208 relations: Alliance 90/The Greens, Allied Control Council, Allied-occupied Germany, Allies of World War II, Anti-nationalism, ARD (broadcaster), Association football, Auschwitz concentration camp, Baden-Württemberg, Basic Treaty, 1972, Belgium, Benno Ohnesorg, Berlin, Berlin Blockade, Berlin Wall, Bild, Billion, Bizone, Bonn, Bonn–Paris conventions, BRD (Germany), Bremen (state), British Armed Forces, Bundesrat of Germany, Bundestag, Bundeswehr, Catholic Church, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Social Union in Bavaria, Cold War, Confederation of the Rhine, Constitutional republic, Constructive vote of no confidence, Currency union, Customs union, Czechoslovakia, David Childs (academic), DAX, Decentralization, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Mark, Deutschlandlied, Die Wende, Die Zeit, East Berlin, East Francia, East Germany, ..., Eastern Bloc, Economic history of the German reunification, English language, Environmentalism, Erich Mende, European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community, European Union, Evangelical Church in Germany, Exclusive mandate, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Federalism, Federation, Feminism in Germany, Four Power Agreement on Berlin, France, Frankfurt, Frankfurt Book Fair, Franz Josef Strauss, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Freedom of movement, French Armed Forces, French franc, Fritz Bauer, Gastarbeiter, Gaullism, Günter Grass, Günter Guillaume, German Emergency Acts, German Football Association, German Historical Institutes, German language, German Reich, German reunification, German student movement, Germany, Germany at the Olympics, Germany national football team, Grand coalition, Group of Eight, Guillaume Affair, Hallstein Doctrine, Hamburg, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Hans-Jochen Vogel, Heidelberg University, Heinrich Böll, Helmut Kohl, Helmut Schmidt, Helsinki Accords, History of Germany (1945–90), History of Germany since 1990, Hungary, Inner German border, Interwar period, Italy, Karlsruhe, Konrad Adenauer, Korean War, Kurt Georg Kiesinger, List of regions by past GDP (PPP), London and Paris Conferences, Ludwig Erhard, Lusatian Neisse, Luxembourg, Maoism, Marshall Plan, Middle Ages, Minister of Intra-German Relations, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Multiculturalism, Munich, Napoleon, National Assembly (France), NATO, Nazism, Netherlands, Neues Deutschland, New states of Germany, North America, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg trials, Oder, Oder–Neisse line, Ostalgie, Ostpolitik, Parliament, Parliamentary system, Peace Prize of the German Book Trade, Petersberg Agreement, Poland, Potsdam Agreement, President of Germany, Protestantism, Puppet state, Red Army, Red Army Faction, Red Brigades, Reichsmark, Reichstag building, Revolutions of 1989, Richard von Weizsäcker, Rudi Dutschke, Rudolf Augstein, Saar franc, Saar Protectorate, Saar statute, Saarland, Shah, Siegfried Lenz, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Soviet occupation zone, Soviet Union, Stasi, State of emergency, State socialism, States of Germany, Tabloid (newspaper format), Tabloid journalism, The Flounder, The German Lesson, The Holocaust, The Times, The Tin Drum, Trade union, Transit Agreement (1972), Trümmerliteratur, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Treaty of Brussels, Treaty of Moscow (1970), Treaty of Warsaw (1970), Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Unitary state, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, United States Armed Forces, University of Texas at Austin, Vietnam War, Warsaw Pact, Weimar Republic, West Berlin, Western Europe, Western European Union, Western Germany, Willy Brandt, Wirtschaftswunder, Wolfgang Borchert, World War II, Yalta Conference, ZDF, .de, 1954 FIFA World Cup, 1954 FIFA World Cup Final, 1972 Summer Olympics, 1973 oil crisis, 1974 FIFA World Cup. Expand index (158 more) » « Shrink index
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Anti-nationalism denotes the sentiments associated with an opposition to nationalism.
ARD (full name: Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Consortium of public broadcasters in Germany) is a joint organisation of Germany's regional public-service broadcasters.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
The Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) is the shorthand name for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (Vertrag über die Grundlagen der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik).
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benno Ohnesorg (15 October 1940 – 2 June 1967)Böttcher, Dirk (2002).
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG.
A billion is a number with two distinct definitions.
The Bizone or Bizonia was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones on 1 January 1947 during the occupation of Germany after World War II.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
The Bonn–Paris conventions were signed in May 1952 and came into force after the 1955 ratification.
BRD (Bundesrepublik Deutschland; English: Federal Republic of Germany); is an unofficial abbreviation for the Federal Republic of Germany commonly used between 1949 and 1990 by the socialist government of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) to refer to West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany).
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
The constructive vote of no confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, in Spanish: moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor.
A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
David Childs FRSA (born September 1933) is a British academic and political historian, who is Professor Emeritus of Politics at the University of Nottingham.
The DAX (Deutscher Aktienindex (German stock index)) is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
The "italic" (English: "Song of Germany",; also known as "italic", or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990.
Die Wende ("The Turn" or "The Turnaround") is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and market economy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) around 1989 and 1990.
Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper published in Hamburg in north Germany.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
On July 1, 1990, the economies of the two German states became one.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.
An exclusive mandate is a government's assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, shortened Destatis) is a federal authority of Germany.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Feminism in Germany as a modern movement began during the Wilhelmine period (1888–1918) with individual women and women's rights groups pressuring a range of traditional institutions, from universities to government, to open their doors to women.
The Four Power Agreement on Berlin also known as the Berlin Agreement or the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin was agreed on 3 September 1971 by the four wartime Allied powers, represented by their ambassadors.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Frankfurt Book Fair (FBF; Frankfurter Buchmesse) is the world's largest trade fair for books, based both on the number of publishing companies represented, and the number of visitors.
Franz Josef Strauss (6 September 1915 – 3 October 1988) was a German politician.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
The French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the National Guard and the Gendarmerie of the French Republic.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
Fritz Bauer (16 July 1903 – 1 July 1968) was a German judge and prosecutor who played an essential role in starting the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials.
Gastarbeiter (plural, "Gastarbeiter") is German for "guest worker" (literal translation).
Gaullism (Gaullisme) is a French political stance based on the thought and action of World War II French Resistance leader General Charles de Gaulle, who would become the founding President of the Fifth French Republic.
Günter Wilhelm Grass (16 October 1927 – 13 April 2015) was a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Günter Guillaume (1 February 1927 – 10 April 1995), was an intelligence agent for East Germany's secret service, the Stasi, in West Germany.
The German Emergency Acts (Notstandsgesetze) were passed on 30 May 1968 at the time of the First Grand Coalition between the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Christian Democratic Union of Germany.
The German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund; DFB) is the governing body of football in Germany.
The German Historical Institutes (GHI), Deutsche Historische Institute, (DHI) are six independent academic research institutes of the Max Weber Foundation dedicated to the study of historical relations between Germany and the host countries in which they are based.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The German student movement (also called 68er-Bewegung, movement of 1968, or soixante-huitards) was a protest movement that took place during the late 1960s in West Germany.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Athletes from Germany have taken part in most of the Olympic Games since the first modern Games in 1896.
The Germany national football team (deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft or Die Mannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
The Guillaume Affair was an espionage scandal in the Cold War history of Germany.
The Hallstein Doctrine, named after Walter Hallstein, was a key doctrine in the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in 1955–1970.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hans-Dietrich Genscher (21 March 1927 – 31 March 2016) was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as the Minister of the Interior of West Germany from 1969 to 1974, and as the Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of West Germany and then the reunified Germany from 1974 to 1992 (except for a two-week break in 1982), making him the longest-serving occupant of either post.
Hans-Jochen Vogel (born 3 February 1926 in Göttingen) is a German politician.
Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Heinrich Theodor Böll (21 December 1917 – 16 July 1985) was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (23 December 1918 – 10 November 2015) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1974 to 1982.
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.
As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany.
The history of Germany since 1990 spans the period following the Reunification of Germany, when West Germany and East Germany were reunited after being divided during the Cold War.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The inner German border (innerdeutsche Grenze or deutsch-deutsche Grenze; initially also Zonengrenze) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Kurt Georg Kiesinger (6 April 1904 – 9 March 1988) was a German politician who served as Chancellor of Germany (West Germany) from 1 December 1966 to 21 October 1969.
These are lists of regions and countries by their estimated real gross domestic product (GDP) in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year.
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in September–October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany.
Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966.
The Lusatian Neisse (Lužická Nisa; Lausitzer Neiße; Nysa Łużycka; Upper Sorbian: Łužiska Nysa; Lower Sorbian: Łužyska Nysa), or Western Neisse, is a long river in Central Europe.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Federal Minister of Intra-German Relations (Bundesminister für innerdeutsche Beziehungen) was a federal cabinet minister of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neues Deutschland (ND) (New Germany) is a German daily newspaper, currently headquartered in Berlin.
The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
Ostalgie is a German term referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany.
Neue Ostpolitik (German for "new eastern policy"), or Ostpolitik for short, was the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany) and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Peace Prize of the German Book Trade (Friedenspreis des Deutschen Buchhandels) is an international peace prize given yearly at the Frankfurt Book Fair in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
The Petersberg Agreement is an international treaty that extended the rights of the Federal Government of Germany vis-a-vis the occupying forces of Britain, France, and the United States, and is viewed as the first major step of Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) towards sovereignty.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Red Army Faction (RAF; German),See the section ''Faction'' versus ''Fraktion'' also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group or Baader-Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970.
The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse, often abbreviated BR) was a left-wing terrorist organization, based in Italy, responsible for numerous violent incidents, including assassinations, kidnapping and robberies during the so-called "Years of Lead".
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
The Reichstag (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Deutscher Bundestag - Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historic edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag) of the German Empire.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard Karl Freiherr von Weizsäcker (15 April 1920 – 31 January 2015) was a German politician (CDU), who served as President of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany until 1990) from 1984 to 1994.
Alfred Willi Rudolf "Rudi" Dutschke (7 March 1940 – 24 December 1979) was a prominent spokesperson of the German student movement of the 1960s.
Rudolf Karl Augstein (5 November 1923 – 7 November 2002) was one of the most influential German journalists, founder and part-owner of Der Spiegel magazine.
Saar franc refers to the French franc (Franken) used as the official currency of the Saar during the two times that the Saar territory was economically split off from Germany, i.e. 1920–1935 as the Territory of the Saar Basin; and 1947–1957 as the Saar Protectorate and 1957–1959 as the state of Saarland in West Germany.
The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.
The Saar Statute was a Franco-West German agreement signed in 1954 which resulted from lengthy diplomatic negotiations between France and West Germany.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Siegfried Lenz (17 March 19267 October 2014) was a German writer of novels, short stories and essays, as well as dramas for radio and the theatre.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet.
Tabloid journalism is a style of journalism that emphasizes sensational crime stories, gossip columns about celebrities and sports stars, extreme political views from one perspective, junk food news, and astrology.
The Flounder (Der Butt) is a 1977 novel by the German writer Günter Grass.
The German Lesson (original title) is a novel by the German writer Siegfried Lenz, published in 1968 in Germany.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Tin Drum (Die Blechtrommel) is a 1959 novel by Günter Grass.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Transit Agreement or Transit Treaty of 26 May 1972 arranged access to and from West Berlin from West Germany, secured the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and East Germany, and secured the rights of East German citizens to visit West Germany, although only in cases of family emergency.
Trümmerliteratur ("rubble literature"), also called Kahlschlagliteratur ("clear-cutting literature"), is a literary movement that began shortly after World War II in Germany and lasted until about 1950.
The Treaty establishing the European Defence Community is an unratified treaty signed on 27 May 1952 by the six 'inner' countries of European integration; West Germany, France, Italy, and the Benelux countries.
The Treaty of Brussels, also referred to as the Brussels Pact, was the founding treaty of the Western Union (WU) between 1948 and 1954, at which it point it was amended as the Modified Brussels Treaty (MTB) and served as the founding treaty of the Western European Union (WEU) until its termination in 2010.
The Treaty of Moscow, was signed on August 12, 1970 between the USSR and West Germany (FRG).
The Treaty of Warsaw (Warschauer Vertrag, Polish: Układ PRL-RFN) was a treaty between West Germany and the People's Republic of Poland.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
Western Germany is a region in the west of Germany.
Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.
The term Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism-based social market economy).
Wolfgang Borchert (20 May 1921 – 20 November 1947) was a German author and playwright whose work was affected by his experience of dictatorship and his service in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), usually shortened to ZDF, is a German public-service television broadcaster based in Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate.
.de is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Federal Republic of Germany.
The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July.
The 1954 FIFA World Cup Final was the final match of the 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth World Cup in FIFA history.
The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany (including West Berlin) from 13 June to 7 July.
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