98 relations: Agarose gel electrophoresis, Albumin, Basic research, Benzene, Biodegradation, Buffer solution, Caister Academic Press, Calibration curve, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cervical cancer, Complementarity (molecular biology), Complementary DNA, Cycle of quantification/qualification, Cyclophilin, Dehalococcoides, Densitometry, Deoxyribonucleotide, Diagnosis, Differential display, DNA, DNA microarray, DNA polymerase, Electrophoresis, Enzyme kinetics, Ethylbenzene, Excited state, Exonuclease, Fluorescence, Fluorophore, Ganglion, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Genetically modified organism, Genome, Geometric mean, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Groundwater pollution, Hepatitis B virus, Herpes simplex virus, Housekeeping gene, Human papillomavirus infection, Hybridization probe, Infection, Influenza, Intercalation (biochemistry), Laboratory, Linear regression, Logarithmic scale, Medical laboratory, ..., Medical test, Messenger RNA, Molecular biology, Neuron, Northern blot, Nuclease protection assay, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid hybridization, Nucleic acid thermodynamics, Oak, Oligonucleotide, Pharmacology, Phytophthora ramorum, Plateau (mathematics), Polymerase chain reaction, Polymerization, Primer (molecular biology), Primer dimer, Prognosis, Promoter (genetics), Quantitative PCR instrument, Quenching (fluorescence), Reverse transcriptase, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Ribosomal RNA, RNA, Sensor, Slope, Southern blot, Standard curve, Standard deviation, Standardization, Statistics, SYBR Green I, Taq polymerase, Terminator (genetics), Tetrachloroethylene, Thermal cycler, Tissue (biology), Titration, Toluene, Transcription (biology), Transcriptomics technologies, Trichloroethylene, Tubulin, Wavelength, Western blot normalization, Xylene. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of macromolecules such as DNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose, one of the two main components of agar.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
In analytical chemistry, a calibration curve, also known as a standard curve, is a general method for determining the concentration of a substance in an unknown sample by comparing the unknown to a set of standard samples of known concentration.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
Cycle of quantification/qualification (Cq) is a parameter used in real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques, indicating the cycle number where a PCR amplification curve meets a predefined mathematical criterion.
Cyclophilins are a family of proteins from vertebrates and other organisms that bind to ciclosporin (cyclosporin A), an immunosuppressant which is usually used to suppress rejection after internal organ transplants.
Dehalococcoides is a genus of bacteria within class Dehalococcoidia that obtain energy via the oxidation of hydrogen and subsequent reductive dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in a mode of anaerobic respiration called organohalide respiration.
Densitometry is the quantitative measurement of optical density in light-sensitive materials, such as photographic paper or photographic film, due to exposure to light.
A deoxyribonucleotide is the monomer, or single unit, of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Differential display (also referred to as DDRT-PCR or DD-PCR) is a laboratory technique that allows a researcher to compare and identify changes in gene expression at the mRNA level between two or more eukaryotic cell samples.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2CH3.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
Exonucleases are enzymes that work by cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end (exo) of a polynucleotide chain.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum).
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (abbreviated as GAPDH or less commonly as G3PDH) is an enzyme of ~37kDa that catalyzes the sixth step of glycolysis and thus serves to break down glucose for energy and carbon molecules.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a double stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
In molecular biology, housekeeping genes are typically constitutive genes that are required for the maintenance of basic cellular function, and are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
In molecular biology, a hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length (usually 100–1000 bases long) which can be radioactively labeled.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach to modelling the relationship between a scalar response (or dependent variable) and one or more explanatory variables (or independent variables).
A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.
Nuclease protection assay is a laboratory technique used in biochemistry and genetics to identify individual RNA molecules in a heterogeneous RNA sample extracted from cells.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
In molecular biology, hybridization (or hybridisation) is a phenomenon in which single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules anneal to complementary DNA or RNA.
Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phytophthora ramorum is the oomycete plant pathogen known to cause the disease sudden oak death (SOD).
A plateau of a function is a part of its domain where the function has constant value.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
A Primer dimer (PD) is a potential by-product in PCR, a common biotechnological method.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
A quantitative PCR instrument is a machine that amplifies and detects DNA.
Quenching refers to any process which decreases the fluorescence intensity of a given substance.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.
A standard curve, also known as a calibration curve, is a type of graph used as a quantitative research technique.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
SYBR Green I (SG) is an asymmetrical cyanine dye used as a nucleic acid stain in molecular biology.
Taq polymerase is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al.
In genetics, a transcription terminator is a section of nucleic acid sequence that marks the end of a gene or operon in genomic DNA during transcription.
Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.
The thermal cycler (also known as a thermocycler, PCR machine or DNA amplifier) is a laboratory apparatus most commonly used to amplify segments of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transcriptomics technologies are the techniques used to study an organism’s transcriptome, the sum of all of its RNA transcripts.
The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Normalization of Western blot data is an analytical step that is performed to compare the relative abundance of a specific protein across the lanes of a blot or gel under diverse experimental treatments, or across tissues or developmental stages.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
Kinetic polymerase chain reaction, Q PCR, Q-PCR, QPCR, QRT PCR, QRT-PCR, QRTPCR, Quantitative PCR, Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction, RT-Q-PCR, RT-qPCR, Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Real time PCR, Real time pcr, Real-Time PCR, Real-time PCR, Real-time RT-PCR, Real-time RTPCR, Real-time pcr.