185 relations: African Union, Ahmed Belbachir Haskouri, Algeria, AllAfrica.com, Almohad Caliphate, Amnesty International, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Aousserd Province, Arab League, Arab-Berber, Arabic, Assa, Morocco, Assa-Zag Province, Atlantic Ocean, Autonomous administrative division, Bafour, Baker Plan, Ban Ki-moon, BBC News, Bechar Province, Bedouin, Belgium, Beni Ḥassān, Berber languages, Berbers, Berlin Conference, Bibliography of Western Sahara, Bicameralism, Bir Lehlou, Bou Craa, Boujdour Province, Camel train, Ceasefire, Christian Science Publishing Society, Clan, Constitutional monarchy, Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab, Decolonization, Defend International, Derechos Human Rights, Devolution, Districts of Western Sahara, Draa River, El País, Es Semara Province, European strategic intelligence and security center, European Union, Fiqh, Forced disappearance, Former members of the Polisario Front, ..., Francisco Franco, Free Zone (region), Freedom House, French language, Front Line Defenders, Gaetuli, Government in exile, Green March, Greenwich Mean Time, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Guerrilla warfare, Hans Corell, Hassan II of Morocco, Hassaniya Arabic, Health in Western Sahara, Houari Boumédiène, House of Representatives (Morocco), Houston Agreement, Human Rights Watch, Ian Black (journalist), Ibn Abi Zar, Ibn Khaldun, International Committee of the Red Cross, International community, International Court of Justice, International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion on Western Sahara, International Federation for Human Rights, ISO 3166-2:EH, James Baker, Javier Bardem, Kerr-McGee, Kofi Annan, Ksar, Laayoune, Laâyoune Province, Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, Lamtuna, Land mine, List of cities in Western Sahara, List of countries and dependencies by population density, List of rulers of Morocco, Madrid Accords, Maghreb, Maliki, Manhasset negotiations, Maqil, Marinid dynasty, Marrakesh, Mauritania, Military occupation, Mohammed VI of Morocco, Moors, Moroccan Western Sahara Wall, Morocco, Moulouya River, Muhammad, Music of Western Sahara, Muslim world, Nomad, North Africa, Norwegian Refugee Council, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Oued Ed-Dahab Province, Oum Dreyga, Outline of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Parliament of Morocco, Pedro Almodóvar, Penélope Cruz, People's Liberation Army Museum, Phosphate, Polisario Front, President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Ras Nouadhibou, Rawd al-Qirtas, Río de Oro, Reporters Without Borders, Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs, Russia, Saguia el-Hamra, Sahara, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sahrawi National Council, Sahrawi people, Sahrawi refugee camps, Scramble for Africa, Seabird Exploration, Second Sahrawi Intifada, Self-determination, Serer people, Settlement Plan, Smara, Society for Threatened Peoples, Sous, Southern Provinces, Sovereignty, Spain, Spanish language, Spanish protectorate in Morocco, State terrorism, Sunni Islam, Tafilalt, Taourirt, Morocco, Tarfaya, Tarfaya Province, Taroudant, Telecommunications in Western Sahara, Territorial dispute, The Christian Science Monitor, The Guardian, The Monkey and the Cat, Tifariti, Tindouf, Tindouf Province, Tiris al-Gharbiyya, Tombouctou Region, Toponymy, Total S.A., Transport in Western Sahara, Tuareg people, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara, United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1979, United States diplomatic cables leak, United States State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Urf, UTC±00:00, Western Sahara Autonomy Proposal, Western Sahara Resource Watch, World Organisation Against Torture, 1975 United Nations visiting mission to Spanish Sahara. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Ahmed Belbachir Haskouri (1908–1962) was a prominent member of the royal court of Morocco during the protectorate period.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
AllAfrica.com is a website that aggregates news produced primarily on the African continent about all areas of African life, politics, issues and culture.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Aousserd is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab-Berbers (العرب والبربر; Arabo-berbères) are an ethnic group native to Maghreb, a North African region along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Assa (آسا) is a small town in southern Morocco, in the Assa-Zag province of the Guelmim-Oued Noun region, about south-east of Guelmim and about south-west of Foum Zguid.
Assa-Zag is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Guelmim-Oued Noun.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Bafour or Bafur are a group of people inhabiting Mauritania and Western Sahara.
The Baker Plan (formally, Peace Plan for Self-Determination of the People of Western Sahara) is a United Nations initiative to grant self-determination to Western Sahara.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Béchar (ولاية بشار) is a province (wilaya) in Algeria, named after its capital Béchar.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Beni Ḥassan (Arabic: بني حسان "Children of Ḥassān") is a nomadic group of Arabian origin, one of the four sub-tribes of the Maqil Arab tribes who emigrated in the 11th century to the Maghreb with the Bani Hilal and Banu Sulaym tribes.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
This is a list of published books in English which according to reliable sources deal with the general subject of Western Sahara.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bir Lehlou (also transliterated Bir Lahlou, Bir Lehlu Arabic: بير لحلو; Berber: Bir Leḥlu, ⴱⵉⵔ ⵍⴻⵃⵍⵓ) is an oasis town in north-eastern Western Sahara, 236 km from Smara, near the Mauritanian border and east of the border wall, in Polisario Front-held territory.
Bou Craa (Bo Craa, Bu Craa, Boukra) (بوكراع, Berber: ⴱⵓⴽⵔⴰⵄ) is a town in Western Sahara, south-east of the main city of El Aaiún.
Boujdour is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Christian Science Publishing Society was established in 1898 by Mary Baker Eddy and is the publishing arm of The First Church of Christ, Scientist in Boston, Massachusetts.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab (الداخلة - وادي الذهب) is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Defend International (commonly known as DI) is a non-governmental organization focused on promoting and protecting human rights in the Middle East and North Africa region.
Derechos Human Rights or Derechos humanos is an International human rights organization with their primary focus being on Latin America.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
The daïras of Western Sahara are a subdivision of a wilaya; however, as Morocco is administrating much of Western Sahara, these are operational only at the Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf.
The Draa (Asif en Dra, ⴰⵙⵉⴼ ⴻⵏ ⴷⵔⴰ, wad dərʿa; also spelled Dra or Drâa, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Morocco's longest river, at.
El País (literally The Country) is the most read newspaper (231,140 printed copies) in Spain and the most circulated daily newspaper (180,765 circulation average), according to data certified by the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) and referring to the period of January 2017 to December 2017.
Es Semara is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
The European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center (ESISC) is an think tank dealing with issues related to terrorism and security.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Since the end of the 1980s, several members of POLISARIO have decided to discontinue their military or political activities for the Polisario Front.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
The Free Zone or Liberated Territories is a term used by the Polisario Front to describe the part of Western Sahara that lies to the east of the Moroccan Berm (the Moroccan border wall) and west and north of the borders with Algeria and Mauritania, respectively.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Front Line Defenders or The International Foundation for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders is an Irish-based human rights organisation founded in Dublin, Ireland in 2001 to protect human rights defenders at risk, i.e. those who work non-violently to uphold the human rights of others as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Gaetuli was the romanised name of an ancient Berber tribe inhabiting Getulia.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
The Green March was a strategic mass demonstration in November 1975, coordinated by the Moroccan government, to force Spain to hand over the disputed, autonomous semi-metropolitan province of Spanish Sahara to Morocco.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Guelmim-Oued Noun is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Hans Axel Valdemar Corell (born July 7, 1939) is a Swedish lawyer and diplomat.
King Hassan II (الحسن الثاني, MSA: (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, Darija: el-ḥasan ett(s)âni); 9 July 1929 – 23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He was the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909–1961), and his second wife, Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909–1992). Hassan was known to be one of the most severe rulers of Morocco.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
In Sahrawi ethnic groups, this concept of beauty is embodied through the practice of leblouh ("fattening").
Houari Boumédiène, also transcribed Boumediene, Boumedienne etc., (هواري بومدين; ALA-LC: Hawārī Bū-Madyan; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978) served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death on 27 December 1978.
The Moroccan Parliament has two chambers.
The Houston Agreement was the result of negotiations between the Polisario Front and Morocco on the organization of a referendum, which would constitute an expression of self-determination for the people of Western Sahara, possibly leading to full independence or integration within Morocco.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Ian Black is a British journalist and author focusing on international political issues.
Abū al-Hassan ‘Alī ibn Abī Zar‘ al-Fāsī (أبو الحسن علي بن أبي زرع الفاسي) (d. between 1310 and 1320) is the commonly presumed original author of the popular and influential medieval history of Morocco known as Rawd al-Qirtas, said to have been written at the instigation of Marinid Sultan Abu Sa'id Uthman II.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
One of the main functions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is to provide Advisory Opinions - non-binding legal interpretations admitted by United Nations organs.
The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.
ISO 3166-2:EH is the entry for Western Sahara in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) is an American attorney and political figure.
Javier Ángel Encinas Bardem (born 1 March 1969) is a Spanish actor.
The Kerr-McGee Corporation, founded in 1929, was an American energy company involved in oil exploration, production of crude oil, natural gas, perchlorate and uranium mining and milling in various countries.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
Ksar, plural ksour (Maghrebi Arabic: قصر qṣer, plural qṣur; Berber: aghrem or ighrem, plural: igherman) is the North African term for "Berber castle", possibly loaned from Latin castrum.
Laayoune (Maghrebi Arabic: لعيون Al-ʿAyyūn/El-Aiun,; El Aaiún; Laâyoune; Berber: ⵍⵄⵢⵓⵏ, Leɛyun; Literary Arabic: العيون, literally "The Springs") is the largest city of the disputed territory of Western Sahara currently administered by Morocco.
Laâyoune (Arabic:إقليم العيون) is a delineated province in the north-west of Moroccan economic region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, which is situated within the northern part of the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra is one of the twelve regions of Morocco.
The Lamtuna are a nomadic Berber tribe belonging to the Sanhaja (Zenaga) confederation, who traditionally inhabited areas from Sous to Adrar Plateau.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The following are cities in Western Sahara, listed by population.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This is the list of rulers of Morocco, since the establishment of the first Moroccan state in 789.
The Madrid Accords, also called Madrid Agreement or Madrid Pact, was a treaty between Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania to end the Spanish presence in the territory of Spanish Sahara, which was until the Madrid Accords' inception a Spanish province and former colony.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
The Manhasset negotiations (also known as Manhasset I, II, III and IV) were a series of talks that took place in four rounds in 2007-2008 at Manhasset, New York between the Moroccan government and the representatives of the Saharawi liberation movement, the Polisario Front to resolve the Western Sahara conflict.
The Maqil (المعقل) were an Arabian nomadic tribe that emigrated to the Maghreb region, with the Banu Hillal and Banu Sulaym tribes, in the 11th century.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
Mohammed VI (محمد السادس,; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
The Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is an approximately long structure, mostly a sand wall (or "berm"), running through Western Sahara and the southwestern portion of Morocco.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Moulouya River (Berber: iɣẓer en Melwect) is a 520 kilometers long river in Morocco.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Western Sahara has an established music tradition.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC, Flyktninghjelpen) is a humanitarian, non-governmental organisation that protects the rights of people affected by displacement.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
Oued Ed-Dahab is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab, in the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
Oum Dreyga is a town in the disputed area of Western Sahara.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic: Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) – partially recognised state that claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony.
The Parliament of Morocco is the bicameral legislature located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco.
Pedro Almodóvar Caballero (born 25 September 1949), credited professionally as Pedro Almodóvar, is a Spanish filmmaker, director, screenwriter, producer, and former actor.
Penélope Cruz Sánchez (born 28 April 1974) is a Spanish actress and model.
The Museum of the Sahrawi people's Liberation Army is located in the Sahrawi refugee camps, in the southwest of Algeria.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or simply POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro ("Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro" الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب Al-Jabhat Al-Sha'abiyah Li-Tahrir Saqiya Al-Hamra'a wa Wadi Al-Dhahab, Front populaire de Libération de la Seguia el Hamra et du Rivière d'or), is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara.
The President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is the head of state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), a government in exile based in the Sahrawi refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria.
Ras Nouadhibou (رأس نواذيبو) is a 40-mile peninsula or headland divided between Mauritania and Western Sahara on the African coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
Rawḍ al-Qirṭās (روض القرطاس) is a history of Morocco written in Arabic in the 1326 C.E. It includes many details about the wider Moroccan empire in Iberian Peninsula and Algeria.
Río de Oro (Spanish for "Gold River";, wādī-að-ðahab, often transliterated as Oued Edhahab) was, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969; it had been taken as a Spanish colonial possession in the late 19th century.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
The Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (المجلس الملكي الاستشاري للشؤون الصحراوية) (CORCAS, from the French abbreviation of Conseil royal consultatif pour les affaires sahariennes) is an advisory committee to the Moroccan government on the Western Sahara.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saguia el-Hamra (Saguía el Hamra, translit) was, with Río de Oro, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahrawi Republic, officially the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR; also romanized with Saharawi; República Árabe Saharaui Democrática; الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية), is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony and later province.
The Sahrawi National Council (SNC) or Sahrawi Parliament is the legislature of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.
The Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria, are a collection of refugee camps set up in the Tindouf Province, Algeria in 1975-76 for Sahrawi refugees fleeing from Moroccan forces, who advanced through Western Sahara during the Western Sahara War.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
SeaBird Exploration is a global provider of marine 2D and 3D seismic data and associated products and services to the oil and gas industry.
The Independence Intifada or the Second Sahrawi Intifada (intifada is Arabic for "uprising") and also May Intifada is a Sahrawi activist term for a series of disturbances, demonstrations and riots that broke out in May 2005 in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara and south of Morocco.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The Serer people are a West African ethnoreligious group.
The Settlement Plan was an agreement between the ethnically Saharawi Polisario Front and Morocco on the organization of a referendum, which would constitute an expression of self-determination for the people of Western Sahara, leading either to full independence, or integration with the Kingdom of Morocco.
Smara (السمارة as-Samāra; also romanized Semara) is a city in the Moroccan-controlled part of Western Sahara, with a population of 57,035 recorded in the 2014 Moroccan census.
The Society for Threatened Peoples International STPI (Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker-International, GfbV-International) is an international NGO and human rights organization with its headquarters in Göttingen, Germany.
The Sous region (also spelt Sus, Suss, Souss or Sousse) (Berber: ⵙⵓⵙ, Sus) is a region in mid-southern Morocco.
The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the terms used by the Moroccan government for Western Sahara.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Tafilalt or Tafilet (Berber: Tafilalt, ⵜⴰⴼⵉⵍⴰⵍⵜ; تافيلالت), historically Sijilmasa, is a region and the largest oasis in Morocco.
Taourirt (Berber: Tawrirt, ⵜⴰⵡⵔⵉⵔⵜ; تاوريرت) is a town in Taourirt Province in the northern part of Morocco.
Tarfaya (طرفاية - Ṭarfāya; ⵟⴰⵔⴼⴰⵢⴰ) is a town, previously also known as Villa Bens during the Spanish period, located in the Tarfaya Province of the Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra region of southwestern Morocco.
Tarfaya is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, which includes the southwestern part of the territory of Morocco as of before 1975, and the northern part of the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
Taroudant (تارودانت) is a city in the Sous Valley in southern Morocco.
Telecommunications in Western Sahara include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Monkey and the Cat is best known as a fable adapted by Jean de La Fontaine under the title Le Singe et le Chat that appeared in the second collection of his Fables in 1679 (IX.17).
Tifariti (Berber: Tifariti, تيفاريتي) is an oasis town located in north-eastern Western Sahara, east of the Moroccan Berm, from Smara and north of the Mauritanian border.
Tindouf (Berber: Tinduf, تندوف) is the main town, and a commune in Tindouf Province, Algeria, close to the Mauritanian, Western Saharan and Moroccan borders.The commune has population of around 160,000 but the census and population estimates do not count the Sahrawi refugees making the population as of the 2008 census 45,966, up from 25,266 in 1998, and an annual population growth rate of 6.3%.
Tindouf, also written Tinduf (ولاية تندوف), is the westernmost province of Algeria, having a population of 58,193 as of the 2008 census (not including the Sahrawi refugees at the Sahrawi refugee camps).
Tiris al-Gharbiyya (تيرس الغربية, "Western Tiris") was the name for the area of Western Sahara under Mauritanian control between 1975 and 1979.
Tombouctou Region is one of the administrative regions of Mali.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Total S.A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.
Transport in Western Sahara is very limited by sea, road and air with camels being the primary means of transport in the desert area.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process.
The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية; Mission des Nations Unies pour l'Organisation d'un Référendum au Sahara Occidental; Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental; MINURSO) is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front (representing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara).
Established on 13 February 1946, the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs provides a unified central legal service for the Secretariat and the principal and other organs of the United Nations and contributes to the progressive development and codification of international public and trade law.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1979, adopted unanimously on April 27, 2011, after reaffirming all previous resolutions on the Western Sahara including 1754 (2007), 1783 (2007), 1813 (2008), 1871 (2009) and 1920 (2010), the Council discussed prospects for a settlement of the dispute and extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) until April 30, 2012.
The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.
"Foreign Terrorist Organization" (FTO) is a designation for non-United States-based organizations deemed by the United States Secretary of State, in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (INA), to be involved in what US authorities define as terrorist activities.
ʿUrf (العرف) is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the custom, or 'knowledge', of a given society.
UTC±00:00 is the following time.
The Western Sahara Autonomy Proposal is an initiative, proposed by Morocco in 2006 as a possible solution to the Western Sahara conflict.
Western Sahara Resource Watch (WSRW) is a network organisation working on the natural resource situation in Western Sahara.
The World Organisation Against Torture (Organisation Mondiale Contre la Torture; OMCT) is the world’s largest coalition of non-governmental organisations fighting against arbitrary detention, torture, summary and extrajudicial executions, forced disappearances and other forms of violence.
To assist in the decolonization process of the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara), a colony in North Africa, the United Nations General Assembly in 1975 dispatched a visiting mission to the territory and the surrounding countries, in accordance with its resolution 3292 (December 13, 1974).
Administrative divisions of Western Sahara, Administrative divisions of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, As-Ṣaḥrā' al-Gharbīyah, ISO 3166-1:EH, Provinces of Western Sahara, Regions of Western Sahara, Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro, Sahara Occidental, Subdivisions of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Subdivisions of Western Sahara, Subdivisions of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, West Sahara, Western Sahara (region), Western Saharan people, Western sahara, الصحراء الغربية.