141 relations: ALGOL 68, ALGOL W, Ashton-under-Lyne, Assembly language, Barclays, Beaumont College, Belfast, Block-oriented terminal, Bracknell, Brian Warboys, British Tabulating Machine Company, C (programming language), CADES, Charles Babbage Institute, Chris Gent, CMG (company), COBOL, CODASYL, Cold War, Compiler, Computer Consoles Inc., Computer hardware, Content Addressable File Store, Cookham, Croydon, Cullinet, Dalkeith Palace, Datasaab, David Pearson (computer scientist), Department for Work and Pensions, Dukinfield, Eastern Europe, Elliott 503, Elliott 803, Elliott Brothers (computer company), England, English Electric, English Electric KDF8, English Electric KDF9, English Electric System 4, Ericsson, Europe, Feltham, Ferranti, Ferranti-Packard, Ferranti-Packard 6000, Finland, Fortran, Fujitsu, Fujitsu Siemens Computers, ..., GEORGE (operating system), Gorton, Harold Wilson, Hedsor House, Hitachi, Hugh Laurie, IBM, IBM 4300, IBM Personal Computer/AT, IBM System/360, ICL 2900 Series, ICL Direct Machine Environment, ICL Distributed Array Processor, ICL Series 39, ICL VME, ICT 1900 series, IDMS, Information technology, Ingres (database), Inland Revenue, Integrated circuit, International Computers and Tabulators, J. Lyons and Co., Kazan, Kidsgrove, Labour Party (UK), LEO (computer), Letchworth, London, Mainframe computer, Marconi Company, Massively parallel, Michael Edwardes, Middleware, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Mintimer Shaimiev, Native (computing), NCR Corporation, Nokia, Nordic countries, Nottingham, Odra (computer), Old Windsor, Operating system, Oracle Database, Order of the British Empire, Outsourcing, Pascal (programming language), Personal computer, Peter Bonfield, Post Office Ltd, Powers-Samas, Prestel, Privately held company, Program evaluation and review technique, Punched card, Pune, Putney Wharf Tower, Queen's Awards for Enterprise, RCA, RCA Spectra 70, Reading, Berkshire, Regnecentralen, Russia, S3 (programming language), Saab Group, SaskPower, Siemens, Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme, Singer Corporation, Singer System 10, Software, Soviet Union, Standard Telephones and Cables, Stephen Fry, Stevenage, Sweden, System programming language, Taplow, Tatarstan, Teletype Model 33, Tony Benn, United Kingdom, UNIVAC, University of Manchester, University of Southampton, Utica, New York, Videotex, Vodafone, Western Electric, Winsford. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
ALGOL W is a programming language.
Ashton-under-Lyne is a market town in Tameside, Greater Manchester, England.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in London.
Beaumont College was a Jesuit public school in Old Windsor, Berkshire, England.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
A block-oriented terminal or block mode terminal is a type of computer terminal that communicates with its host in blocks of data, as opposed to a character-oriented terminal that communicates with its host one character at a time.
Bracknell is a town and civil parish in Berkshire, England, the westernmost area within the Greater London Urban Area and the administrative centre of the Borough of Bracknell Forest.
Brian Warboys (born 30 April 1942), was Professor of Software Engineering at the University of Manchester from 1985 until he retired in September 2007.
The British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) was a firm which manufactured and sold Hollerith unit record equipment and other data-processing equipment.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
CADES (Computer Aided Design and Evaluation System) was a software engineering repository system produced to support the development of the VME/B Operating System for the ICL New Range - subsequently 2900 - computers.
The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.
Sir Christopher Charles Gent HonFREng (born 10 May 1948) is a British businessman, He is the former chief executive officer of Vodafone, a British multinational mobile phone company.
CMG (Computer Management Group) was a consulting company focused on telecommunications and computing and based in London, United Kingdom.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
CODASYL, the Conference/Committee on Data Systems Languages, was a consortium formed in 1959 to guide the development of a standard programming language that could be used on many computers.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Computer Consoles Inc. or CCI was a telephony and computer company located in Rochester, New York, United States, which did business first as a private, and then ultimately a public company from 1968 to 1990.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
The Content Addressable File Store (CAFS) was a hardware device developed by International Computers Limited (ICL) that provided a disk storage with built-in search capability.
Cookham is a historic village and civil parish on the River Thames in the north-easternmost corner of Berkshire in England.
Croydon is a large town in south London, England, south of Charing Cross.
Cullinet was a software company whose products included the database management system IDMS and the integrated software package Goldengate.
Dalkeith Palace in Dalkeith, Midlothian, Scotland, is a historic house and the former seat of the Duke of Buccleuch.
Datasaab was the computer division of, and later a separate company spun off from, aircraft manufacturer Saab in Linköping, Sweden.
David Pearson is a British physicist and computer scientist.
The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) is the largest government department in the United Kingdom, and is responsible for welfare and pension policy.
Dukinfield is a town in Tameside, Greater Manchester, England, on the south bank of the River Tame opposite Ashton-under-Lyne, east of Manchester.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Elliott 503 was a transistorized computer introduced by Elliott Brothers in 1963.
The Elliott 803 is a small, medium-speed transistor digital computer which was manufactured by the British company Elliott Brothers in the 1960s.
Elliott Brothers (London) Ltd was an early computer company of the 1950s–60s in the United Kingdom.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Electric Company Limited was a British industrial manufacturer formed after the armistice of World War I at the end of 1918.
KDF8 was an early British computer built by English Electric as a version of the RCA 501.
KDF9 was an early British computer designed and built by English Electric.
The English Electric (later ICL) System 4 was a mainframe computer announced in the 1965.
Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Feltham is a large town in the London Borough of Hounslow, west London, England, west of Twickenham, south-west of Hounslow and north of Walton-on-Thames.
Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993.
Ferranti-Packard Ltd. was the Canadian division of Ferranti's global manufacturing empire, formed by the 1958 merger of Ferranti Electric and Packard Electric.
The FP-6000 Ferranti Packard: Pioneers in Canadian Electrical Manufacturing Norman R Ball, John N Vardalas was a second-generation mainframe computer developed and built by Ferranti-Packard in the early 1960s.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Fujitsu Siemens Computers GmbH was a Japanese and German vendor of Information technology.
GEORGE was the name given to a series of operating systems released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) in the 1960s, for the ICT 1900 series of computers.
Gorton is an area of Manchester in North West England, southeast of the city centre.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Hedsor House is a Italianate-style mansion in the United Kingdom, located in Hedsor in Buckinghamshire.
() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
James Hugh Calum Laurie, (born 11 June 1959) is an English actor, director, musician, comedian, and author.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 4300 series were mid-range systems compatible with System/370 that were sold from 1979 through 1992.
The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984 as System Unit 5170.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The ICL 2900 Series was a range of mainframe computer systems announced by the UK manufacturer ICL on 9 October 1974.
Direct Machine Environment, abbreviated DME, was a mainframe environment for the ICL 2900 Series of computing systems from International Computers Limited that was developed in the 1970s.
The Distributed Array Processor (DAP) produced by International Computers Limited (ICL) was the world's first commercial massively parallel computer.
The ICL Series 39 was a range of mainframe and minicomputer computer systems released by the UK manufacturer ICL in 1985.
VME (Virtual Machine Environment) is a mainframe operating system developed by the UK company International Computers Limited (ICL, now part of the Fujitsu group).
ICT 1900 was the name given to a series of mainframe computers released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and later International Computers Limited (ICL) during the 1960s and '70s.
CA IDMS (Integrated Database Management System) is primarily a network model (CODASYL) database management system for mainframes.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Ingres Database is a commercially supported, open-source SQL relational database management system intended to support large commercial and government applications.
The Inland Revenue was, until April 2005, a department of the British Government responsible for the collection of direct taxation, including income tax, national insurance contributions, capital gains tax, inheritance tax, corporation tax, petroleum revenue tax and stamp duty.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
International Computers and Tabulators or ICT was formed in 1959 by a merger of the British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) and Powers-Samas.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Kidsgrove is a town in the borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England, near the Cheshire border.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The LEO I (Lyons Electronic Office I) was the first computer used for commercial business applications.
Letchworth Garden City, commonly known as Letchworth, is a town in Hertfordshire, England, with a population of 33,600.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987.
In computing, massively parallel refers to the use of a large number of processors (or separate computers) to perform a set of coordinated computations in parallel (simultaneously).
Sir Michael Edwardes (born 11 October 1930) is a British-South African business executive.
Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
Mintimer Sharipovich Shaimiev (Минтимер Шәрип улы Шәймиев; Mintimér Šarípovič Šajmíjev) (born January 20, 1937) was the first to hold title of President of Tatarstan, a republic within Russia.
In computing, software or data formats that are native to a system are those that the system supports with minimal computational overhead and additional components.
The NCR Corporation (originally National Cash Register) is a company that makes self-service kiosks, point-of-sale terminals, automated teller machines, check processing systems, barcode scanners, and business consumables.
Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
Odra was a line of computers manufactured in Wrocław, Poland.
Old Windsor is a large village and civil parish, in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead, in Berkshire, England.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield, CBE, FREng(born 3 June 1944) is a business executive who has led a number of companies in the fields of electronics, computers and communications.
Post Office Ltd (Swyddfa’r Post Cyf.; Oifis a' Phuist) is a retail post office company in the United Kingdom that provides a wide range of products including postage stamps and banking to the public through its nationwide network of post office branches.
Powers-Samas was a British company which sold unit record equipment.
Prestel (abbrev. from press telephone), the brand name for the UK Post Office's Viewdata technology, was an interactive videotex system developed during the late 1970s and commercially launched in 1979.
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
The program (or project) evaluation and review technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a statistical tool, used in project management, which was designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
Putney Wharf Tower is a tall apartment building at Putney Wharf, Putney, London SW15 2JX, on the river Thames, close to Putney Bridge.
The Queen's Awards for Enterprise is an awards programme for British businesses and other organizations who excel at international trade, innovation or sustainable development.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
The RCA Spectra 70 was a line of electronic data processing (EDP) equipment manufactured by the Radio Corporation of America’s computer division beginning in April 1965.
Reading is a large, historically important minster town in Berkshire, England, of which it is the county town.
Regnecentralen, or RC for short, was the first Danish computer company, founded on October 12, 1955.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
S3 is a structured, imperative high-level computer programming language.
Saab Group (originally Svenska Aeroplan AB, later SAAB and Saab AB) is a Swedish aerospace and defence company, founded in 1937.
SaskPower is the principal electric utility in Saskatchewan, Canada.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme, AG (SNI) was formed in 1990 by the merger of Nixdorf Computer and the Data Information Services (DIS) division of Siemens.
Singer Corporation is an American manufacturer of sewing machines, first established as I. M. Singer & Co. in 1851 by Isaac Merritt Singer with New York lawyer Edward Clark.
The Singer System Ten was a small-business computer manufactured by the Singer Corporation.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd (later STC plc) was a British telephone, telegraph, radio, telecommunications, and related equipment R&D manufacturer.
Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist.
Stevenage is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A system programming language usually refers to a programming language used for system programming; such languages are designed for writing system software, which usually requires different development approaches when compared with application software.
Taplow is a village and civil parish in the South Bucks district of Buckinghamshire, England.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
The Teletype Model 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office.
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician, writer, and diarist.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Southampton (abbreviated as Soton in post-nominal letters) is a research university located in Southampton, England.
Utica is a city in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States.
Videotex (or "interactive videotex") was one of the earliest implementations of an end-user information system.
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.
Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.
Winsford is a town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.
Dataskil, Executive (operating system), ICL 2903, ICL 2903 series, ICL 2904, ICL 2905, ICL Concurrent Machine Environment, ICL ME29, ICL Transaction Machine Environment, ICL operating systems, ICL programming languages, IDMS/X, IDMSX, International Computers, International Computers Ltd, International Computers Ltd., J (operating system), MultiJob, Querymaster, System 25, TME (operating system).