242 relations: Acetic acid, Acetone, Acetyl-CoA, Acetylene, Activated carbon, Acute myeloid leukemia, Acyl chloride, Acyl group, Acylation, Adipic acid, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Alcohol, Aliphatic compound, Alkane, Alkene, Aluminium chloride, American Petroleum Institute, Anemia, Aniline, Annals of Science, Annulene, Anthracene, Archibald Scott Couper, Arene substitution pattern, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromatic sulfonation, Aromaticity, Arsabenzene, Aryl halide, August Kekulé, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Auguste Laurent, Bacteria, Benzoic acid, Benzoin (resin), Bifunctional, Biphenyl, Birch reduction, Bis(benzene)chromium, Bisphenol A, Blood test, Bond length, Borabenzene, Borazine, BP, Breath test, BTX (chemistry), Calcium oxide, Cancer, Caprolactam, ..., Carbocation, Carbon, Carbon tetrachloride, Carcinogen, Carl Gräbe, Carlton, Victoria, Catalysis, Catalytic reforming, Catechol, Charles Blachford Mansfield, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chlorobenzene, Chloroform, Chromium, Chromosome, Citric acid cycle, Clinical urine tests, Coal tar, Coffee, Coke (fuel), Color, Combustibility and flammability, Coordination complex, Cracking (chemistry), Crystallography, Cumene, Cyclohexane, Cytochrome P450, Debye, Decaffeination, Decarboxylation, Degreasing, Delocalized electron, Derivative (chemistry), Detergent, Diazonium compound, Diethyl ether, Diethylene glycol, Diol, Dioxygenase, Disproportionation, Distillation, DNA, Drinking water, Drug, Dye, Eilhard Mitscherlich, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Endless knot, Engine knocking, Epoxy, Ethyl group, Ethylbenzene, Ethylene, Eukaryote, Explosive material, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Food Standards Agency, Frankincense, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Functional group, Gas chromatography, Gasoline, Germabenzene, Glutathione, Graphite, Groundwater, Haloalkane, Harbin, Heterocyclic compound, Heterogeneous catalysis, Hexane, Hydrocarbon, Hydrodealkylation, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydroquinone, Hydroxylation, Hydroxyquinol, Hypophosphorous acid, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Iron(III) chloride, Isomer, Java, Johann Josef Loschmidt, Kathleen Lonsdale, Leukemia, Lewis acids and bases, Liebigs Annalen, Ligand, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, Lubricant, Ludwig Roselius, Maximum Contaminant Level, Methane, Michael Faraday, Michigan State University, Miscellaneous Technical, Molybdenum, Muconic acid, Multiple myeloma, Naphthalene, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural rubber, Nickel, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitration, Nitrobenzene, Nitrogen, Nucleophile, Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Octane rating, Oleum, Organic compound, Ouroboros, Oxepin, Oxide, Oxygen, P-Xylene, Paint stripper, Periodic Videos, Pesticide, Petrochemical, Petroleum, Phenol, Phenol formaldehyde resin, Phenyl group, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phosphorine, Pi bond, Picometre, Platinum, Platinum(II) chloride, Poise (unit), Polycarbonate, Polymer, Polystyrene, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Pyrazine, Pyridazine, Pyridine, Pyrimidine, Pyrolysis gasoline, Pyrylium salt, Radical (chemistry), Recommended exposure limit, Resonance (chemistry), Rhenium, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rubber cement, Sanka, Saturation (chemistry), Self-contained breathing apparatus, Sigma-Aldrich, Silabenzene, Solvent, Songhua River, Stannabenzene, Steel, Styrene, Sublimation (phase transition), Succinyl-CoA, Sulfolane, Sulfur trioxide, Synthetic fiber, Tetraethyllead, Tobacco, Toluene, Toxicology Letters, Trigonal planar molecular geometry, Trimer (chemistry), Unicode, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Environmental Protection Agency, UOP LLC, Urine, Viktor Meyer, Vitamin C, Wilhelm Körner, World Health Organization, World War II, X-ray crystallography, Xylene, 2005 Jilin chemical plant explosions. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.
In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.
An acyl group is a moiety derived by the removal of one or more hydroxyl groups from an oxoacid, including inorganic acids.
In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound.
Adipic acid or hexanedioic acid is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(COOH)2.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Annals of Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of science and technology.
Annulenes are completely conjugated monocyclic hydrocarbons.
Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings.
Archibald Scott Couper (31 March 1831 – 11 March 1892) was a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding.
Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
Aromatic sulfonation is an organic reaction in which a hydrogen atom on an arene is replaced by a sulfonic acid functional group in an electrophilic aromatic substitution.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arsabenzene (IUPAC name: arsinine) is an organoarsenic heterocyclic compound with the chemical formula C5H5As.
In organic chemistry, an aryl halide (also known as haloarene or halogenoarene) is an aromatic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms directly bonded to an aromatic ring are replaced by a halide.
Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.
August Wilhelm von Hofmann (8 April 18185 May 1892) was a German chemist.
Auguste Laurent (14 November 1807 – 15 April 1853) was a French chemist who helped in the founding of organic chemistry with his discoveries of anthracene, phthalic acid, and carbolic acid.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
Benzoin or benjamin is a balsamic resin obtained from the bark of several species of trees in the genus Styrax.
In organic chemistry, when a single organic molecule has two different functional groups, it is called bifunctional.
Biphenyl (or diphenyl or phenylbenzene or 1,1′-biphenyl or lemonene) is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals.
The Birch reduction is an organic reaction which is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry.
Bis(benzene)chromium is the organometallic compound with the formula Cr(η6-C6H6)2.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.
A borabenzene is a heteroaromatic compound that has a boron atom instead of the carbon atom of a benzene molecule.
Borazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (BH)3(NH)3.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
A breath test is a type of test performed on air generated from the act of exhalation.
In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, the initialism BTX refers to mixtures of benzene, toluene, and the three xylene isomers, all of which are aromatic hydrocarbons.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Caprolactam (CPL) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)5C(O)NH.
A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carl Gräbe (24 February 1841 – 19 January 1927) was a German industrial and academic chemist from Frankfurt am Main who held professorships in his field at Leipzig, Königsberg, and Geneva.
Carlton is an inner-northern suburb of Melbourne, Australia, immediately adjoining Melbourne's Central Business District.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.
Catechol, also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4(OH)2.
Charles Blachford Mansfield (8 May 1819 – 26 February 1855) was a British chemist and author.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Cumene is the common name for isopropylbenzene, an organic compound that is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution.
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
Decaffeination is the removal of caffeine from coffee beans, cocoa, tea leaves, and other caffeine-containing materials.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Degreasing, often called defatting or fat trimming, is the removal of fatty acids from an object.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diazonium compounds or diazonium salts are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group where R can be any organic group, such as an alkyl or an aryl, and X is an inorganic or organic anion, such as a halogen.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2CH2)2O.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Dioxygenases are oxidoreductase enzymes.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Eilhard Mitscherlich (7 January 1794 – 28 August 1863) was a German chemist, who is perhaps best remembered today for his discovery of the phenomenon of isomorphism (crystallography) in 1819.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.
The endless knot or eternal knot (śrīvatsa; Tibetan དཔལ་བེའུ། dpal be'u; Mongolian Ulzii) is a symbolic knot and one of the Eight Auspicious Symbols.
Knocking (also knock,, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2CH3.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Germabenzene (C5H6Ge) is the parent representative of a group of chemical compounds containing in their molecular structure a benzene ring with a carbon atom replaced by a germanium atom.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrodealkylation is a chemical reaction that often involves reacting an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as toluene, in the presence of hydrogen gas to form a simpler aromatic hydrocarbon devoid of functional groups.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hydroxyquinol is an organic compound with the formula C6H3(OH)3.
Hypophosphorous acid is a phosphorus oxoacid and a powerful reducing agent with molecular formula H3PO2.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute (The Benzene Case),, was a case heard before the United States Supreme Court. This case represented a challenge to the OSHA practice of regulating carcinogens by setting the exposure limit "at the lowest technologically feasible level that will not impair the viability of the industries regulated." OSHA selected that standard because it believed that (1) it could not determine a safe exposure level and that (2) the authorizing statute did not require it to quantify such a level. A plurality on the Court, led by Justice Stevens, wrote that the authorizing statute did indeed require OSHA to demonstrate a significant risk of harm (albeit not with mathematical certainty) in order to justify setting a particular exposure level. Perhaps more importantly, the Court noted in dicta that if the government's interpretation of the authorizing statute had been correct, it might violate the Nondelegation doctrine. This line of reasoning may represent the "high-water mark" of recent attempts to revive the doctrine.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Johann Josef Loschmidt (15 March 1821 – 8 July 1895), who referred to himself mostly as Josef Loschmidt (omitting his first name), was a notable Austrian scientist who performed ground-breaking work in chemistry, physics (thermodynamics, optics, electrodynamics), and crystal forms.
Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, DBE, FRS (née Yardley; 28 January 1903 – 1 April 1971) was an Irish crystallographer who proved, in 1929, that the benzene ring is flat by using X-ray diffraction methods to elucidate the structure of hexamethylbenzene.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
This is a list of molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes, grouped by the number of component atoms.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Ludwig Roselius (2 June 1874 – 15 May 1943) was a German coffee merchant and founder of the company Kaffee HAG.
Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are standards that are set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water quality.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
Miscellaneous Technical is the name of a Unicode block ranging from U+2300 to U+23FF, which contains various common symbols which are related to and used in the various technical, programming language, and academic professions.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Muconic acid is a dicarboxylic acid.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
Nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5NO2.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam is a polymer developed by Paul Schlack at IG Farben to reproduce the properties of nylon 6,6 without violating the patent on its production.
Nylon 66 (nylon 6-6, nylon 6/6 or nylon 6,6) is a type of polyamide or nylon.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
Oleum (Latin oleum, meaning oil), or fuming sulfuric acid, is a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid).
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The ouroboros or uroborus is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail.
Oxepin is an oxygen-containing heterocycle consisting of a seven-membered ring with three double bonds.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
p-Xylene (''para''-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Paint stripper, or paint remover, is a product designed to remove paint and other finishes and also to clean the underlying surface.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.
In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Phosphorine (IUPAC name: phosphinine) is a heavier element analog of pyridine, containing a phosphorus atom instead of an aza- moiety.
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Platinum(II) chloride is the chemical compound PtCl2.
The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C4H4N2.
Pyridazine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the molecular formula (CH)4N2.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyrolysis gasoline or Pygas is a naphtha-range product with a high aromatics content.
The pyrylium cation is a six-membered, unsaturated, mono-cyclic compound.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rubber cement is an adhesive made from elastic polymers (typically latex) mixed in a solvent such as acetone, hexane, heptane or toluene to keep them fluid enough to be used.
Sanka is a brand of instant decaffeinated coffee, sold around the world, and was one of the earliest decaffeinated varieties.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
A self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) sometimes referred to as a compressed air breathing apparatus (CABA), or simply breathing apparatus (BA), is a device worn by rescue workers, firefighters, and others to provide breathable air in an immediately dangerous to life or health atmosphere (IDLH).
Sigma-Aldrich Corporation is an American chemical, life science and biotechnology company owned by Merck KGaA.
A silabenzene is a heteroaromatic compound containing one or more silicon atoms instead of carbon atoms in benzene.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The Songhua River (also Haixi or Xingal, formerly Sunggari) is one of the primary rivers of China, and the largest tributary of the Amur River.
Stannabenzene (C5H6Sn) is the parent representative of a group of organotin compounds that are related to benzene with a carbon atom replaced by a tin atom.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Succinyl-Coenzyme A, abbreviated as Succinyl-CoA or SucCoA, is a combination of succinic acid and coenzyme A.
Sulfolane (also tetramethylene sulfone, systematic name: 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide) is an organosulfur compound, formally a cyclic sulfone, with the formula (CH2)4SO2.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Toxicology Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for the rapid publication of short reports on all aspects of toxicology, especially mechanisms of toxicity.
In chemistry, trigonal planar is a molecular geometry model with one atom at the center and three atoms at the corners of an equilateral triangle, called peripheral atoms, all in one plane.
In chemistry, a trimer is a molecule or an anion formed by combination or association of three molecules or ions of the same substance.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Honeywell UOP, formerly known as UOP LLC or Universal Oil Products, is a multi-national company developing and delivering technology to the petroleum refining, gas processing, petrochemical production, and major manufacturing industries.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Viktor Meyer (8 September 1848 – 8 August 1897) was a German chemist and significant contributor to both organic and inorganic chemistry.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Wilhelm Körner, later a.k.a. Guglielmo Körner (April 20, 1839 in Cassel – March 29, 1925 in Milan) was a German chemist.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
The Jilin chemical plant explosions were a series of explosions which occurred on November 13, 2005, in the No.101 Petrochemical Plant in Jilin City, Jilin Province, China, over the period of an hour.
1,3,5-cyclohexatriene, Benzeen, Benzen, Benzene Lawyers, Benzene Rings, Benzene derivative, Benzene derivatives, Benzene ring, Benzenes, Benzenic, Benzenic ring, Benzenoid ring, Coal naphtha, Cyclohexatriene, Ph-H, Phenyl hydride, Ring formula, ⌬, ⏣.