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Mauritania

Index Mauritania

Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa. [1]

201 relations: Adrar Plateau, Adrar Region, Africa, Ahmed Ould Daddah, Akjoujt, Aleg, Algeria, Almoravid dynasty, Amnesty International, Annexation, Arab nationalism, Arab Spring, Arab-Berber, Arabic, Arabization, Arabs, Arafat, Mauritania, Assaba Region, Associated Press, Atar, Mauritania, Atlantic Ocean, Authoritarianism, Ayoun el Atrous, Bafour, Bakel, Senegal, Bambara people, BBC News, Beni Ḥassān, Berber languages, Berbers, Bolivia, Brakna Region, Capital punishment, Char Bouba war, Chinguetti oil field, CNN, Colonel, Colony, Constitution of Mauritania, Contemporary slavery, Coup d'état, Dakar, Dakhlet Nouadhibou Region, Dar-Naim, Decentralization, Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, Demographics of Mauritania, Departments of Mauritania, DNA, Egypt, ..., Ely Ould Mohamed Vall, Emirate, Emirate of Trarza, English language, Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Female genital mutilation, Foreign relations of Mauritania, Fort Saganne, Franco-Trarzan War of 1825, French colonial empire, French language, French West Africa, Fula language, Fula people, Ghana Empire, Gorgol Region, Greater Mauritania, Greenwich Mean Time, Guidimaka Region, Gulf War, Haratin, Hassane, Hassaniya Arabic, History of Western Sahara, Hodh Ech Chargui Region, Hodh El Gharbi Region, Human rights in Mauritania, Human trafficking in Mauritania, Inchiri Region, Independence, Index of Mauritania-related articles, International Court of Justice, International Monetary Fund, Iraq, Islam in Mauritania, Islamic republic, Israel, Jihad, Kaédi, Kediet ej Jill, Kiffa, LGBT rights in Mauritania, Life expectancy, List of heads of state of Mauritania, List of political parties in Mauritania, List of Prime Ministers of Mauritania, Ma al-'Aynayn, Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, Maghreb, Mali, Maqil, Marabout, Mauretania, Mauritania–Senegal Border War, Mauritanian ouguiya, Mauritanian Parliament, Mauritanian People's Party, Mauritanian presidential election, 2003, Mauritanian presidential election, 2009, Messaoud Ould Boulkheir, Military Committee for National Recovery, Military Committee for National Salvation, Military dictatorship, Modern Standard Arabic, Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla, Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, Moktar Ould Daddah, Moors, Morocco, Multi-party system, Mustafa Ould Salek, National anthem of Mauritania, National Assembly (Mauritania), Néma, Niger–Congo languages, Nomad, Nouadhibou, Nouakchott, Nouakchott-Nord Region, Nouakchott-Ouest Region, Nouakchott-Sud Region, One-party state, Outline of Mauritania, Petroleum, Polisario Front, Port, Protectorate, Pulaar language, Referendum, Regional power, Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal, Richat Structure, Roman Catholic Diocese of Nouakchott, Rosso, Sahara, Sahel drought, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sahrawi people, Saint-Louis, Senegal, Saudi Arabia, Sélibaby, Semi-presidential system, Senate, Senegal, Senegal River, Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi, Slavery in Africa, Slavery in contemporary Africa, Slavery in Mauritania, Soninke language, Soninke people, State-owned enterprise, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sufism, Sunni Islam, Tagant Region, Taoudeni basin, Tehran Times, Telephone numbers in Mauritania, Tevragh-Zeina, The Fifth Element, The New York Times, Tidjikja, Tijaniyyah, Timbuktu (2014 film), Tiris al-Gharbiyya, Tiris Zemmour Region, Trarza Region, Unitary state, University of Nouakchott, Varieties of Arabic, Walk Free Foundation, West Africa, Western Sahara, Wilayah, Winged Migration, Wolof language, Wolof people, World Bank, Xavier Coppolani, Yahya Ould Ahmed El Waghef, Yahya Ould Hademine, Yemen, Zouérat, .mr, 14th parallel north, 17th meridian west, 2008 Mauritanian coup d'état, 2011–12 Mauritanian protests, 26th parallel north, 5th meridian west. Expand index (151 more) »

Adrar Plateau

The Adrar (Berber:, lit. mountain) is a highland natural and historical region of the Sahara Desert in northern Mauritania.

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Adrar Region

Adrar (ولاية آدرار) is a large administrative region in Mauritania, named for the Adrar Plateau.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Ahmed Ould Daddah

Ahmed Ould Daddah (أحمد ولد داده, born 7 August 1942Marwane ben Yahmed,, Jeuneafrique.com, February 18, 2007.) is a Mauritanian economist, politician and civil servant.

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Akjoujt

Akjoujt (Arabic: أكجوجت) is a small city in western Mauritania.

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Aleg

Aleg is the capital of the Brakna Region, Mauritania.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Almoravid dynasty

The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Annexation

Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.

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Arab nationalism

Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.

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Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.

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Arab-Berber

Arab-Berbers (العرب والبربر; Arabo-berbères) are an ethnic group native to Maghreb, a North African region along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabization

Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Arafat, Mauritania

Arafat is a suburb of Nouakchott and urban commune in western Mauritania.

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Assaba Region

Assaba (ولاية العصابة) is a region in southern Mauritania, covering an area of 36,600 square km.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Atar, Mauritania

Atar (أطار, Berber for mountain) is a town in northwestern Mauritania, the capital of the Adrar Region and the main settlement on the Adrar Plateau.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Ayoun el Atrous

Ayoun al Atrous (also known as Aioun el Atrouss) (عيون العتروس) is a town in southern Mauritania.

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Bafour

The Bafour or Bafur are a group of people inhabiting Mauritania and Western Sahara.

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Bakel, Senegal

Bakel is a town of approximately 15,000 inhabitants located in the eastern part of Senegal, West Africa.

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Bambara people

The Bambara (Bamana or Banmana) are a Mandé ethnic group native to much of West Africa, primarily southern Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso and Senegal.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beni Ḥassān

Beni Ḥassan (Arabic: بني حسان "Children of Ḥassān") is a nomadic group of Arabian origin, one of the four sub-tribes of the Maqil Arab tribes who emigrated in the 11th century to the Maghreb with the Bani Hilal and Banu Sulaym tribes.

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Berbers

Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Brakna Region

Brakna (ولاية البراكنة) is a region in south-west Mauritania.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Char Bouba war

The Char Bouba war (variously transliterated as Sharr Bubba, Shar Buba, etc.), or the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War, took place between 1644-74 in the tribal areas of what is today Mauritania and Western Sahara.

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Chinguetti oil field

The Chinguetti oilfield is an oil field located off the Mauritanian coast in 800 m water depth.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Colonel

Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.

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Colony

In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.

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Constitution of Mauritania

The current Constitution of Mauritania was adopted on 12 July 1991.

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Contemporary slavery

Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery, refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Dakar

Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.

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Dakhlet Nouadhibou Region

Dakhlet Nouadhibou Region (ولاية داخلت نواذيبو, Wilayat Dakhlet Nouadhibou, "Interior Nouadhibou Region") is an administrative division of Mauritania.

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Dar-Naim

Dar-Naim is a suburb of Nouakchott and urban commune in western Mauritania.

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Decentralization

Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.

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Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples

The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, also known as the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514, was a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly during its fifteenth session, that affirmed that the resolution also provided for the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.

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Demographics of Mauritania

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Mauritania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Departments of Mauritania

The Regions of Mauritania are subdivided into 44 departments.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Ely Ould Mohamed Vall

Colonel Ely Ould Mohamed Vall (إعلي ولد محمد فال I‘lī Wald Muḥammad Fāl; 1953 – 5 May 2017) was a Mauritanian political and military figure.

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Emirate

An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.

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Emirate of Trarza

The Emirate of Trarza was a precolonial state in what is today southwest Mauritania.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Fahd of Saudi Arabia

Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود; 16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005.

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Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

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Foreign relations of Mauritania

The foreign relations of The Islamic Republic of Mauritania have been dominated since independence by the issues of the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara or Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) as well as recognition of its independence by its neighbours, particularly Morocco.

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Fort Saganne

Fort Saganne is a 1984 French war film directed by Alain Corneau and starring Gérard Depardieu, Philippe Noiret, Catherine Deneuve, and Sophie Marceau.

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Franco-Trarzan War of 1825

The Franco-Trarzan War of 1825 was a conflict between the forces of the new amir of Trarza, Muhammad al Habib, and France, ruled at the time by Charles X and the ultra comte de Villèle.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French West Africa

French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.

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Fula language

Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.

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Fula people

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.

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Ghana Empire

The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.

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Gorgol Region

Gorgol (ولاية كركول) is a region in southern Mauritania.

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Greater Mauritania

"Greater Mauritania" is a term for the Mauritanian irredentist claim to Western Sahara, and possibly other Moorish or Sahrawi-populated areas of the western Sahara desert.

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Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.

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Guidimaka Region

Guidimaka (ولاية كيدي ماغة) is the southern-most region of Mauritania.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Haratin

Haratin, also referred to as Harratins, Haratine or Hartani, are oasis-dwellers in the Sahara, especially in the Maghreb.

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Hassane

The Hassane is a name for the traditionally dominant warrior tribes of the Sahrawi-Moorish areas of present-day Mauritania, southern Morocco and Western Sahara.

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Hassaniya Arabic

Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.

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History of Western Sahara

The history of Western Sahara can be traced back to the times of Carthaginian explorer Hanno the Navigator in the 5th century BC.

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Hodh Ech Chargui Region

Hodh Ech Chargui (ولاية الحوض الشرقي, "Eastern Basin Region") is a large region in eastern Mauritania, with an area of 182,700 km2.

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Hodh El Gharbi Region

Hodh El Gharbi (ولاية الحوض الغربي, "Western Basin Region") is a region in southern Mauritania, with an area of 53,400 square km.

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Human rights in Mauritania

Human rights in Mauritania is generally seen as poor according to international observers, including Freedom House, the United States Department of State, and Amnesty International.

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Human trafficking in Mauritania

Human trafficking in Mauritania is considered to be a controversial human rights issue.

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Inchiri Region

Inchiri (ولاية إينشيري) is a region in western Mauritania.

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Independence

Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.

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Index of Mauritania-related articles

Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Mauritania include.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islam in Mauritania

Virtually all Mauritanians are Sunni Muslims.

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Islamic republic

An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jihad

Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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Kaédi

Kaédi (كيهيدي) is the largest city and administrative center of the Gorgol Region of Southern Mauritania.

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Kediet ej Jill

Kediet ej Jill is a mountain in Tiris Zemmour, Mauritania, with the city of Zouérat on its east and Fderick at west.

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Kiffa

Kiffa is a large town in the far south of Mauritania, and the name of an administrative area within the local Assaba Region.

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LGBT rights in Mauritania

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Mauritania face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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List of heads of state of Mauritania

This is a list of heads of state of Mauritania since the country gained independence from France in 1960 to the present day.

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List of political parties in Mauritania

This article lists political parties in Mauritania.

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List of Prime Ministers of Mauritania

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Mauritania since the formation of the post of Prime Minister of Mauritania in 1960 to the present day.

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Ma al-'Aynayn

Mohamed Mustafa Ma al-'Aynayn (c. 1830–31 in Oualata, present-day Mauritania – 1910 in Tiznit, Morocco; complete name Mohamad Mustafa ben Mohamad Fadel Maa al-'Aynayn ash-Shanguiti محمد مصطفى بن محمد فاضل ماء العينين الشنكيطي) was a Saharan Moorish religious and political leader who fought French and Spanish colonization in North Africa.

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Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya

Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (معاوية ولد سيد أحمد الطايع,, also transliterated as Mu'awiya walad Sayyidi Ahmad Taya) (born November 28, 1941) is a Mauritanian military officer who served as the president of Mauritania from 1984 to 2005.

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Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Maqil

The Maqil (المعقل) were an Arabian nomadic tribe that emigrated to the Maghreb region, with the Banu Hillal and Banu Sulaym tribes, in the 11th century.

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Marabout

A marabout (lit) is a Muslim religious leader and teacher in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb.

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Mauretania

Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.

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Mauritania–Senegal Border War

The Mauritania–Senegal Border War was a conflict fought between the West African countries of Mauritania and Senegal during 1989–1991.

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Mauritanian ouguiya

The ouguiya (sign: UM; أوقية; currency code: MRU), also spelled "ougiya", is the currency of Mauritania.

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Mauritanian Parliament

The Mauritanian Parliament (Barlamane/Parlement) was made up, until 2017, of two chambers.

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Mauritanian People's Party

Mauritanian People's Party (PPM, French Parti du peuple mauritanien; Arabic: حزب الشعب الموريتاني Hizb Al-Sha'ab Al-Muritaniy) was the sole legal party of Mauritania from 1961 to 1978.

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Mauritanian presidential election, 2003

Presidential elections were held in Mauritania on 7 November 2003.

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Mauritanian presidential election, 2009

A presidential election was held in Mauritania on 18 July 2009.

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Messaoud Ould Boulkheir

Messaoud Ould Boulkheir (مسعود ولد بو الخير, born 1943, Fara El Kitane فرع الكتان.) is among the first Haratine to become a political leader in Mauritania.

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Military Committee for National Recovery

The Military Committee for National Recovery (French, Comité Militaire de Redressement National, CMRN) was a short-lived military government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania after the coup d'état that removed long-time President Mukthar Ould Daddah on July 10, 1978, until a second coup on April 6, 1979.

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Military Committee for National Salvation

The Military Committee for National Salvation (French, Comité Militaire de Salut National, CMSN) was a military government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania that took power in 1979.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla

Ret.

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Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz

Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz (محمد ولد عبد العزيز Muḥammad Wald ‘Abd al-‘Azīz; born 20 December 1956) is the President of Mauritania, in office since 2009.

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Moktar Ould Daddah

Moktar Ould Daddah (مختار ولد داداه Mukhtār Wald Dāddāh; December 25, 1924 – October 14, 2003) was the President of Mauritania from 1960, when his country gained its independence from France, to 1978, when he was deposed in a military coup d'etat.

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Moors

The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Multi-party system

A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.

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Mustafa Ould Salek

Col. Mustafa Ould Salek (المصطفى ولد محمد السالك; ‎ 1936 – 18 December 2012) was the President of Mauritania from 1978 through 1979.

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National anthem of Mauritania

The current national anthem of Mauritania (نشيد وطني موريتاني), also known by its incipit "Bilada-l ubati-l hudati-l kiram", was adopted on 16 November 2017 and was composed by Rageh Daoud.

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National Assembly (Mauritania)

The National Assembly (الجمعية الوطنية; Assemblée Nationale) is the legislative house of Parliament of Mauritania.

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Néma

Néma is a town in southeastern Mauritania, close to the border with Mali.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Nouadhibou

Nouadhibou (نواذيبو; formerly Port-Étienne) is the second largest city in Mauritania and serves as a major commercial centre.

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Nouakchott

Nouakchott (نواكشوط, originally derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ, "place of the winds") page 273.

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Nouakchott-Nord Region

Nouakchott-Nord (نواكشوط الشمالية) is a region in Mauritania.

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Nouakchott-Ouest Region

Nouakchott-Ouest (نواكشوط الغربية) is a region in Mauritania.

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Nouakchott-Sud Region

Nouakchott-Sud (South Nouakchott, نواكشوط الجنوبية) is a region in Mauritania.

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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Outline of Mauritania

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Mauritania: Mauritania – sovereign country located in West Africa.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Polisario Front

The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or simply POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro ("Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro" الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب Al-Jabhat Al-Sha'abiyah Li-Tahrir Saqiya Al-Hamra'a wa Wadi Al-Dhahab, Front populaire de Libération de la Seguia el Hamra et du Rivière d'or), is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara.

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Port

A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

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Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Pulaar language

Pulaar is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by the Fula and Toucouleur peoples in the Senegal River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro and further south and east.

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Referendum

A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.

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Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.

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Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal

The Democratic Republican Party for Renewal (Parti Républicain Démocratique pour le Renouvellement - PRDR) is a political party in Mauritania.

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Richat Structure

The Richat Structure, also known as the Eye of the Sahara and Guelb er Richat, is a prominent circular feature in the Sahara near Ouadane, west–central Mauritania.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Nouakchott

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Nouakchott is a Catholic diocese situated in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

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Rosso

Rosso is the major city of south-western Mauritania and capital of Trarza region.

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Sahara

The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Sahel drought

The Sahel has long experienced a series of historic droughts, dating back to at least the 17th century.

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Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

The Sahrawi Republic, officially the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR; also romanized with Saharawi; República Árabe Saharaui Democrática; الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية), is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony and later province.

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Sahrawi people

The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.

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Saint-Louis, Senegal

Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sélibaby

Sélibaby is a capital town and department of the Guidimaka Region, Mauritania.

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Semi-presidential system

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.

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Senate

A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Senegal River

The Senegal River (نهر السنغال, Fleuve Sénégal) is a long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania.

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Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi

Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi (سيدي محمد ولد الشيخ عبد الله; born 1938, Jeuneafrique.com, February 25, 2007.) is a Mauritanian politician who was President of Mauritania from 2007 to 2008.

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Slavery in Africa

Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.

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Slavery in contemporary Africa

The continent of Africa is one of the regions most rife with contemporary slavery.

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Slavery in Mauritania

Slavery has been called "deeply rooted" in the structure of the northwestern African country of Mauritania, and "closely tied" to the ethnic composition of the country.

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Soninke language

The Soninke language (Soninke: Sooninkanxanne) is a Mande language spoken by the Soninke people of Africa.

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Soninke people

The Soninke, also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or Serahuli, are a West African ethnic group found in eastern Senegal and its capital Dakar, northwestern Mali and Foute Djalon in Guinea, and southern Mauritania.

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State-owned enterprise

A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Tagant Region

Tagant (ولاية تكانت) is a region in south-central Mauritania named for the Tagant Plateau.

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Taoudeni basin

The Taoudeni Basin is a major geological formation in West Africa named after the Taoudenni village in northern Mali.

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Tehran Times

Tehran Times began in 1979 as a foreign-language newspaper to air the voice of the Islamic Revolution.

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Telephone numbers in Mauritania

Country Code: +222 International Call Prefix: 00 Trunk Prefix: none.

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Tevragh-Zeina

Tevragh-Zeina is a suburb of Nouakchott and urban commune in western Mauritania.

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The Fifth Element

The Fifth Element (Le Cinquième Élément) is a 1997 French science-fiction action film directed and co-written by Luc Besson. It stars Bruce Willis, Gary Oldman and Milla Jovovich. Primarily set in the 23rd century, the film's central plot involves the survival of planet Earth, which becomes the responsibility of Korben Dallas (Willis), a taxicab driver and former special forces major, after a young woman (Jovovich) falls into his cab. Dallas joins forces with her to recover four mystical stones essential for the defence of Earth against an impending attack by a malevolent cosmic entity. Besson started writing the story that became The Fifth Element when he was 16 years old; he was 38 when the film opened in cinemas. Besson wanted to shoot the film in France, but suitable locations could not be found; filming took place instead in London and Mauritania. Comics writers Jean "Moebius" Giraud and Jean-Claude Mézières, whose comics provided inspiration for parts of the film, were hired for production design. Costume design was by Jean-Paul Gaultier. The Fifth Element received mainly positive reviews, although it tended to polarize critics. It has been called both the best and worst summer blockbuster of all time. The film was a financial success, earning more than $263 million at the box office on a $90 million budget. At the time of its release it was the most expensive European film ever made, and it remained the highest-grossing French film at the international box office until the release of The Intouchables in 2011.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tidjikja

Tidjikja is the capital of the Tagant region of central Mauritania, lying on the Tagant plateau.

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Tijaniyyah

The Tijāniyyah (The Tijānī Path) is a sufi tariqa (order, path) within Sunni Islam, originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, Niger, Chad, Ghana, Northern and South-western Nigeria and some part of Sudan.

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Timbuktu (2014 film)

Timbuktu is a 2014 French-Mauritanian drama film directed by Abderrahmane Sissako.

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Tiris al-Gharbiyya

Tiris al-Gharbiyya (تيرس الغربية, "Western Tiris") was the name for the area of Western Sahara under Mauritanian control between 1975 and 1979.

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Tiris Zemmour Region

Tiris Zemmour (ولاية تيرس زمور) is the northern-most region of Mauritania.

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Trarza Region

Trarza (ولاية الترارزة) is a region in southwest Mauritania.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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University of Nouakchott

The University of Nouakchott (Université de Nouakchott, جامعة نواكشوط) is a university in the city of Nouakchott, capital of Mauritania.

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Varieties of Arabic

There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.

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Walk Free Foundation

The Walk Free Foundation is an organization attempting to end contemporary slavery and human trafficking.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Western Sahara

Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

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Wilayah

A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".

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Winged Migration

Winged Migration (Le Peuple Migrateur, also known as The Travelling Birds in some UK releases, or The Travelling Birds: An Adventure in Flight in Australia) is a 2001 documentary film directed by Jacques Cluzaud, Michel Debats and Jacques Perrin, who was also one of the writers and narrators, showcasing the immense journeys routinely made by birds during their migrations.

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Wolof language

Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.

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Wolof people

The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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Xavier Coppolani

Xavier Coppolani (1866-1905), was a French military and colonial leader, who was instrumental in the colonial occupation and creation of modern-day Mauritania.

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Yahya Ould Ahmed El Waghef

Yahya Ould Ahmed El Waghef (يحيى ولد أحمد الواقف; born 1960 as Prime Minister, Agence Mauritanienne d'Information. Retrieved 6 July 2008.) is a Mauritanian politician.

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Yahya Ould Hademine

Yahya Ould Hademine (يحي ولد حدمين) (born December 31, 1953) is a Mauritanian political figure and engineer.

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Yemen

Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zouérat

Zouérat (الزويرات) is the largest town in northern Mauritania and the capital of Tiris Zemmour region, with an approximate population of 44,649 (2013).

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.mr

.mr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mauritania.

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14th parallel north

The 14th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 14 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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17th meridian west

The meridian 17° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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2008 Mauritanian coup d'état

A coup d'état took place in Mauritania on August 6, 2008 when Mauritanian President Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi was ousted from power by a group of high-ranking generals he had dismissed from office earlier that day.

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2011–12 Mauritanian protests

The 2011–12 Mauritanian protests are a series of protests in Mauritania that started in January 2011, concurrent with the Arab Spring, and continued into 2012.

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26th parallel north

The 26th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 26 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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5th meridian west

The meridian 5° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Administrative divisions of Mauritania, Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Islāmiyyah al-Mūrītāniyyah, Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah, Boumdeit, Boumdeït, Cinema of Mauritania, Culture of Mauritania, Films shot in Mauritania, Gànnaar, ISO 3166-1:MR, Islamic Republic of Mauritania, List of films shot in Mauritania, Mauritanians, Mauritanie, Moritania, Muritania, Muritaniyah, Murutaane, Mūrītāniyā, Republique islamique de Mauritanie, République islamique de Mauritanie, The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية, موريتانيا.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mauritania

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