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Nucleic acid

Index Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. [1]

92 relations: Adenine, Archaea, Bacteria, Base pair, Biology, Biomolecule, Biopolymer, Biotechnology, Cell nucleus, Chloroplast, Chromosome 1, Comparison of nucleic acid simulation software, Cytosine, Deoxyribose, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA sequencing, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Forensic science, Francis Crick, Friedrich Miescher, G-quadruplex, Gene, Genetics, Genomics, Glycol nucleic acid, Guanine, History of biochemistry, History of molecular biology, History of RNA biology, Hydroxy group, James Watson, Life, Locked nucleic acid, M13 bacteriophage, Medical research, Messenger RNA, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Molecular biology, Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, Monomer, Morpholino, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Nitrogenous base, Non-coding RNA, Nucleic acid analogue, Nucleic acid double helix, ..., Nucleic acid methods, Nucleic acid nomenclature, Nucleic acid quantitation, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleic acid structure, Nucleic acid tertiary structure, Nucleic acid thermodynamics, Nucleobase, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Oligonucleotide synthesis, Organism, Pentose, Peptide nucleic acid, Pharmaceutical industry, Phosphate, Phosphodiester bond, Plasmid, Polymer, Polynucleotide, Protein, Purine, Pyrimidine, Reoviridae, Ribose, Ribosomal RNA, Richard Altmann, RNA, RNA splicing, Small interfering RNA, Solid-phase synthesis, Sugar, Threose nucleic acid, Thymine, Transfer RNA, Triple-stranded DNA, University of California, Los Angeles, University of South Carolina, Uracil, Viroid, Virus, William Astbury. Expand index (42 more) »

Adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Archaea

Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biomolecule

A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Biopolymer

Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Chromosome 1

Chromosome 1 is the designation for the largest human chromosome.

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Comparison of nucleic acid simulation software

This is a list of computer programs that are used for nucleic acids simulations.

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Cytosine

Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Deoxyribose

Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.

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Directionality (molecular biology)

Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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Friedrich Miescher

Johannes Friedrich Miescher (13 August 1844 – 26 August 1895) was a Swiss physician and biologist.

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G-quadruplex

In molecular biology, G-quadruplex secondary structures are formed in nucleic acids by sequences that are rich in guanine.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Genomics

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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Glycol nucleic acid

Glycol nucleic acid (GNA) is a polymer similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its "backbone".

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Guanine

Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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History of biochemistry

The history of biochemistry can be said to have started with the ancient Greeks who were interested in the composition and processes of life, although biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning around the early 19th century.

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History of molecular biology

The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics.

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History of RNA biology

Numerous key discoveries in biology have emerged from studies of RNA (ribonucleic acid), including seminal work in the fields of biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, molecular evolution and structural biology.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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James Watson

James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.

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Life

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Locked nucleic acid

A locked nucleic acid (LNA), often referred to as inaccessible RNA, is a modified RNA nucleotide.

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M13 bacteriophage

M13 is a virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid

"Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" was the first article published to describe the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA, using X-ray diffraction and the mathematics of a helix transform.

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Monomer

A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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Morpholino

A Morpholino, also known as a Morpholino oligomer and as a phosphorodiamidate Morpholino oligomer (PMO), is a type of oligomer molecule (colloquially, an oligo) used in molecular biology to modify gene expression.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Nitrogenous base

A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.

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Non-coding RNA

A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.

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Nucleic acid analogue

Nucleic acid analogues are compounds which are analogous (structurally similar) to naturally occurring RNA and DNA, used in medicine and in molecular biology research.

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Nucleic acid double helix

In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Nucleic acid methods

Nucleic acid methods are the techniques used to study nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.

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Nucleic acid nomenclature

Molecular biologists use several shorthand terms when referring to nucleic acid molecules, such as DNA and RNA, collectively referred to as nucleic acid nomenclature.

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Nucleic acid quantitation

In molecular biology, quantitation of nucleic acids is commonly performed to determine the average concentrations of DNA or RNA present in a mixture, as well as their purity.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleic acid structure

Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.

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Nucleic acid tertiary structure

Nucleic acid tertiary structure is the three-dimensional shape of a nucleic acid polymer.

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Nucleic acid thermodynamics

Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).

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Nucleobase

Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

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Nucleoside

Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Oligonucleotide synthesis

Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of nucleic acids with defined chemical structure (sequence).

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Pentose

A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.

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Peptide nucleic acid

Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is an artificially synthesized polymer similar to DNA or RNA.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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Phosphate

A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphodiester bond

A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.

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Plasmid

A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polynucleotide

A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Purine

A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Pyrimidine

Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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Reoviridae

Reoviridae is a family of viruses.

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Ribose

Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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Richard Altmann

Richard Altmann (12 March 1852 – 8 December 1900) was a German pathologist and histologist from Deutsch Eylau in the Province of Prussia.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA splicing

In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

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Small interfering RNA

Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.

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Solid-phase synthesis

In chemistry, solid-phase synthesis is a method in which molecules are bound on a bead and synthesized step-by-step in a reactant solution; compared with normal synthesis in a liquid state, it is easier to remove excess reactant or byproduct from the product.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Threose nucleic acid

Threose nucleic acid (TNA) is an artificial genetic polymer invented by Albert Eschenmoser.

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Thymine

---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Triple-stranded DNA

Triple-stranded DNA is a DNA structure in which three oligonucleotides wind around each other and form a triple helix.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of South Carolina

The University of South Carolina (also referred to as UofSC, USC, SC, South Carolina, or simply Carolina) is a public, co-educational research university in Columbia, South Carolina, United States, with seven satellite campuses.

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Uracil

Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Viroid

Viroids are the smallest infectious pathogens known.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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William Astbury

William Thomas Astbury FRS (also Bill Astbury; 25 February 1898, Longton – 4 June 1961, Leeds) was an English physicist and molecular biologist who made pioneering X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid

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