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The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The administrative divisions of the German Democratic Republic (commonly referred to as East Germany) were constituted in two different forms during the country's history.
Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde, PAIGC) is a political party in Guinea-Bissau.
The Air Forces of the National People's Army (German: Luftstreitkräfte der Nationalen Volksarmee – LSK) was the Air Force of East Germany.
Aktuelle Kamera ("Current Camera" or "Actual Camera") was the flagship television newscast of Deutscher Fernsehfunk, the state television broadcaster of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) (known as Fernsehen der DDR from 11 February 1972 to 11 March 1990).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alles auf Zucker! (Go for Zucker) is a German comedy film, released internationally in 2004.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amiga is a popular music record label in Germany.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anklam, formerly known as Tanglim and Wendenburg, is a town in the Western Pomerania region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arbeit - Bewegung - Geschichte ("Labour - Movement - History") is a academic journal covering the history of labour and other social movements.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
"Auferstanden aus Ruinen" (German for "Risen from Ruins") is a patriotic German song that was the national anthem of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly known as East Germany, during its existence from 1949 to 1990.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Babelsberg is the largest district of Potsdam, the capital city of the German state of Brandenburg.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Barkas was the East German manufacturer of small delivery vans and minibuses named the B1000.
The Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) is the shorthand name for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (Vertrag über die Grundlagen der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik).
Beat Street is a 1984 American drama dance film featuring New York City hip hop culture of the early 1980s, breakdancing, DJ-ing and graffiti.
Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson; 4 November 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died 16 February 2006 in Berlin, Germany) was a Swiss actor and director.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
The Berlin Crisis of 1961 (Berlin-Krise) occurred between 4 June – 9 November 1961, and was the last major politico-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the German capital city, Berlin, and of post–World War II Germany.
The Berlin Palace (Berliner Schloss or Stadtschloss), also known as the Berlin City Palace, is a building in the centre of Berlin, located on the Museum Island at Schlossplatz, opposite the Lustgarten park.
The Berlin State Opera (Staatsoper Unter den Linden) is a German opera company based in Berlin.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Berliner Ensemble is a German theatre company established by playwright Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949 in East Berlin.
Berliner FC Dynamo (commonly BFC Dynamo or BFC) is a German football club from Berlin and the record champion of East Germany with ten consecutive championships from 1979 through 1988.
Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet.
In linguistics, a blend word is one formed from parts of two or more other words.
A bloc party (German: Blockpartei) in politics may refer to a political party that is a constituent member of an electoral bloc.
A booby trap is a device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a person or animal, unknowingly triggered by the presence or actions of the victim.
The Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic, in German Grenztruppen der DDR, were a military force of the GDR and the primary force guarding the Berlin Wall and the border between East and West Germany.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Boxing Day is a holiday celebrated on the day after Christmas Day.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.
Buß- und Bettag (Day of Repentance and Prayer) was a public holiday in Germany, and is still a public holiday in Saxony.
Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS; Border Guard) was the first federal police organization in West Germany after World War II permitted by the Allied occupation authorities.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
Caritas Internationalis is a confederation of 165 Catholic relief, development and social service organisations operating in over 200 countries and territories worldwide.
Carl Schmitt (11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a conservative German jurist and political theorist.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied wide censorship during its existence from 1949 to 1990.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central Germany (Mitteldeutschland) is an economic and cultural region in Germany.
The Chamber of States (Länderkammer) was the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from its founding in 1949 until 1952, at which time it was largely sidelined, when the five Länder (states) of East Germany ceased to exist and were replaced with smaller administrative regions.
Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Christa Luding-Rothenburger (née Rothenburger, born 4 December 1959) is a former speed skater and track cyclist.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) was an East German political party founded in 1945.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
City is a German rock band, formed in East Berlin in 1972, best known for the song "Am Fenster" ("At/By The Window") from its 1978 debut album.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective.
The Combat Groups of the Working Class (German: Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse, KdA) was a paramilitary organization in East Germany, founded in 1953 and abolished in 1990.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
There was a high level of conscientious objection in East Germany.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was founded in 1949 and was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
Cottbus is a university city and the second-largest city in Brandenburg, Germany.
The Council of Ministers (German: Ministerrat der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik) was the chief executive body of the German Democratic Republic from November 1950 until the country was unified with the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
Czerwone Gitary (The Red Guitars) is one of the most popular rock bands in the history of Polish popular music.
Daniela Dahn (9 October 1949 in Berlin) is a German writer, journalist and essayist.
David Childs FRSA (born September 1933) is a British academic and political historian, who is Professor Emeritus of Politics at the University of Nottingham.
Dean Cyril Reed (September 22, 1938 – June 13, 1986) was an American actor, singer and songwriter, director, and social activist who lived a great part of his adult life in South America and then in East Germany.
DEFA (Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft) was the state-owned film studio of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) throughout the country's existence.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
The Democratic Farmers' Party of Germany (Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands, DBD) was an East German political party.
The Democratic Women's League of Germany (German Demokratischer Frauenbund Deutschlands, or DFD) was the mass women's organisation in East Germany.
Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
The Deutsche Post (DP), also Deutsche Post of the GDR (German: Deutsche Post der DDR) was the state-owned postal and telecommunications monopoly of the German Democratic Republic (GDR - East Germany).
The Deutsche Reichsbahn or DR (German Reich Railways) was the operating name of state owned railways in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), and after German reunification until 31 December 1993.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Deutscher Fernsehfunk (DFF), known from 1972 to 1990 as Fernsehen der DDR (DDR-FS), was the state television broadcaster in East Germany (German Democratic Republic, or GDR for short).
The Deutsches Theater in Berlin is a well-known German theatre.
Die Skeptiker (English: The Skeptics) is a German punk band, founded in 1986 in East Berlin.
Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper published in Hamburg in north Germany.
Direct distance dialing (DDD) is a telecommunication service feature in which a caller may, without operator assistance, call any other user outside the local calling area.
The German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly known as East Germany (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR) conducted a decades-long program of coercive administration and distribution of performance-enhancing drugs, such as testosterone and other anabolic steroids to its elite athletes for the purpose of bolstering the state's image and prestige by winning medals in international championships (such as the Olympics), known officially as State Plan 14.25.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Sportgemeinschaft Dynamo Dresden e.V., commonly known as SG Dynamo Dresden or Dynamo Dresden, is a German association football club, based in Dresden, Saxony.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Elbia (Ostelbien) was an informal denotation for those parts of the German Reich until World War II that lay east of the river Elbe.
After the end of World War II Germany was separated into nation-states.
Legislative elections were held in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 18 March 1990.
The East German mark (German), commonly called the eastern mark in West Germany and after the reunification), in East Germany only Mark, was the currency of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The German Democratic Republic (GDR), often called East Germany, founded a separate National Olympic Committee for socialist East Germany on 22 April 1951 in the Rotes Rathaus of East Berlin.
East German jokes, jibes popular in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, also known as East Germany) between 1949 and 1990, reflected the concerns of East German citizen and residents.
The East Germany national football team was from 1952 to 1990 the football team of East Germany, playing as one of three post-war German teams, along with Saarland and West Germany.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is a holiday in some countries.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
East Germany had a centrally-planned economy similar to the one in the Soviet Union and other Comecon member states (in contrast to the market economies or mixed economies of capitalist states).
Education in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was a high priority for the communist government, and was compulsory for 10 years from age six onwards.
Egon Rudi Ernst Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former East German politician who was the last communist leader of East Germany during the final months of 1989.
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located west of Erfurt, southeast of Kassel and northeast of Frankfurt.
Ekkehard Schall (29 May 1930 in Magdeburg – 3 September 2005 in Berlin) was a German stage and screen actor/director.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The equestrian statue of Frederick the Great is an outdoor sculpture in cast bronze at the east end of Unter den Linden in Berlin, honouring King Frederick II of Prussia.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German politician who, as the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until the weeks preceding the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From 1976 onward he was also the country's official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post. Honecker's political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the youth organisation the Free German Youth in 1946 and serving as the group's chairman until 1955. As the Security Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee in the new East German state, he was the prime organiser of the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and, in this function, bore responsibility for the "order to fire" along the Inner German border. In 1971, he initiated a political power struggle that led, with Soviet support, to his replacing Walter Ulbricht as First Secretary of the Central Committee and as chairman of the state's National Defense Council. Under his command, the country adopted a programme of "consumer socialism" and moved toward the international community by normalising relations with West Germany and also becoming a full member of the UN, in what is considered one of his greatest political successes. As Cold War tensions eased in the late 1980s under perestroika and glasnost, the liberal reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Honecker refused all but cosmetic changes to the East German political system, citing the continual hardliner attitudes of Kim Il-sung and Fidel Castro, whose respective regimes of North Korea and Cuba had been critical of reforms, leaders who ruthlessly suppressed opposition. As anticommunist protests grew, Honecker begged the USSR to intervene and suppress the protests to maintain communist rule in East Germany like the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Gorbachev refused. Honecker was forced to resign by his party in October 1989 in a bid to improve the government's image before the public. Honecker's eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. Following German reunification, he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy in Moscow in 1991 but was extradited back to Germany a year later to stand trial for his role in the human rights abuses committed by the East German government. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer.
Ernst Degner (born Ernst Eugen Wotzlawek on 22 September 1931 in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia, Germany - died 10 September 1983 in Arona, Tenerife, Spain) was a German professional Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.
Ernst Hermann Ludimar Meyer (8 December 1905 – 8 October 1988) was a German composer and musicologist.
Ernst Thälmann Island (Ernst-Thälmann-Insel, Cayo Ernesto Thaelmann or Cayo Blanco del Sur) is a 15 kilometre long and 500 metre wide Cuban island in the Gulf of Cazones named for German Communist politician and activist Ernst Thälmann.
Erwin Geschonneck (27 December 1906 – 12 March 2008) was a German actor.
Erwin Strittmatter (14 August 1912 in Spremberg – 31 January 1994 in Schulzenhof near Dollgow/Stechlin) was a German writer.
There were numerous escape attempts and victims of the inner German border during its 45 years of existence from 1945 to 1990.
ESPN (originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%).
The Evangelical Church Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz - EKBO) is a United Protestant church body in the German states of Brandenburg, Berlin and a part of Saxony (historical region of Silesian Upper Lusatia).
The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.
The Evangelical Church of Anhalt (Evangelische Landeskirche Anhalts) is a United Protestant member church of the Evangelical Church in Germany.
The Evangelical Church of the Church Province of Saxony (Evangelische Kirche der Kirchenprovinz Sachsen; KPS) was the most important Protestant denomination in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thuringia (Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Thüringen) was a Lutheran member church of the umbrella Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD).
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Mecklenburg (Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Mecklenburgs; abbreviated ELLM) was a Lutheran church in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, serving the citizens living in Mecklenburg.
The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony (Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Sachsens) is one of 22 member Churches of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), covering most of the state of Saxony.
Evgeny Lvovitch Schwartz (Евге́ний Льво́вич Шва́рц;, Kazan, Russian Empire – January 15, 1958, Leningrad, USSR) was a Soviet writer and playwright, whose works include twenty-five plays, and screenplays for three films (in collaboration with Nikolai Erdman).
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
An exclusive mandate is a government's assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty.
Falk Hoffmann (born 29 August 1952 in Chemnitz) is a retired diver from East Germany, who won the gold medal in the men's 10 m platform event at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union.
Father's Day is a celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society.
Fürstenwalde/Spree (Lower Sorbian: Pśibor pśi Sprjewje) is the most populous town in the Oder-Spree District of Brandenburg, Germany.
FC Carl Zeiss Jena is a German football club based in Jena, Thuringia.
The Feast of the Ascension of Jesus Christ, also known as Holy Thursday, Ascension Day, or Ascension Thursday, commemorates the Christian belief of the bodily Ascension of Jesus into heaven.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
The Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, shortened Destatis) is a federal authority of Germany.
Feeling B was a punk rock band, founded in East Berlin in 1983, they started out firmly grounded in the underground punk scene.
The Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment (German: Wachregiment "Feliks E. Dzierzynski") was an elite motorized rifles regiment under the command of the Ministry for State Security of the German Democratic Republic (GDR).
Finance capitalism or financial capitalism is the subordination of processes of production to the accumulation of money profits in a financial system. Financial capitalism is thus a form of capitalism where the intermediation of saving to investment becomes a dominant function in the economy, with wider implications for the political process and social evolution. Since the late 20th century it has become the predominant force in the global economy, whether in neoliberal or other form.
The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
Five Cartridges is a 1960 East German film directed by Frank Beyer and starring Erwin Geschonneck, Armin Mueller-Stahl and Manfred Krug.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Florian Maria Georg Christian Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 2 May 1973) is a German film director, best known for writing and directing the 2006 Oscar-winning film The Lives of Others and 2010's The Tourist, starring Angelina Jolie and Johnny Depp.
Foreign Currency Account (FCA) is a transactional account denominated in a currency other than the home currency and can be maintained by a bank in the home country (onshore) or a bank in another country (offshore).
The Four Power Agreement on Berlin also known as the Berlin Agreement or the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin was agreed on 3 September 1971 by the four wartime Allied powers, represented by their ambassadors.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank Paul Beyer (26 May 1932 – 1 October 2006) was a German film director.
Frank Castorf (born 17 July 1951 in East Berlin) is a German theater director and was from 1992 to 2015 the artistic director of the Volksbühne am Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz.
Frank-Peter Roetsch (born 19 April 1964) is a German former biathlete.
Frankfurt (Oder) (also Frankfurt an der Oder, abbreviated Frankfurt a. d. Oder, Frankfurt a. d. O., Frankf., 'Frankfurt on the Oder') is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice, which was part of Frankfurt until 1945.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
The Free German Trade Union Federation, in German Freier Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund (FDGB), was an East German organisation that existed between 1946 and 1990.
The Free German Youth, also known as the FDJ (Freie Deutsche Jugend), is a youth movement in Germany.
The Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique is the dominant political party in Mozambique.
The Friedrichstadt-Palast, also shortened to Palast Berlin, is a revue in the Berlin district of Mitte (district center).
Gabriele "Gaby" Seyfert (born 23 November 1948) is a German former figure skater.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
George Sylvester Viereck (December 31, 1884 – March 18, 1962) was a German-American poet, writer, and pro-Nazi propagandist.
Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Гео̀рги Димитро̀в Миха̀йлов), also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Гео́ргий Миха́йлович Дими́тров; 18 June 1882 – 2 July 1949), was a Bulgarian communist politician.
Gera is the third-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, with 96,000 inhabitants, located south of Leipzig, east of Erfurt and west of Dresden.
Gerhard Georg Bernhard Ritter (6 April 1888, Bad Sooden-Allendorf – 1 July 1967, Freiburg) was a nationalist-conservative German historian, who served as a professor of history at the University of Freiburg from 1925 to 1956.
Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst (12 November 1755 – 28 June 1813), was a Hanoverian-born general in Prussian service from 1801.
German Christians (Deutsche Christen) was a pressure group and a movement within the German Evangelical Church that existed between 1932 and 1945, aligned towards the antisemitic, racist and Führerprinzip ideological principles of Nazism with the goal to align German Protestantism as a whole towards those principles.
The German Economic Commission (Deutsche Wirtschaftskommission or DWK) was the top administrative body in the Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany prior to the creation of the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe from 1524 to 1525.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Germany national football team (deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft or Die Mannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.
Gojko Mitić (Гojкo Митић; born June 13, 1940 in Strojkovce near Leskovac, Morava Banovina, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is a Serbian director, actor, stuntman, and author.
Good Bye, Lenin! is a 2003 German tragicomedy film, directed by Wolfgang Becker.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1954–1988) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1954) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.
Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann (née Kleemann, born 7 September 1966) is a former German speed skater.
Gustav-Adolf "Täve" Schur (born 23 February 1931 in Heyrothsberge, Province of Saxony) is a former German cyclist and one of the most popular sportspeople in East Germany.
Halle (Saale) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt.
The Hallstein Doctrine, named after Walter Hallstein, was a key doctrine in the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in 1955–1970.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hanns Eisler (6 July 1898 – 6 September 1962) was an Austrian composer (his father was Austrian, and Eisler fought in a Hungarian regiment in World War I).
Hard currency, safe-haven currency or strong currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.
Heart of Stone (Das kalte Herz) is an East German fantasy film directed by Paul Verhoeven.
Heike Gabriela Drechsler née Daute; born 16 December 1964) is a German former track and field athlete who represented East Germany and later Germany. One of the most successful long jumpers of all-time, she is a former world record holder and ranks third on the all-time list with her legal best of 7.48 metres in 1988. Her marginally wind-assisted jump of 7.63 metres (+2.1) in 1992 at altitude in Sestriere, is still the furthest a woman has ever long jumped. She is the only woman who has won two Olympic gold medals in the long jump, winning in 1992 and 2000. Drechsler also won Olympic medals in the 100 metres and 200 metres in 1988, a silver medal in the 100 metres at the 1987 World Championships, and is a former world record holder in the 200 metres with 21.71 secs in 1986.
Heiner Carow (19 September 1929 – 1 February 1997) was a German film director and screenwriter.
Heiner Müller (9 January 1929 – 30 December 1995) was a German (formerly East German) dramatist, poet, writer, essayist and theatre director.
Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein (25 October 1757 – 29 June 1831), commonly known as Baron vom Stein, was a Prussian statesman who introduced the Prussian reforms that paved the way for the unification of Germany.
Heinrich Gottlob "Heiner" Rau (2 April 1899 – 23 March 1961) was a German communist politician during the time of the Weimar Republic; subsequently, during the Spanish Civil War, he was a leading member of the International Brigades and after World War II an East German statesman.
Heinz Kahlau (6 February 1931 - 6 April 2012) was a German writer.
Heinz Melkus (April 20, 1928 in Dresden – September 5, 2005 in Dresden) was an East-German race car driver and constructor of sport cars.
Helene Weigel (12 May 19006 May 1971) was a distinguished German actress and artistic director.
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.
Henry Maske (born 6 January 1964, in Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg) is a German former professional boxer, and one of Germany's most popular sports figures.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
The German Democratic Republic (GDR), Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), often known in English as East Germany, existed from 1949 to 1990.
As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany.
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ice skating is the act of motion by wearer of the ice skates to propel the participant across a sheet of ice.
Articles related to East Germany include.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Industrieverband Fahrzeugbau ("Industrial Association for Vehicle Construction"), usually abbreviated as IFA, was a conglomerate and a union of companies for vehicle construction in the former East Germany.
The inner German border (innerdeutsche Grenze or deutsch-deutsche Grenze; initially also Zonengrenze) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990.
Interflug GmbH (Interflug Gesellschaft für internationalen Flugverkehr m.b.H.) was the national airline of East Germany from 1963 to 1990.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
Intershop was a chain of government-run retail stores in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) in which only hard currencies (and later Forum checks) could be used to purchase high-quality goods.
The Intersputnik International Organization of Space Communications, commonly known as Intersputnik, is an international satellite communications services organization founded on November 15, 1971, in Moscow by the Soviet Union along with a group of eight formerly socialist states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Mongolia, and Cuba).
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jacob the Liar (Jakob der Lügner) is a 1975 East German-Czechoslovakian Holocaust film directed by Frank Beyer, and based on the novel of the same name by Jurek Becker.
Jan Hoffmann (born 26 October 1955) is a German figure skater who represented East Germany in competition.
Jauerfood was a company founded in 1956 in Copenhagen, Denmark, by Gunnar Jauer.
Jürgen Kocka (born 19 April 1941, in Haindorf) is a German historian.
Jürgen Sparwasser (born 4 June 1948 in Halberstadt) is a retired German football player and later briefly a football manager.
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
Jens Weißflog (born 21 July 1964) is a German former ski jumper.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
Johannisthal is a German locality (Ortsteil) within the Berlin borough (Bezirk) of Treptow-Köpenick.
Josef Mach (25 February 1909 in Prostějov – 7 July 1987 in Prague) was a Czech actor, screenwriter and film director.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Karat (Ger. for "carat") is a German rock band, founded in 1975 in East Berlin, then part of the German Democratic Republic, or East Germany.
Karel Gott (born 14 July 1939, Plzeň), is a Czech singer, and an amateur painter.
Karin Büttner-Janz (born 17 February 1952) is a German medical doctor who won world and Olympic gold medals in artistic gymnastics for East Germany.
Karin Enke-Richter (née Enke, formerly Busch and Kania, born 20 June 1961) is a former speed skater, one of the most dominant of the 1980s.
Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg (31 May 1750 – 26 November 1822) was a Prussian statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia.
The Karl-Marx-Allee is a monumental socialist boulevard built by the GDR between 1952 and 1960 in Berlin Friedrichshain and Mitte.
Karlshorst (literally meaning Karl's nest) is a locality in the borough of Lichtenberg in Berlin.
The Kasernierte Volkspolizei (KVP, German for Barracked People's Police) was the precursor to the National People's Army (NVA) in East Germany.
Katarina Witt (born 3 December 1965) is a retired German figure skater.
Konrad Wolf (20 October 1925 – 7 March 1982) was an East German film director.
The Konzerthausorchester Berlin is a symphony orchestra based in Berlin, Germany.
Korni Grupa (Корни Група, trans. Korni Group) was a Yugoslav rock band from Belgrade, also known as the Kornelyans, the name which they used during a short-lived foray into the international market.
Kurt Masur (18 July 1927 – 19 December 2015) was a German conductor.
Kurt Schwaen (June 21, 1909 in Katowice – October 9, 2007 in Berlin) was a German composer.
Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG) was a left-wing German political party founded in 2005 by activists disenchanted with the ruling Red-Green coalition government.
The Land Forces of the National People's Army (German: Landstreitkräfte der Nationalen Volksarmee - LaSK), was the ground-based military branch of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) National People's Army (NPA).
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
In Germany and Switzerland, a Landeskirche (plural: Landeskirchen) is the church of a region.
Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (p; tr,; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of the Soviet security and secret police apparatus (NKVD) under Joseph Stalin during World War II, and promoted to deputy premier under Stalin from 1941.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
The political leadership of East Germany was in the hands of several offices.
A legal fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts which is then used in order to help reach a decision or to apply a legal rule.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra (Gewandhausorchester; also previously known in German as the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig) is a German symphony orchestra based in Leipzig, Germany.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
The Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands, LDPD) was a political party in East Germany.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
In telephony, the term local call has the following meanings.
In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.
Lothar de Maizière (born 2 March 1940) is a German Christian Democratic politician.
Louis Germain David de Funès de Galarza (31 July 1914 – 27 January 1983) was a popular French actor and one of the giants of French comedy alongside Bourvil and Fernandel.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lutz Heßlich (born 17 January 1959) is a former racing cyclist from East Germany.
Machiavellianism is "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct".
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Manfred Stolpe (born May 16, 1936) was Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Housing of the Federal Republic of Germany from 2002 until 2005.
Margot Honecker (née Feist; 17 April 1927 – 6 May 2016) was an East German politician who was an influential member of the East German communist party and the country's regime until 1989.
Marita Koch (born 18 February 1957), married name Marita Koch Meier, is a German former sprint track and field athlete.
Dr Mark Allinson (born Epping, 1967) is a member of the University of Bristol's Department of German.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Mary Jean Alexandra Fulbrook, FRHistS, FBA (née Wilson; born 28 November 1951) is a British academic and historian.
A mass movement denotes a political party or movement which is supported by large segments of a population.
Matthias Sammer (born 5 September 1967) is a retired German footballer and coach who last worked as sporting director of Bayern Munich.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Maxi Gnauck (born 10 October 1964) is a retired artistic gymnast who represented East Germany.
The Maxim Gorki Theatre (Maxim Gorki Theater) is a theatre in Berlin-Mitte named after the Soviet writer, Maxim Gorky.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
Meinhard Nehmer (born 13 January 1941 in Boblin near Pölitz, Pomerania, Germany) is an East German bobsledder who competed from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
The Ministry of National Defense (German: Ministerium für Nationale Verteidigung - MfNV) was the chief administrative arm of the East German National People's Army.
The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 to 1991 (Montagsdemonstrationen) were a series of peaceful political protests against the government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that took place every Monday evening.
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as Brüdergemeine (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho), is a political party that has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975.
The National-Democratic Party of Germany (National-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands, NDPD) was an East German political party that acted as an organisation for former members of the NSDAP, the Wehrmacht and middle classes.
The National Front of the German Democratic Republic (Nationale Front der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, NF), until 1973 the National Front of Democratic Germany Nationale Front des Demokratischen Deutschlands), was an alliance (Popular Front) of political parties and mass organisations in East Germany (also known as a Blockpartei). The NF was controlled by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and was formed to stand in elections to the East German parliament, the Volkskammer ("People's Chamber").
The National People's Army (NPA) (German: Nationale Volksarmee – NVA) was the name used for the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neubrandenburg (lit. New Brandenburg) is a city in the southeast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
Olaf Ludwig (born 13 April 1960 in Gera, Thuringia) is a former German racing cyclist.
The Olsen Gang (Olsen-banden, Olsenbanden, Die Olsenbande) is a fictional Danish criminal gang in the eponymous comedy film series.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
Omega is one of the most successful Hungarian rock bands.
, is a popular term for funds provided by Japan as host nation support for the U.S. forces stationed in Japan.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Ostalgie is a German term referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany.
The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western (also known as "Borscht Western") was a genre film created in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc as a version of the Western films that originated in the United States.
Neue Ostpolitik (German for "new eastern policy"), or Ostpolitik for short, was the normalization of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany) and Eastern Europe, particularly the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969.
Otto Grotewohl (11 March 1894 – 21 September 1964) was a German politician and the first prime minister of the German Democratic Republic from 1949 until his death in 1964.
The Palace of the Republic (Palast der Republik) in East Berlin was the seat of the parliament of the German Democratic Republic (also known as East Germany), the Volkskammer (People's Chamber), and also served various cultural purposes.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Pankow is the most populous and the second-largest borough of Berlin.
Pankow are a German rock band, founded in East Berlin in 1981.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
The Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007.
Patrick N. Major (born Surrey, 1964) is a professor of history at the University of Reading.
Paul Dessau (19 December 189428 June 1979) was a German composer and conductor.
Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century.
The Peaceful Revolution (Friedliche Revolution) was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the end of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) and the transition to a parliamentary democracy which enabled the reunification of Germany.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) covers the period of Angolan history as a self-declared socialist state established in 1975 after it was granted independence from Portugal, akin to the situation in Mozambique.
The People's Republic of Benin (République populaire du Bénin) was a socialist state located in the Gulf of Guinea on the African continent, which would become present-day Benin.
The People's Republic of the Congo (République populaire du Congo) was a Marxist–Leninist socialist state that was established in 1969Decalo, S. 1990.
People's Solidarity (Volkssolidarität) is an organisation for elderly people in the new states of Germany, founded 1945.
Peter Hacks (21 March 1928 – 28 August 2003) was a German playwright, author, and essayist.
Peter Sodann (born June 1, 1936 in Meissen, Saxony) is a German actor, director and politician.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
Praktica is a brand of camera manufactured by Pentacon in Dresden in eastern Germany, formerly within the GDR prior to German reunification in 1990.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Pomerania (Provinz Pommern) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 until 1945.
The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions of Prussia upon the Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major Protestant church body which emerged in 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united both Lutheran and Reformed denominations in Prussia.
The Puhdys were a veteran German rock band, formed in Oranienburg (Brandenburg), GDR, in 1969, although by then they had been performing together—with various lineups—as the Puhdys since 1965.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Radio Berlin International was the international broadcaster for the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Republic Day (German:Tag der Republik) was an official holiday in the East Germany, celebrated annually on October 7th from 1949 to 1989.
"Republikflucht" ("desertion from the republic") and "Republikflüchtling(e)" ("deserter(s) from the republic") were the terms used by authorities in the German Democratic Republic (GDR – East Germany) to describe the process of and the person(s) leaving the GDR for a life in West Germany or any other Western (non-Warsaw Pact) country (Eastern Bloc emigration and defection).
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A revue (from French 'magazine' or 'overview') is a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music, dance, and sketches.
The Diocese of Erfurt is a diocese of the Catholic church in Germany.
The Diocese of Görlitz is a diocese of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
The Diocese of Magdeburg is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church, located in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Rudolf Wagner-Régeny (28 August 1903, Szászrégen, Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Reghin, Romania) – 18 September 1969, Berlin) was a composer, conductor, and pianist.
Rundfunk der DDR (Radio of the GDR) was the radio broadcasting organisation for the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from 1952 until German reunification, after which it continued until 1991 as Funkhaus Berlin (Broadcasting Center Berlin).
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (née Schulz; born 20 April 1946) is a German doctor and politician.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.
Schlager music ("hit(s)") is a style of popular music which is generally a catchy instrumental accompaniment to vocal pieces of pop music with easy to understand, happy-go-lucky and often sentimental lyrics.
Schwerin (or; Mecklenburgian: Swerin; Polish: Swarzyn or Zwierzyn; Latin: Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northeastern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects.
Shock therapy is a term used by some non-economists to refer to the sudden release of price and currency controls (economic liberalization), withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country, usually also including large-scale privatization of previously public-owned assets.
Silly is a German rock band.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
Slatan Theodor Dudow (Златан Дудов, Zlatan Dudov) (30 January 1903 - 12 July 1963) was a Bulgarian born film director and screenwriter who made a number of films during the Weimar Republic and in East Germany.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
The Society for German–Soviet Friendship (in German, Gesellschaft für Deutsch-Sowjetische Freundschaft/DSF) was an East German organisation set up to encourage closer co-operation between the German Democratic Republic and the Soviet Union.
Solo Sunny is a 1980 East German drama film directed by Konrad Wolf and Wolfgang Kohlhaase.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.
Soviet Border Troops (Пограничные войска СССР, Pograníchnyye Voiská SSSR) were the militarized border guard of the Soviet Union, subordinated to its subsequently reorganized state security agency: first to Cheka/OGPU, then to NKVD/MGB and, finally, to KGB.
The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (Советская военная администрация в Германии, СВАГ; Sovyetskaya Voyennaya Administratsya v Germanii, SVAG; Sowjetische Militäradministration in Deutschland, SMAD) was the Soviet military government, headquartered in Berlin-Karlshorst, that directly ruled the Soviet occupation zone of Germany from the German surrender in May 1945 until after the establishment of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in October 1949.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Headquarters of the East German Central Bank The State Bank of the GDR (German: Staatsbank der DDR) was the central bank of East Germany.
The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden (known colloquially as the Staatskapelle Dresden) is a German orchestra based in Dresden.
The Stalin Note, also known as the March Note, was a document delivered to the representatives of the Western allied powers (the United Kingdom, France, and the United States) from the Soviet Occupation in Germany on March 10, 1952.
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
State atheism, according to Oxford University Press's A Dictionary of Atheism, "is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems." In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
The State Secretary for Church Affairs (German: Staatssekretär für Kirchenfragen) was the head of the Secretariat for Church Affairs in the former German Democratic Republic.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Suhl is a city in Thuringia, Germany, located SW of Erfurt, NE of Würzburg and N of Nuremberg.
Superpower disengagement is a foreign policy option whereby the most powerful nations, the superpowers, reduce their interventions in an area.
The Sportvereinigung Dynamo (Dynamo Sports Association) was the sport organization of the security agencies (Volkspolizei, Ministry for State Security and customs) of former East Germany.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.
Before German reunification, West Germany (including West Berlin) used country code +49 and East Germany used country code +37, each with its separate area codes and telephone networks.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
Die Legende von Paul und Paula (English: The Legend of Paul and Paula) is a 1973 tragicomic East German film directed by Heiner Carow.
The Lives of Others (Das Leben der Anderen) is a 2006 German drama film, marking the feature film debut of filmmaker Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, about the monitoring of East Berlin residents by agents of the Stasi, the GDR's secret police.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.
Die Sechzehn Grundsätze des Städtebaus, or The Sixteen Principles of Urban Design, were from 1950 until 1955 the primary model for urban planning in the GDR.
The Sons of Great Bear (Die Söhne der großen Bärin; literally, The Sons of the Great She-Bear) is a 1966 East German Western film, directed by the Czechoslovak filmmaker Josef Mach and starring the Yugoslav actor Gojko Mitić in the leading role of Tokei-ihto.
Der Tunnel is a made-for-television German film released in 2001 and loosely based on true events in Berlin following the closing of the East German border in August 1961 and the subsequent construction of the Berlin Wall.
The Theater am Schiffbauerdamm is a theatre building at the Schiffbauerdamm riverside in the Mitte district of Berlin, Germany, opened on November 19, 1892.
The Thomanerchor (English: St. Thomas Choir of Leipzig) is a boys' choir in Leipzig, Germany.
Thomas Müntzer (December 1489 – 27 May 1525) was a German preacher and radical theologian of the early Reformation whose opposition to both Luther and the Roman Catholic Church led to his open defiance of late-feudal authority in central Germany.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Tourism in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was organised through the state via Reisebüro der DDR (Travel Bureau of the GDR).
The Trabant is an automobile which was produced from 1957 to 1990 by former East German car manufacturer VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau. Although it is often seen as symbolic of the defunct East Germany and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in general, it was a sought-after car in East Germany before the fall of the Berlin Wall. The Trabant had a hard plastic body mounted on a one-piece steel chassis (a so-called unibody or monocoque), front-wheel drive, a transverse engine, and independent suspension unusual features at that time. Called "a spark plug with a roof", 3,096,999 Trabants in a number of models were produced over nearly three decades with few significant changes in their basic design. Older models became popular with collectors in the United States due to their low cost and fewer restrictions on the importation of antique cars. The Trabant also gained a following among car tuning and rally racing enthusiasts.
The Transit Agreement or Transit Treaty of 26 May 1972 arranged access to and from West Berlin from West Germany, secured the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and East Germany, and secured the rights of East German citizens to visit West Germany, although only in cases of family emergency.
Transport in the German Democratic Republic was the responsibility of the Ministry of Transport of the German Democratic Republic.
The Treaty of Moscow, was signed on August 12, 1970 between the USSR and West Germany (FRG).
The Treaty of Warsaw (Warschauer Vertrag, Polish: Układ PRL-RFN) was a treaty between West Germany and the People's Republic of Poland.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
Ulf Kirsten (born 4 December 1965) is a former German footballer and manager, who played as a striker.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany started with a strike by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June 1953.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Uwe Hohn (born 16 July 1962) is a retired German track and field athlete who competed in the javelin throw.
Uwe Rösler (born 15 November 1968) is a German football manager and former player who manages Malmö FF in Allsvenskan, the top flight of Sweden.
In the context of the theory of Marxist–Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
The Volksbühne ("People's Theatre") is a theater in Berlin, Germany.
The People's Chamber (German: Volkskammer) was the unicameral legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
The Volksmarine (VM,; People's Navy), was the official designation of the naval forces of East Germany.
The Volkspolizei – full official name: the Deutsche Volkspolizei (German People's Police), abbreviated to DVP or VP, and colloquially known as the VoPo – was the national police force of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Waldemar Cierpinski (born 3 August 1950) is a former East German athlete and two time Olympic Champion in the marathon.
Walter Ernst Paul Ulbricht (30 June 18931 August 1973) was a German Communist politician.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Wartburg was a car marque manufactured in East Germany.
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
Western Germany is a region in the west of Germany.
Wild Style is an American 1983 hip hop film produced by Charlie Ahearn.
Friedrich Wilhelm Reinhold Pieck (3 January 1876 – 7 September 1960) was a German politician and Communist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).
Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.
Wolfgang Becker (born 22 June 1954) is a German film director and writer.
Wolfgang Kohlhaase (born 13 March 1931) is a German screenwriter and film director.
The political slogan "Workers of the world, unite!" is one of the most famous rallying cries from The Communist Manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!", but soon popularised in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!").
The Workers World Party (WWP) is a Marxist–Leninist political party in the United States.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Zwickau (Sorbian (hist.): Šwikawa, Czech Cvikov) is a town in Saxony, Germany, it is the capital of the district of Zwickau.
.dd was the assigned country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany (including West Berlin) from 13 June to 7 July.
Communist Germany, D.R. Germany, DDR (state), DDR state, DR Germany, Democratic Republic of Germany, Democratic republic of germany, Deutsche Demokratische Republik, Deutsche demokratische republik, E. Germany, East German, East German Democratic Republic, East Germans, East germany, East-Germany, EastGermany, G.D.R., GDR, Gdr, German Democratic Republic, German Democratic republic, Germany (East), Germany's Democratic Republic, Germany, East, Germany, east, Germany,East, ISO 3166-1:DD, Ostdeutschlander, Ostdeutschlanders, People's Republic of East Germany, People's Republic of Germany, Red Germany, Socialist Germany.