128 relations: Aether theories, Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, Arthur Jensen, Artifact (error), Assortative mating, Behavioural genetics, Big Five personality traits, Brain size, Candidate gene, Cattell Culture Fair III, Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, Central limit theorem, Central nervous system, Charles Spearman, Christiaan Huygens, Coefficient of determination, Cognition, Cognitive epidemiology, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive test, Common-method variance, Confirmatory factor analysis, Congruence coefficient, Conservation (psychology), Correction for attenuation, Correlation and dependence, Creativity, Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system, David Wechsler, Deductive reasoning, Distillation, Dominance (genetics), East Germany, Educational Psychology Review, Edward Thorndike, Electroencephalography, Emotional intelligence, Event-related potential, Evolution of human intelligence, Factor analysis, Falsifiability, Fluid and crystallized intelligence, Flynn effect, Francis Galton, Frontal lobe, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, General Certificate of Secondary Education, Genetic correlation, Genetic disorder, Genetic load, ..., Genetics, Godfrey Thomson, Grey matter, Habit, Halo effect, Height and intelligence, Herbert Spencer, Heritability of IQ, Heterosis, Hippocampus, House mouse, Howard Gardner, Human intelligence, Inbreeding depression, Inductive reasoning, Innovation, Intellectual disability, Intelligence, Intelligence quotient, J. P. Guilford, James Flynn (academic), Jean Piaget, Job performance, John Bissell Carroll, John L. Horn, Journal of Negro Education, Lesion, Level of measurement, Louis Leon Thurstone, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malleability of intelligence, Mental chronometry, Molecular genetics, Moscow, Mutation–selection balance, Nathan Brody, Near-sightedness, Nerve conduction velocity, Neurology, Normal distribution, Normalization (statistics), Novelty, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Organizational citizenship behavior, Parietal lobe, Personality, Physical attractiveness, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Primate, Principal component analysis, Psychometrics, Quantitative genetics, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Raymond Cattell, Reification (fallacy), Robert L. Thorndike, Robert Sternberg, Rote learning, Sampling error, SAT, Self-efficacy, Social learning theory, Spearman's hypothesis, Statistical dispersion, Stephen Jay Gould, Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth, Tautology (logic), Temporal lobe, The Mismeasure of Man, Theory of multiple intelligences, Three-stratum theory, Time, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Western Europe, White matter, Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Working memory. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
Aether theories (also known as ether theories) in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθήρ), meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air"" ", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.
The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) is a multiple choice test, administered by the United States Military Entrance Processing Command, used to determine qualification for enlistment in the United States Armed Forces.
Arthur Robert Jensen (August 24, 1923 – October 22, 2012) was an American psychologist and author.
In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any error in the perception or representation of any information, introduced by the involved equipment or technique(s).
Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five factor model (FFM), is a taxonomy for personality traits.
The size of the brain is a frequent topic of study within the fields of anatomy and evolution.
The candidate gene approach to conducting genetic association studies focuses on associations between genetic variation within pre-specified genes of interest and phenotypes or disease states.
The Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) was constructed by Raymond B. Cattell, PhD, DSc in an attempt to produce a measure of cognitive abilities that accurately estimated intelligence devoid of sociocultural and environmental influences.
The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory (commonly abbreviated to CHC), is a prominent psychological theory on the structure of human cognitive abilities.
In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) establishes that, in some situations, when independent random variables are added, their properly normalized sum tends toward a normal distribution (informally a "bell curve") even if the original variables themselves are not normally distributed.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charles Edward Spearman, FRS (10 September 1863 – 17 September 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
In statistics, the coefficient of determination, denoted R2 or r2 and pronounced "R squared", is the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent variable(s).
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores or extracted ''g''-factors) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals.
In applied statistics, (e.g., applied to the social sciences and psychometrics), common-method variance (CMV) is the spurious "variance that is attributable to the measurement method rather than to the constructs the measures are assumed to represent" or equivalently as "systematic error variance shared among variables measured with and introduced as a function of the same method and/or source".
In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis, most commonly used in social research.
In multivariate statistics, the congruence coefficient is an index of the similarity between factors that have been derived in a factor analysis.
Conservation refers to a logical thinking ability which, according to the psychologist Jean Piaget, is not present in children during the preoperational stage of their development at ages 2–7, but develops in the concrete operational stage at ages 7–11.
Correction for attenuation is a statistical procedure, due to Spearman (1904), to "rid a correlation coefficient from the weakening effect of measurement error" (Jensen, 1998), a phenomenon known as regression dilution.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
The Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system (CAS) test is an individually administered test of cognitive functioning for children and adolescents ranging from 5 through 17 years of age that was designed to assess the planning, attention, simultaneous and successive cognitive processes as described in the.
David "Weshy" Wechsler (January 12, 1896 – May 2, 1981) was a Romanian-American psychologist.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Educational Psychology Review is a peer reviewed academic journal on the topic of educational psychology started in 1989, published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as Emotional quotient (EQ) and Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ), is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal(s).
An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event.
The evolution of human intelligence is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
In psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (respectively abbreviated Gf and Gc) are factors of general intelligence, originally identified by Raymond Cattell.
The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world over the 20th century.
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
In multivariate behavioral & quantitative genetics, a genetic correlation (denoted r_g or r_a) is the proportion of variance that two traits share due to genetic causes, the correlation between the genetic influences on a trait and the genetic influences on a different traitpg 123 of Plomin 2012Martin & Eaves 1977, Eaves et al 1978, Kohler et al 2011, estimating the degree of pleiotropy or causal overlap.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Sir Godfrey Hilton Thomson (27 March 1881 – 9 February 1955) was an English educational psychologist known as a critical pioneer in intelligence research.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
The halo effect is a type of immediate judgement discrepancy, or cognitive bias, where a person making an initial assessment of another person, place, or thing will assume ambiguous information based upon concrete information.
The study of height and intelligence examines correlations between height and human intelligence.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Research on heritability of IQ implies, from the similarity of IQ in closely related persons, the proportion of variance of IQ among individuals in a study population that is associated with genetic variation within that population.
Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.
Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental psychologist and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University.
Human intelligence is the intellectual prowess of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Joy Paul Guilford (March 7, 1897 – November 26, 1987) was an American psychologist best remembered for his psychometric study of human intelligence, including the distinction between convergent and divergent production.
James Robert Flynn FRSNZ (born 1934) is a New Zealand intelligence researcher.
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well.
John Bissell Carroll (June 5, 1916 – July 1, 2003) was an American psychologist known for his contributions to psychology, educational linguistics and psychometrics.
John Leonard Horn (September 7, 1928 – August 18, 2006) was a scholar, cognitive psychologist and a pioneer in developing theories of multiple intelligence.
The Journal of Negro Education is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Howard University, established in 1932 by Charles Henry Thompson, who was its editor-in-chief for more than 30 years.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables.
Louis Leon Thurstone (29 May 1887 – 30 September 1955) was a U.S. pioneer in the fields of psychometrics and psychophysics.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malleability of intelligence describes the processes by which intelligence can increase or decrease over time and is not static.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mutation–selection balance is an equilibrium in the number of deleterious alleles in a population that occurs when the rate at which deleterious alleles are created by mutation equals the rate at which deleterious alleles are eliminated by selection.
Nathan Brody is an American psychology professor Emeritus known for his work on intelligence and personality.
Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina.
Nerve conduction velocity is an important aspect of nerve conduction studies.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
In statistics and applications of statistics, normalization can have a range of meanings.
Novelty (derived from Latin word novus for "new") is the quality of being new, or following from that, of being striking, original or unusual.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
In industrial and organizational psychology, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a person's voluntary commitment within an organization or company that is not part of his or her contractual tasks.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
Personality is defined as the set of habitual behaviors, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors.
Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).
Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings.
Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 – 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist, known for his psychometric research into intrapersonal psychological structure.
Reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete real event or physical entity.
Robert Ladd Thorndike (September 22, 1910 – September 21, 1990) was an American psychometrician and educational psychologist who made significant contributions to the analysis of reliability, the interpretation of error, cognitive pen pene of students in various countries.
Robert Sternberg (born December 8, 1949) is an American psychologist and psychometrician.
Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.
In statistics, sampling error is incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population.
The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.
Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in his or her innate ability to achieve goals.
Social learning theory is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others.
Spearman's hypothesis has two formulations.
In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) is the extent to which a distribution is stretched or squeezed.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
The Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) is a prospective longitudinal survey study of persons (mostly in the United States) identified by scores of 700 or higher on a section of the SAT Reasoning Test before age 13 years.
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
The Mismeasure of Man is a 1981 book by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould.
The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.
The three-stratum theory is a theory of cognitive ability proposed by the American psychologist John Carroll in 1993.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), developed by David Wechsler, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
The Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence tests first developed in 1977 by Richard Woodcock and Mary E. Bonner Johnson.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
G (psychology), G intelligence, G loaded, G loading, G-loaded, General Mental Ability, General ability, General cognitive ability, General factor, General intellectual ability, General intelligence, General intelligence (factor), General intelligence factor, General mental ability, Psychometric g, Psychometric intelligence, Spearman's G, Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, Spearman's g, Spearman's law of diminishing returns.