele of Merneptah—is an inscription by the ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign: 1213 to 1203 BC) discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1896 at Thebes, and now housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

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Messianic Judaism

Messianic Judaism is a modern syncretic religious movement that combines Christianity—most importantly, the belief that Jesus is the Messiah—with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition, its current form emerging in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Eastern cuisine

Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East.

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Middle school

A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.

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Military equipment of Israel

The military equipment of Israel includes a wide array of arms, armored vehicles, artillery, missiles, planes, helicopters, and warships.

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Military Intelligence Directorate (Israel)

The Directorate of Military Intelligence (אגף המודיעין, Agaf HaModi'in – lit. "the Intelligence Section"; شعبة الاستخبارات العسكرية), often abbreviated to Aman (אמ״ן; آمان), is the central, overarching military intelligence body of the Israel Defense Forces.

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Military occupation

Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel)

The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (מִשְׂרַד הַחוּץ, translit. Misrad HaHutz; وزارة الخارجية الإسرائيلية) is one of the most important ministries in the Israeli government.

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Ministry of Interior (Israel)

The Ministry of Interior (משרד הפנים, Misrad HaPnim; وزارة الداخلية) in the State of Israel is one of the government offices that is responsible for local government, citizenship and residency, identity cards, and student and entry visas.

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Ministry of Justice (Israel)

The Justice Ministry (מִשְׂרָד הַמִשְׁפָּטִים, Misrad HaMishpatim; وزارة العدل) is the Israeli government ministry that oversees the Israeli judicial system.

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Ministry of Tourism (Israel)

The Ministry of Tourism (מִשְׂרַד הַתַּיָּרוּת, translit. Misrad HaTayarut) is the Israeli government office responsible for tourism.

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The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".

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Misnagdim (also Mitnagdim; singular misnaged/mitnaged) is a Hebrew word meaning "opponents".

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Mizrahi Jews

Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.

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Mizrahi music

Mizrahi music (מוזיקה מזרחית, "Eastern/Oriental music") refers to a music genre in Israel that combines elements from Europe, North Africa and the Arab world, and is mainly performed by Israelis of Mizrahi descent.

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Modern Hebrew

No description.

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Modern Hebrew poetry

Modern Hebrew poetry is poetry written in the Hebrew language.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Modi'in Illit

Modi'in Illit (מוֹדִיעִין עִלִּית; موديعين عيليت, lit. "Upper Modi'in") is a Haredi Israeli settlement and city in the West Bank, situated midway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.

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Mohammad Bakri

Mohammad Bakri (born 1953; محمد بكري, מוחמד בכרי), is an Arab–Israeli actor and film director.

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Moment (magazine)

Moment is an independent magazine which focuses on the life of the American Jewish community.

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Monolatry (Greek: μόνος (monos).

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Moshe Sharett

Moshe Sharett (משה שרת, born Moshe Shertok (Hebrew)‎ 15 October 1894 – 7 July 1965) was the second Prime Minister of Israel (1954–55), serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurion's two terms.

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Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.

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Mossad LeAliyah Bet

The Mossad LeAliyah Bet (המוסד לעלייה ב', lit. Institution for Immigration B) was a branch of the Haganah in the British Mandate of Palestine, and later the State of Israel that operated to facilitate Jewish immigration to British Palestine (later Israel).

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Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.

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Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.

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Mount Carmel

Mount Carmel (הַר הַכַּרְמֶל, Har HaKarmel ISO 259-3 Har ha Karmell (lit. God's vineyard); الكرمل, Al-Kurmul, or جبل مار إلياس, Jabal Mar Elyas (lit. Mount Saint Elias/Elijah) is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast. The range is a UNESCO biosphere reserve. A number of towns are situated there, most notably the city of Haifa, Israel's third largest city, located on the northern slope. The name is presumed to be directly from the Hebrew language word Carmel (כַּרְמֶל), which means "fresh" (planted), or "vineyard" (planted).

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Mount Hermon

Mount Hermon (جبل الشيخ or جبل حرمون / ALA-LC: Jabal al-Shaykh ("Mountain of the Sheikh") or Jabal Haramun; הר חרמון, Har Hermon) is a mountain cluster constituting the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range.

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Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh

Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh ("Cave of the Robbers") is a prehistoric archaeological site in Upper Galilee, Israel.

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Munich massacre

The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officer.

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Music of Israel

The music of Israel is a combination of Jewish and non-Jewish music traditions that have come together over the course of a century to create a distinctive musical culture.

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Muslim conquest of the Levant

The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.

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Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.

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Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.

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Nahal Sorek

Nahal Sorek (נחל שורק, lit. Brook of Sorek), also Soreq, is one of the largest, most important drainage basins in the Judean Hills.

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Names of the Levant

Over recorded history, there have been many names of the Levant, a large area in the Middle East, or its constituent parts.

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Nathan Alterman

Nathan Alterman (נתן אלתרמן, August 14, 1910 – March 28, 1970) was an Israeli poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.

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National Library of Israel

The National Library of Israel (NLI; translit; المكتبة الوطنية في إسرائيل), formerly Jewish National and University Library (JNUL; translit), is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage.

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National myth

A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past.

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National parks and nature reserves of Israel

National parks of Israel are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority.

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Natufian culture

The Epipaleolithic Natufian culture existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Natural gas in Israel

Natural gas in Israel is a primary energy source in Israel, mainly utilized for electricity production and to lesser degree in the industry.

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Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Nazareth Illit

Nazareth Illit (נָצְרַת עִלִּית, الناصرة العليا, lit. Upper Nazareth) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Nebuchadnezzar II

Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.

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The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.

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Nelly Sachs

Nelly Sachs (10 December 1891 – 12 May 1970) was a Swedish poet and playwright of Jewish German birth.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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Neo-Babylonian Empire

The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.

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Net international investment position

The difference between a country's external financial assets and liabilities is its net international investment position (NIIP).

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Nikki Haley

Nimrata "Nikki" Haley (née Randhawa, born January 20, 1972) is an American politician who is currently the 29th United States Ambassador to the United Nations.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Northern District (Israel)

The Northern District (מחוז הצפון, Mehoz HaTzafon; منطقة الشمال, Minṭaqat ash-Shamal) is one of Israel's six administrative districts.

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Nuclear weapons and Israel

Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons, with an estimated arsenal of up to 400 warheads; which would make it the world's third biggest arsenal.

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Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt

The occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt occurred between 1948 and October 1956 and again from March 1957 to June 1967.

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Occupied Enemy Territory Administration

The Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA) was a joint British and French military administration over Levantine and Mesopotamian provinces of the former Ottoman Empire between 1918–20, set up following the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. The administration ended following the assignment of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon and British Mandate for Palestine at the 19–26 April 1920 San Remo conference.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Ofeq, also spelled Offek or Ofek (אופק, lit. Horizon) is the designation of a series of Israeli reconnaissance satellites first launched in 1988.

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Ofra Haza

Bat-Sheva Ofra Haza-Ashkenazi (עפרה חזה; November 19, 1957 February 23, 2000) was an Israeli singer, actress and Grammy Award-nominee recording artist, commonly known as "The Israeli Madonna", or "Madonna of the East".

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Ohad Naharin

Ohad Naharin (born 1952) (Hebrew: אוהד נהרין) is an Israeli contemporary dancer, choreographer and was dance company artistic director up till 2017.

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Old City (Jerusalem)

The Old City (הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָה, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, البلدة القديمة, al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.

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One Million Plan

The One Million Plan was a plan for immigration and absorption of one million Jews from Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa into Mandatory Palestine, within a timeframe of 18 months, in order to establish a state in the territory.

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Open University of Israel

The Open University of Israel (האוניברסיטה הפתוחה, Ha-Universita ha-Ptuha) is a distance-education university in Israel.

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Operation Agatha

Operation Agatha (Saturday, June 29, 1946) sometimes called Black Sabbath ("השבת השחורה") or Black Saturday because it began on the Jewish sabbath, was a police and military operation conducted by the British authorities in Mandatory Palestine.

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Operation Badr (1973)

Operation Badr (عملية بدر; ʻAmaliyat Badr) or Plan Badr (خطة بدر; Khitat Badr) was the code name for the Egyptian military operation to cross the Suez Canal and seize the Bar-Lev Line of Israeli fortifications on October 6, 1973.

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Operation Entebbe

Operation Entebbe, or Operation Thunderbolt, was a successful counter-terrorist hostage-rescue mission carried out by commandos of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on 4 July 1976.

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Operation Focus

Operation Focus (מבצע מוקד, Mivtza Moked) was the opening airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six-Day War in 1967.

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Operation Opera

Operation Opera (מבצע אופרה‎‎.), also known as Operation Babylon, was a surprise Israeli air strike carried out on 7 June 1981, which destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southeast of Baghdad.

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Operation Outside the Box

Operation Outside the Box (מבצע מחוץ לקופסה, Mivtza Michutz La'Kufsa) was an Israeli airstrike on a suspected nuclear reactor, Associated Press Latest Update: 04.28.11, 18:10 referred to as the Al Kibar site (also referred to in IAEA documents as Dair Alzour), in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria, which occurred just after midnight (local time) on 6 September 2007.

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Operation Pillar of Defense

Operation Pillar of Defense (עַמּוּד עָנָן, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud") was an eight-day Israel Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.

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Operation Wooden Leg

Operation "Wooden Leg" (מבצע רגל עץ Mivtza Regel Etz) was an attack by Israel on the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) headquarters in Hammam Chott, near Tunis, Tunisia, on October 1, 1985.

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Operation Wrath of God

Operation "Wrath of God" (מבצע זעם האל Mivtza Za'am Ha'el), also known as Operation "Bayonet", was a covert operation directed by the Mossad to assassinate individuals involved in the 1972 Munich massacre in which 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team were killed.

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Orthodox Judaism

Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.

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Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.

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Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17)

The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

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The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.

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Outline of Israel

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Israel: Israel – country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Ovda Airport

Ovda Airport (נְמַל הַתְּעוּפָה עֻבְדָּה, Nemal HaTe'ufa Uvda; مطار عوفدا) is a military air base and civilian airport in the Uvda region of southern Israel, about north of the city of Eilat.

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Paléorient is a French journal which is dedicated to the prehistory of Near East and published in French, German and English.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.

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Palestinian fedayeen

Palestinian fedayeen (from the Arabic fidā'ī, plural fidā'iyūn, فدائيون) are militants or guerrillas of a nationalist orientation from among the Palestinian people.

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Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

The Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon was a conflict initiated by Palestinian militants based in South Lebanon upon Israel since 1968 and upon Christian Lebanese factions since mid-1970s, which evolved into the wider Lebanese Civil War in 1975 and lasted until the expulsion of the Palestinian Liberation Organization from Lebanon in the 1982 Lebanon War.

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Palestinian National Authority

The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.

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Palestinian political violence

Palestinian political violence refers to acts of violence or terror motivated by Palestinian nationalism.

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Palestinian refugees

The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.

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Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel

Since 2001, Palestinian militants have launched thousands of rocket and mortar attacks on Israel from the Gaza Strip as part of the continuing Arab–Israeli conflict.

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Palestinian self-determination

Palestinian self-determination refers to aspirations by some Palestinians and Palestinian nationalists for increased autonomy and sovereign independence as well as to the international right of self-determination applied to Palestine.

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Palestinian territories

Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.

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The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.

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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Paralympic Games

The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Patriarchs (Bible)

The Patriarchs (אבות. Avot or Abot, singular אב. Ab or Aramaic: אבא Abba) of the Bible, when narrowly defined, are Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob, also named Israel, the ancestor of the Israelites.

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Peking Man

Peking Man, Homo erectus pekinensis (formerly known by the junior synonym Sinanthropus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus.

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The perushim (פרושים) were disciples of the Vilna Gaon, Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, who left Lithuania at the beginning of the 19th century to settle in the Land of Israel, which was then part of Ottoman Syria under Ottoman rule.

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Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.

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Pinchas Zukerman

Pinchas Zukerman (פנחס צוקרמן, born 16 July 1948) is an Israeli-American violinist, violist and conductor.

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Pizza is a traditional Italian dish consisting of a yeasted flatbread typically topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven.

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Planned community

A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land.

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Policy of deliberate ambiguity

A policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity, strategic uncertainty) is the practice by a country of being intentionally ambiguous on certain aspects of its foreign policy or whether it possesses certain weapons of mass destruction.

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Politics of Israel

Politics in Israel is dominated by Zionist parties.

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Pop rock

Pop rock (also typeset as pop/rock) is rock music with a greater emphasis on professional songwriting and recording craft, and less emphasis on attitude.

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Popeye (missile)

Popeye is the name of a family of air-to-surface missiles developed and in use by Israel, of which several types have been developed for Israeli and export users.

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Population statistics for Israeli Gaza Strip settlements

Population statistics for former Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, which were evacuated in 2005 as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan.

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Population statistics for Israeli settlements in the West Bank

The population statistics for Israeli settlements in the West Bank are collected by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

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Port of Ashdod

The Port of Ashdod (נמל אשדוד) is one of Israel's two main cargo ports.

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Port of Eilat

The Port of Eilat (נמל אילת) is the only Israeli port on the Red Sea, located at the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba.

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Port of Haifa

The Port of Haifa (נמל חיפה) is the largest of Israel's three major international seaports, which include the Port of Ashdod, and the Port of Eilat.

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Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.

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In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.

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President of Israel

The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.

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Press Freedom Index

The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.

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Prime Minister of Israel

The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.

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Prime Minister's Office (Israel)

Israeli Prime Minister's Office (משרד ראש הממשלה) is the governmental ministration office with the responsibility of coordinating the actions of the work of all governmental ministry offices, on various matters, and serving and assisting the Israeli Prime Minister in his daily work.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron

The Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as the Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, was signed on 17 January 1997 by Israel, represented by Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), represented by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, under the supervision of U.S. Secretary of State, Warren Christopher.

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Protocol of Sèvres

The Protocol of Sèvres (French, Protocole de Sèvres) was a secret agreement reached between the governments of Israel, France and the United Kingdom during discussions held between 22 and 24 October 1956 at Sèvres, France.

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Public holidays in Israel

Note: for exact dates in the Gregorian calendar see Jewish holidays 2000-2050. Public holidays in Israel refers to national holidays officially recognized by the Knesset, Israel's parliament.

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Python (missile)

The Rafael Python is a family of air-to-air missiles (AAMs) built by the Israeli weapons manufacturer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, formerly RAFAEL Armament Development Authority.

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Qassam rocket

The Qassam rocket (صاروخ القسام Ṣārūkh al-Qassām; also Kassam) is a simple, steel artillery rocket developed and deployed by the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, the military arm of Hamas.

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Qesem cave

Qesem cave is a Lower Paleolithic archeological site 12 km east of Tel Aviv in Israel.

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Rachel Bluwstein

Rachel Bluwstein Sela (September 20 (Julian calendar), 1890 – April 16, 1931) was a Hebrew-language poet who immigrated to Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire, in 1909.

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Rachel's Tomb

Rachel's Tomb (קבר רחל translit. Qever Raḥel, قبر راحيل Qabr Rāḥīl) is the site revered as the burial place of the matriarch Rachel.

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Rail transport in Israel

Rail transport in Israel includes heavy rail (inter-city, commuter, and freight rail) as well as light rail.

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Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.

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The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.

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Recent African origin of modern humans

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).

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Reclaimed water

Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.

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Reconnaissance satellite

A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.

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Recueil des historiens des croisades

The Recueil des historiens des croisades (trans: Collection of the Historians of the Crusades) is a major collection of several thousand medieval documents written during the Crusades.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Red Sea Jazz Festival

The Red Sea Jazz Festival is a jazz festival held annually in Eilat, Israel.

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Religion in Israel

Religion in Israel is a central feature of the country and plays a major role in shaping Israeli culture and lifestyle.

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Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork

Religious restrictions on the consumption of pork are a tradition in the Ancient Near East.

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Religious significance of Jerusalem

The city of Jerusalem is significant in a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which consider it a holy city.

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Religious tourism

Religious tourism, also commonly referred to as faith tourism, is a type of tourism, where people travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purposes.

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Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany

The Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Luxemburger Abkommen "Luxembourg Agreement" or Wiedergutmachungsabkommen "Wiedergutmachung Agreement", Hebrew: הסכם השילומים Heskem HaShillumim "Reparations Agreement") was signed on September 10, 1952,USHMM:, USHMM photograph #11019.

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Repertory theatre

A repertory theatre (also called repertory, rep or stock) can be a Western theatre or opera production in which a resident company presents works from a specified repertoire, usually in alternation or rotation.

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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Reprisal operations

Reprisal operations (פעולות התגמול) were raids carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in the 1950s and 1960s in response to frequent fedayeen attacks during which armed Arab militants infiltrated Israel from Syria, Egypt and Jordan to carry out attacks on Israeli civilians and soldiers.

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Research and development

Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

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Reserve duty (Israel)

In reserve duty (or reserve service; שירות מילואים, Sherut Milu'im), Israeli residents who have completed military service are assigned to the Israel Defense Forces' military reserve force to provide reinforcements during emergencies (war, military operations or natural disasters), and as a matter of routine course (e.g. for training, ongoing security and other activities).

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Reuven Rivlin

Reuven "Ruvi" Rivlin (רְאוּבֵן "רוּבִי" רִיבְלִין,; born 9 September 1939) is an Israeli politician and lawyer serving as the 10th and current President of Israel since 2014.

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Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.

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Revival of the Hebrew language

The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Rishon LeZion

Rishon LeZion (רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן, lit. First to Zion) is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain south of Tel Aviv.

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Road signs in Israel

Road signs in Israel are decided by the Ministry of Transportation in the Division of Transportation Planning, most recently set forth in June 2011.

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Roads in Israel

Israel has a well-developed road network spanning the entire country.

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Rockefeller Museum

The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandate Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Roman–Parthian Wars

The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.

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Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Russian language in Israel

The Russian language in Israel is spoken natively by a large proportion of the population, reaching about 20 percent of the total population by 1989, mostly by immigrants who came from the former Soviet Union in the early 1990s and later years.

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Sabra (person)

A Sabra (צבר, tzabar) is an informal-turned-formal term that refers to any Jew born on Israeli territory.

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Sabra and Shatila massacre

The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the killing of between 762 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, also called Phalange, a predominantly Christian Lebanese right-wing party in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

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Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Sailing at the 2004 Summer Olympics – Men's Mistral One Design

The Men's Mistral One Design was a sailing event on the Sailing at the 2004 Summer Olympics program in Agios Kosmas Olympic Sailing Centre.

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Saint George

Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.

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A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.

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An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

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The name, Salih, originate from ancient Egyptian:  means Upright Saleh or Salih (صالح Ṣāliḥ "Pious") was a prophet of pre-Islamic Arabia mentioned in the Qur'an who prophesied to the tribe of Thamud.

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Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.

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Samaritan revolts

The Samaritan revolts were a series of insurrections during the 5th and 6th centuries in Palaestina Prima province, launched by the Samaritans against the Byzantine Empire.

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The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.

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Samson ben Abraham of Sens

Samson ben Abraham (c. 1150 – c. 1230), also known as the Rash of Sens (an acronym of his name) or "the Prince of Sens" or simply by the name (mainly by the Tosafists) "Rashba", was one of the leading French Tosafists in the second half of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th centuries.

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Sapir Prize

The Sapir Prize for Literature of Israel is a prestigious annual literary award presented for a work of literature in the Hebrew language.

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Sasanian conquest of Jerusalem

The Sasanian Empire conquered Jerusalem after a brief siege in 614, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, after the Persian Shah Khosrau II appointed his general Shahrbaraz to conquer the Byzantine controlled areas of the Near East.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.

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Save a Child's Heart

Save a Child's Heart (SACH) is a humanitarian organization with a mission to improve the quality of pediatric cardiac care for children from developing countries who suffer from heart disease, and who cannot get adequate medical care in their home countries.

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Sayed Kashua

Sayed Kashua (سيد قشوع, סייד קשוע; born 1975) is an Palestinian-Israeli author and journalist born in Tira, Israel, known for his books and humorous columns in the Hebrew language.

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A schnitzel is meat, usually thinned by pounding with a meat tenderizer, that is fried in some kind of oil or fat.

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School life expectancy

School life expectancy is a measure of how many years of education a child of school-entering age would receive during his or her lifetime if the school enrollment rates stay the same as of today.

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Science and technology in Israel

Science and technology in Israel is one of the country's most developed sectors.

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Scientific literature

Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.

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Sea of Galilee

The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.

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Seat of government

The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".

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Second Aliyah

The Second Aliyah (העלייה השנייה, HaAliyah HaShniya) was an important and highly influential aliyah (Jewish emigration to Palestine) that took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 35,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman-ruled Palestine, mostly from the Russian Empire, some from Yemen.

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Second Intifada

The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (انتفاضة الأقصى; אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה Intifādat El-Aqtzah), was the second Palestinian uprising against Israel – a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence.

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Second strike

In nuclear strategy, a second-strike capability is a country's assured ability to respond to a nuclear attack with powerful nuclear retaliation against the attacker.

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Second Temple

The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.

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Secret ballot

The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Sephardic music

Sephardic music is an umbrella term used to refer to the music of the Sephardic Jewish community.

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The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Sh'erit ha-Pletah

Sh'erit ha-Pletah (lit) is a biblical (Ezra 9:14 and 1 Chronicles 4:43) term used by Jewish refugees who survived the Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed in postwar Europe following the liberation in the spring of 1945.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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Shahar Pe'er

Shahar Pe'er (שחר פאר,; born May 1, 1987) is an Israeli retired professional tennis player.

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Shakshouka (شكشوكة, also spelled shakshuka, chakchouka) is a dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, chili peppers, and onions, often spiced with cumin.

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Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Shavit (Hebrew: "comet" – שביט) is a small lift launch vehicle produced by Israel from 1982 onwards, to launch satellites into orbit.

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Sherut Leumi

Sherut Leumi (שירות לאומי, lit. National Service) is an alternative voluntary national service in Israel for those that cannot or do not wish to serve in the Israel Defense Forces.

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Shimon Peres

Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס,; born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel (2007–2014), the Prime Minister of Israel (twice), and the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s.

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Shin Bet

The Israel Security Agency (ISA, שירות הביטחון הכללי Sherut ha-Bitaẖon haKlali "General Security Service"; جهاز الأمن العام), better known by the acronym Shabak (שב״כ,, شاباك) or the Shin Bet (a two-letter Hebrew abbreviation of the name), is Israel's internal security service.

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Shmuel Yosef Agnon

Shmuel Yosef Agnon (שמואל יוסף עגנון) (July 17, 1888 – February 17, 1970) was a Nobel Prize laureate writer and was one of the central figures of modern Hebrew fiction.

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Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh

The Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, located in Bahjí near Acre, Israel, is the most holy place for Bahá'ís and represents their Qiblih, or direction of prayer.

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Shrine of the Báb

The Shrine of the Báb is a structure in Haifa, Israel where the remains of the Báb, founder of the Bábí Faith and forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh in the Bahá'í Faith, have been buried; it is considered to be the second holiest place on Earth for Bahá'ís, after the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Acre.

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Siege of Jerusalem (1099)

The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade.

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Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)

In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II laid siege to Jerusalem, culminating in the destruction of the city and its temple in the summer of 587 or 586 BC.

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Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.

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Silicon Wadi

Silicon Wadi (סיליקון ואדי, lit: "Silicon Valley") is an area with a high concentration of high-technology companies on the coastal plain of Israel, similar to Silicon Valley in the U.S. state of California, and is the reason Israel is nicknamed the Start-Up Nation.

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Sinai and Palestine Campaign

The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.

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Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.

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Six-Day War

The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

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Skhul and Qafzeh hominins

The Skhul/Qafzeh hominins or Qafzeh–Skhul early modern humans are hominin fossils discovered in the Qafzeh and Es Skhul Caves in Israel.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Snow in Israel

Snowfall in Israel is not uncommon but occurs mainly in certain parts of the country.

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Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.

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Solar power in Israel

The use of solar energy began in Israel in the 1950s with the development by Levi Yissar of a solar water heater to address the energy shortages that plagued the new country.

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Solo Man

Solo Man (Homo erectus soloensis) is a subspecies of Homo erectus., identified based on fossil evidence discovered between 1931 and 1933 by Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald, from sites along the Solo River, on the Indonesian island of Java, dated to between 550,000 and 143,000 years old.

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Solomon's Temple

According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.

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South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000)

The South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) or the Security Zone conflict in Lebanon refers to 15 years of warfare between the Lebanese Christian proxy militias SLA with military and logistic support of Israel Defense Forces against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas led by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon.

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South Lebanon security belt administration

The South Lebanon security belt administration was a local provisional governance body in South Lebanon, in the South Lebanon security belt areas.

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Southern District (Israel)

The Southern District (מחוז הדרום, Meḥoz HaDarom; لواء الجنوب) is one of Israel's six administrative districts, the largest in terms of land area but the most sparsely populated.

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Southern Lebanon

Southern Lebanon (Lebanese Arabic: Jnoub, meaning "south") is the area of Lebanon comprising the South Governorate and the Nabatiye Governorate.

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Southern Syria

Southern Syria (سوريا الجنوبية, Suriyya al-Janubiyya) is the southern part of the Syria region, roughly corresponding to the Southern Levant.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space Competitiveness Index

The Space Competitiveness Index (SCI) is a self-financed, independently researched, annual report that compares and ranks how countries invest in and benefit from space industry.

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Space Shuttle Columbia

Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

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Space Shuttle Columbia disaster

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.

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Spike (missile)

Spike is an Israeli fourth-generation man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile and anti-personnel missile with a tandem-charge HEAT warhead.

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Standard of living in Israel

Israel's standard of living is significantly higher than that of most other countries in the region, and is comparable to that of other highly developed countries.

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Startup company

A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around a product, service, process or a platform.

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State of Palestine

Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

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Status of Jerusalem

The status of Jerusalem is disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice.

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Status of territories occupied by Israel in 1967

The status of territories captured by Israel refers to the status of the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, the Western Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula, captured by Israel on the course of the 1967 Six-Day War.

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Status quo (Israel)

In Israel, the term status quo (or the secular–religious status quo) refers to the political understanding between religious and secular political parties not to alter the communal arrangement in relation to religious matters, in a predominantly secular population.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Straits of Tiran

The Straits of Tiran (مضيق تيران) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea proper.

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STS-107 was the 113th flight of the Space Shuttle program, and the final flight of Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.

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Subtitle (captioning)

Subtitles are text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can also be at the top of the screen if there is already text at the bottom of the screen.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Suez Crisis

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.

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Suntech Power

Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd.

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Supreme Court of Israel

The Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syria Palaestina

Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.

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Syrian Republic (1946–63)

The Syrian Republic (الجمهورية السورية; République syrienne) was recognized as a sovereign state in 1945 and became de-facto independent in April 1946 from the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon.

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Tabun Cave

The Tabun Cave is an excavated site located at Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve, Israel and is one of Human Evolution sites at Mount Carmel, which were proclaimed as having universal value by UNESCO in 2012.

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Tal committee

The Tal committee was an Israeli public committee appointed on 22 August 1999 which dealt with the special exemption from mandatory military service in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) given to Israeli ultra-Orthodox Jews, as well as extending mandatory military service to Israeli-Arabs.

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Tamar gas field

The Tamar gas field is a natural gas field in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Israel.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Technion – Israel Institute of Technology

The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל Ha-Tekhniyon — Makhon Tekhnologi le-Yisrael) is a public research university in Haifa, Israel.

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Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.

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Tel Aviv District

The Tel Aviv District (מָחוֹז תֵּל אָבִיב; منطقة تل أبيب) is the smallest and most densely populated of six administrative districts of Israel with a population of 1.35 million residents.

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Tel Aviv University

Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.

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Temple Mount

The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.

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Tertiary education

Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.

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The Exodus

The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.

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The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot

The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot is located in Tel Aviv, Israel, at the center of the Tel Aviv University campus in Ramat Aviv.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist

The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist (الوقائع الغريبة في اختفاء سعيد أبي النحس المتشائل) is a 1974 satirical fiction book by Emile Habibi.

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The Syrian Bride

The Syrian Bride (הכלה הסורית) is a 2004 film directed by Eran Riklis.

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The Weather Channel

The Weather Channel is an American basic cable and satellite television channel, owned by Byron Allen's Entertainment Studios.

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Theodor Herzl

Theodor Herzl (תאודור הֶרְצֵל Te'odor Hertsel, Herzl Tivadar; 2 May 1860 – 3 July 1904), Hebrew name given at his brit milah Binyamin Ze'ev (בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב), also known in Hebrew as, Chozeh HaMedinah (lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was the father of modern political Zionism.

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Third Aliyah

The Third Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה השלישית, HaAliyah HaShlishit) refers to the third wave—or aliyah—of modern Zionist immigration to Palestine from Europe.

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Thomas L. Thompson

Thomas L. Thompson (born January 7, 1939 in Detroit, Michigan) is a biblical scholar and theologian.

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Thurston Clarke

Thurston Clarke (born 1946) is an American historian, author and journalist.

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Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timeline of first orbital launches by country

This is a timeline of first orbital launches by country.

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Tirat Zvi

Tirat Zvi (טִירַת צְבִי, lit. Zvi Castle) is a religious kibbutz in the Beit She'an Valley, ten kilometers south of the city of Beit She'an, Israel, just west of the Jordan River and the Israel-Jordan border.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Transform fault

A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.

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Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

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Trial court

A trial court or court of first instance is a court having original jurisdiction, in which trials take place.

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Twelve Tribes of Israel

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel (שבטי ישראל) were said to have descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel) by two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.

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'Ubeidiya (`Ubaydiyya; עובידיה; العبيدية), some 3 km south of Lake Tiberias, in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel, is an archaeological site of the Pleistocene, ca.

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The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.

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UEFA Champions League

The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.

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UEFA Europa League

The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Uncodified constitution

An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.

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Unitary parliamentary republic

A unitary parliamentary republic refers to a unitary state with a republican form of government that is dependent upon the confidence of parliament.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Emergency Force

The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 273

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 273 was adopted on May 11, 1949 to admit the State of Israel to membership in the United Nations.

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United Nations Human Rights Council

The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.

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United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL (يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, is a demilitarized zone created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.

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United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine

The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution that was intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 242

United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967, in the aftermath of the Six-Day War.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 478

United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, adopted on 20 August 1980, is one of seven UNSC resolutions condemning Israel's attempted annexation of East Jerusalem.

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United Nations Special Committee on Palestine

The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was created on 15 May 1947 in response to a United Kingdom government request that the General Assembly "make recommendations under article 10 of the Charter, concerning the future government of Palestine".

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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University of Haifa

The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה, جامعة حيفا) is a public research university on the top of Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel.

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Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.

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Viswanathan Anand

Viswanathan "Vishy" Anand (born 11 December 1969) is an Indian chess grandmaster, a former World Chess Champion, and the current World Rapid Chess Champion.

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Walid Khalidi

Walid Khalidi (وليد خالدي, born 1925 in Jerusalem) is an Oxford University-educated Palestinian historian who has written extensively on the Palestinian exodus.

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Walls of Jerusalem

The Walls of Jerusalem (أسوار القدس; חומות ירושלים) surround the Old City of Jerusalem (approx. 1 km²).

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Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild

Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild, (8 February 1868 – 27 August 1937), was a British banker, politician, zoologist and scion of the Rothschild family.

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War crime

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.

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War of Attrition

The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف Ḥarb al-Istinzāf, מלחמת ההתשה Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.

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War over Water (Jordan river)

The "War over Water", also the Battle over Water, refers to a series of confrontations between Israel and its Arab neighbors from November 1964 to May 1967 over control of water sources in the Jordan River drainage basin.

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Warren Buffett

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.

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Water conservation

Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand.

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Water export

Water exports involve exporting freshwater from one country to another.

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Water industry

The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy.

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Water supply and sanitation in Israel

Water supply and sanitation in Israel are intricately linked to the historical development of Israel.

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Weizmann Institute of Science

The Weizmann Institute of Science (מכון ויצמן למדע Machon Weizmann LeMada) is a public research university in Rehovot, Israel, established in 1934, 14 years before the State of Israel.

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West Bank

The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.

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West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord

The Oslo II Accord divided the West Bank into three administrative divisions: Areas A, B and C. The distinct areas were given different statuses, according to their governance pending a final status accord: Area A is exclusively administered by the Palestinian Authority; Area B is administered by both the Palestinian Authority and Israel; and Area C, which contains the Israeli settlements, is administered by Israel.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Wall

The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, or Kotel, known in Arabic as Al-Buraq Wall, is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.

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White Mosque, Ramla

The White Mosque (המסגד הלבן haMisgad haLavan, المسجد الأبيض a-Masjid al-Abyad) is an ancient Ummayad mosque in the city of Ramla, Israel.

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White Paper of 1939

The White Paper of 1939Occasionally also known as the MacDonald White Paper (e.g. Caplan, 2015, p.117) after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over its creation.

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Women in the Israel Defense Forces

The women in the Israel Defense Forces are female soldiers who serve in the Israel Defense Forces.

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Workweek and weekend

The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest, respectively.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Chess Championship 2012

The World Chess Championship 2012 was a chess match between the defending world champion Viswanathan Anand of India and Boris Gelfand of Israel, winner of the 2011 Candidates Tournament.

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World Economic Forum

The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.

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World Giving Index

The World Giving Index (WGI) is an annual report published by the Charities Aid Foundation, using data gathered by Gallup, and ranks over 140 countries in the world according to how charitable they are.

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World Team Chess Championship

The World Team Chess Championship is an international team chess event, eligible for the participation of 10 countries whose chess federations dominate their continent.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wye River Memorandum

The Wye River Memorandum was an agreement negotiated between Israel and the Palestinian Authority at a summit in Wye River, Maryland, U.S., held from 15–23 October 1998.

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Yad Vashem

Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.

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Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.

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Yasser Arafat

Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.

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Yehud (Babylonian province)

Yehud had been a province of the Neo-Babylonian Empire since the suppression of the Judean rebellion in 585/6 BCE.

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Yehud Medinata

Yehud Medinata (Aramaic for "the province of Judah"), or simply Yehud, was an autonomous province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, roughly equivalent to the older kingdom of Judah but covering a smaller area, within the satrapy of Eber-Nari.

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Yehuda Alharizi

Yehuda Alharizi, also Judah ben Solomon Harizi or al-Harizi (יהודה בן שלמה אלחריזי, Yehudah ben Shelomo al-Harizi, يحيا بن سليمان بن شاؤل أبو زكريا الحريزي اليهودي من أهل طليطلة, Yahya bin Sulaiman bin Sha'ul abu Zakaria al-Harizi al-Yahudi min ahl Tulaitila) was a rabbi, translator, poet and traveller active in Spain in the Middle Ages (1165 in Toledo? – 1225 in Aleppo).

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Yehuda Amichai

Yehuda Amichai (יהודה עמיחי; 3 May 1924 – 22 September 2000) was an Israeli poet.

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Yerida (ירידה yerida, "descent") is a Hebrew term referring to emigration by Israeli Jews from the State of Israel (or in religious texts, Land of Israel).

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Yiddish theatre

Yiddish theatre consists of plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish, the language of the Central European Ashkenazi Jewish community.

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Yigal Amir

Yigal Amir (יגאל עמיר; born May 23, 1970) is an Israeli who assassinated Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Rabin.

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The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.

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Yitzhak Rabin

Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.

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Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.

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Yom Kippur War

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.

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Yuli-Yoel Edelstein

Yuli-Yoel Edelstein (יולי-יואל אדלשטיין, Ю́лий Ю́рьевич Эдельште́йн, Ю́лий Ю́рійович Едельште́йн, born 5 August 1958) is an Israeli politician.

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Za'atar (زَعْتَر) is a generic name for a family of related Middle Eastern herbs from the genera Origanum (oregano), Calamintha (basil thyme), Thymus (typically Thymus vulgaris, i.e., thyme), and Satureja (savory).

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ZAKA (זק"א, abbreviation for Zihuy Korbanot Ason, Hebrew: זיהוי קרבנות אסון, literally: "Disaster Victim Identification"), is a series of voluntary community emergency response teams in Israel, each operating in a police district (two in the Central District due to geographic considerations).

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Zion (צִיּוֹן Ṣîyōn, modern Tsiyyon; also transliterated Sion, Sayon, Syon, Tzion, Tsion) is a placename often used as a synonym for Jerusalem as well as for the biblical Land of Israel as a whole.

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Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).

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.il is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of Israel.

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1920 Nebi Musa riots

The 1920 Nebi Musa riots or 1920 Jerusalem riots took place in British-controlled part of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (which would shortly become Mandatory Palestine) between Sunday, 4 and Wednesday, 7 April 1920 in and around the Old City of Jerusalem.

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1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine

The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.

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1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war.

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1948 Arab–Israeli War

The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.

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1948 Palestinian exodus

The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.

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1949 Armistice Agreements

The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of armistice agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949 Lebanon, UN Doc S/1296 23 March 1949 Jordan, UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 3 April 1949 and Syria UN Doc S/1353 20 July 1949 to formally end the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line. The United Nations established supervising and reporting agencies to monitor the established armistice lines.

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1964 AFC Asian Cup

The 1964 AFC Asian Cup was the 3rd edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

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1968 Summer Paralympics

The 1968 Summer Paralympics (המשחקים הפאראלימפיים ה-3) were the third Paralympic Games to be held.

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1970 FIFA World Cup

The 1970 FIFA World Cup was the ninth FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams.

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1972 Israeli air raid in Syria and Lebanon

On 8 September 1972, Israeli planes bombed ten Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) bases in Syria and Lebanon as a response to the Munich massacre.

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1972 Summer Olympics

The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.

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1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon

The 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon (known as Operation Spring of Youth, Hebrew: מבצע אביב נעורים, Mitzva Aviv Ne'urim) took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973, when Israeli army special forces units attacked several Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) targets in Beirut and Sidon, Lebanon.

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1974 Asian Games

The 7th Asian Games (بازی‌های آسیایی ۱۹۷۴) were held from September 1 to 16, 1974, in Tehran, Iran.

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1978 Asian Games

The 8th Asian Games were held from December 9 to 20, 1978, in Bangkok, Thailand.

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1978 South Lebanon conflict

The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was an invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River, carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in 1978 in response to the Coastal Road massacre.

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1982 Lebanon War

The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.

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1990s Post-Soviet aliyah

The 1990s Post-Soviet aliyah began en masse in late 1980s when the government of Mikhail Gorbachev opened the borders of the USSR and allowed Jews to leave the country for Israel.

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1992 Summer Olympics

The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.

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2000 Camp David Summit

The 2000 Camp David Summit was a summit meeting at Camp David between United States president Bill Clinton, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat.

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2004 Summer Olympics

The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.

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2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid

The 2006 Hezbollah cross-border raid was a cross-border attack carried out by Lebanon-based Hezbollah militants on an Israeli military patrol on 12 July 2006 on Israeli territory.

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2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.

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2008 Israel–Hamas ceasefire

The 2008 Israel–Hamas ceasefire was an Egyptian-brokered six-month Tahdia (an Arabic term for a lull) "for the Gaza area", which went into effect between Hamas and Israel on 19 June 2008.

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2010 Haiti earthquake

The 2010 Haiti earthquake (Séisme de 2010 à Haïti; Tranblemanntè 12 janvye 2010 nan peyi Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne (Ouest), approximately west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital.

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2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

The was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately.

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2014 Israel–Gaza conflict

The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.

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29th parallel north

The 29th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 29 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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34th meridian east

The meridian 34° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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34th parallel north

The 34th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 34 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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36th meridian east

The meridian 36° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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38th Chess Olympiad

The 38th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between 12–25 November 2008 in Dresden, Germany.

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39th Chess Olympiad

The 39th Chess Olympiad, organised by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place from September 19 to October 4, 2010 in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia.

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749 Galilee earthquake

A devastating earthquake known in the scientific literature as the Earthquake of 749 struck on January 18, 749 in areas of the Umayyad Caliphate, the worst affected being parts of Palestine and western Transjordan.

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Redirects here:

Dawlat Isra'il, Dawlat Isrā'īl, Etymology of Israel, ISO 3166-1:IL, ISRAEL, Isra'il, Israel (country), Israel (nation), Israeli (nation), Israeli Republic, Israeli state, Israil, Israyl, Israël, Isreael, Isreal, Isræl, Istrael, Izrael (state), M'dinat Yisrael, Medinat Israel, Medinat Yisra'el, Medinat Yisrael, Medīnat Yisrā'el, Modern Israel, Name of Israel, Republic of Israel, State of Israel, State of israel, The State of Israel, The state of Israel, Yisra'el, Yisrael, Yisraél, Yisroeil, Yisroel, İsrail, יִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְרָאֵל, ישראל, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, מדינת ישראל, دولة إسرائيل.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel

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