315 relations: Absolute monarchy, Abyssal plain, Aethiopia, Aethiopian Sea, Africa, African Plate, Age of Discovery, Agulhas Bank, Agulhas Current, Albatross, Alexandre Exquemelin, American Civil War, American eel, American plaice, Americas, Ancient Greece, Antarctic bottom water, Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctic Intermediate Water, Antarctica, Aquatic sill, Arctic Ocean, Arctogadus glacialis, Atlantic cod, Atlantic halibut, Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, Atlantic slave trade, Atlantis, Atlas, Atlas (mythology), Atlas Mountains, Auk, Autosome, Azores Triple Junction, Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault, Þingvellir, Bahama Banks, Baltic Sea, Barbary pirates, Barents Sea, Bathymetry, Bay of Fundy, Behavioral modernity, Benguela Current, Benue Trough, Beringia, Black Sea, Blake Plateau, Blombos Cave, Blue whiting, ..., Bouvet Island, Cape Agulhas, Cape Bojador, Cape Cod, Cape Floristic Region, Cape Fold Belt, Cape Hatteras, Cape of Good Hope, Capelin, Carbonate platform, Caribbean Plate, Caribbean Sea, Carpathian Mountains, Central America, Central American Seaway, Central Atlantic magmatic province, Challenger expedition, Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone, Chlorofluorocarbon, Christopher Columbus, Clovis culture, Collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery, Columbia University, Continental shelf, Convergent boundary, Coriolis force, Cunene horse mackerel, Davis Strait, Dead zone (ecology), Denmark Strait, Dike (geology), Dike swarm, Divergent boundary, Dogger Bank, Doggerland, Drake Passage, Drift netting, Earth, Earth's magnetic field, Eastern oyster, Eddy (fluid dynamics), Ekman layer, Enkapune Ya Muto, Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, Equatorial Counter Current, Equilibrium level, Ertebølle culture, Eurasia, Eurasian Basin, Eurasian Plate, European colonization of the Americas, European eel, Extinction event, Eyjafjallajökull, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, Faroe Islands, Fernando de Noronha, Fertilizer, Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone, Georges Bank, German Meteor expedition, Gibraltar Arc, Global warming, Gough and Inaccessible Islands, Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Gravel, Great American Interchange, Greek mythology, Greenland, Greenland halibut, Greenland Sea, Grenadiers (fish), Grouper, Gulf menhaden, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Stream, Guyot, Haddock, Hake, Haliotis midae, Henry Mainwaring, Herodotus, Histories (Herodotus), Homo sapiens, Horse mackerel, Human evolution, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Hypoxia (environmental), Iapetus Ocean, Iberian Peninsula, Iceberg, Iceland, Iceland hotspot, Iliad, Illex argentinus, Incineration, Indian Ocean, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Industrial Revolution, International Hydrographic Organization, International waters, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Inuit, Irish Sea, John Cabot, Laacher See, Labrador Sea, Labrador Sea Water, Lake Maracaibo, Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory, Landnámabók, Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture, Large igneous province, Last Glacial Maximum, Laurentian fan, Laurentide Ice Sheet, List of countries and territories bordering the Atlantic Ocean, List of epidemics, List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, List of ports and harbours of the Atlantic Ocean, List of seas, Little Ice Age, Lobster, Lutjanidae, Mackerel, Mafic, Magdalenian, Magmatism, Manatee, Manganese nodule, Marine debris, Marine isotope stage, Marine mammal, Marine pollution, Mediterranean Sea, Merluccius capensis, Merluccius paradoxus, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Mid-ocean ridge, Midden, Milwaukee Deep, Mitochondrial DNA, Mixed layer, Nephrops norvegicus, New World, Newfoundland (island), Norse colonization of North America, North American Plate, North Atlantic Current, North Atlantic Deep Water, North Atlantic Gyre, North Atlantic oscillation, North Equatorial Current, North Pole, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Nuclear weapons testing, Ocean, Ocean gyre, Oceanic basin, Oceanic plateau, Oceanic trench, Oceanus, Odyssey, Oil spill, Old World, Overfishing, Pacific Ocean, Pandalus borealis, Pangaea, Pannonian Basin, Panthalassa, Paraná and Etendeka traps, Passive margin, Paul S. Martin, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Pelagic fish, Petrel, Pillars of Hercules, Pillow lava, Pinniped, Piracy in the Atlantic World, Placer deposit, Plate tectonics, Pollachius virens, Porcupine Bank, Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, Precipitation, Puerto Rico Trench, Recent African origin of modern humans, Redfish, Rift valley, Rio Grande Rise, Rocas Atoll, Romanche Trench, Round sardinella, Salinity, Sand, Sand eel, Sardinella brasiliensis, Sardinops, Sargassum, Sargassum fish, Scotia Arc, Scotia Sea, Scotian Shelf, Sea ice, Seafloor spreading, Seamount, Sebastes, Sedimentary rock, Settlement of the Americas, Seven Seas, Shutdown of thermohaline circulation, Sicily, Slavery in Brazil, Slavery in Britain, Slavery in the United States, Solutrean hypothesis, South American Plate, South Atlantic Gyre, South Sandwich Trench, Southern African anchovy, Southern Ocean, Spiny dogfish, Stesichorus, Strait of Gibraltar, Submarine canyon, Subtropics, Sverdrup, Tethys Ocean, The World Factbook, Thermocline, Thermohaline circulation, Tide, Titan (mythology), Transatlantic crossing, Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, Tristan hotspot, Tropical cyclone, United States Hydrographic Office, Vasco da Gama, Vegetative reproduction, Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Walvis Ridge, Water mass, Wild fisheries, Wilson cycle, Wind shear, Witch (righteye flounder), World Digital Library, World Heritage site, World Ocean, Yellowtail flounder, 15th parallel north, 16th parallel north, 20th meridian east, 25th parallel north, 25th parallel south, 40th parallel north, 42nd parallel south, 53rd parallel north, 60th parallel north, 60th parallel south, 8th parallel north. 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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.
Ancient Aethiopia (Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean.
Aethiopian Sea, Æthiopian Ocean or Æthiopic Ocean (Æthiopicum Mare or Oceanus Æthiopicus; البحر الأثيوبي) was the name given to the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean in classical geographical works.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Agulhas Bank (from Portuguese for Cape Agulhas, Cabo das Agulhas, "Cape of Needles") is a broad, shallow part of the southern African continental shelf which extends up to south of Cape Agulhas before falling steeply to the abyssal plain.
The Agulhas Current is the western boundary current of the southwest Indian Ocean.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
Alexandre Olivier Exquemelin (also spelled Esquemeling, Exquemeling, or Oexmelin) (c. 1645–1707) was a French, Dutch or Flemish writer best known as the author of one of the most important sourcebooks of 17th-century piracy, first published in Dutch as De Americaensche Zee-Roovers, in Amsterdam, by Jan ten Hoorn, in 1678.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a facultative catadromous fish found on the eastern coast of North America.
The American plaice, American sole or long rough dab (Hippoglossoides platessoides) is a North Atlantic flatfish that belongs, along with other right-eyed flounders, to the Pleuronectidae family.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Antarctic bottom water (AABW) is a type of water mass in the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica with temperatures ranging from −0.8 to 2 °C (35 °F), salinities from 34.6 to 34.7 psu.
The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.
Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is a cold, relatively low salinity water mass found mostly at intermediate depths in the Southern Ocean.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An aquatic sill (or an oceanic sill) is a sea floor (or lake floor) barrier of relatively shallow depth restricting water movement between oceanic basins.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Arctogadus glacialis, known also with ambiguous common names Arctic cod and polar cod, is an Arctic species of fish in the cod family Gadidae, related to the true cod (genus Gadus).
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans.
The Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae.
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a climate cycle that affects the sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic Ocean based on different modes on multidecadal timescales.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Atlantis (Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens", the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic.
An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.
In Greek mythology, Atlas (Ἄτλας, Átlas) was a Titan condemned to hold up the sky for eternity after the Titanomachy.
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
The Azores Triple Junction (ATJ) is a geologic triple junction where the boundaries of three tectonic plates intersect: the North American Plate, the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate.
The Azores–Gibraltar Transform Fault (AGFZ), also called a fault zone and a fracture zone, is a major seismic fault in the Central Atlantic Ocean west of the Strait of Gibraltar.
Þingvellir, anglicised as Thingvellir,The spelling Pingvellir is incorrect, as the letter “p” should never be used to represent the letter “þ” (thorn), which is pronounced as "th".
The Bahama Banks are the submerged carbonate platforms that make up much of the Bahama Archipelago.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.
The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.
The Benguela Current is the broad, northward flowing ocean current that forms the eastern portion of the South Atlantic Ocean gyre.
The Benue Trough is a major geological structure underlying a large part of Nigeria and extending about 1,000 km northeast from the Bight of Benin to Lake Chad.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Blake Plateau lies in the western Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern United States coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa.
The blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou, one of the two species in the genus Micromesistius in the cod family, is common in the northeast Atlantic Ocean from Morocco to Iceland and Spitsbergen.
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.
Cape Agulhas (Cabo das Agulhas, "Cape of the Needles") is a rocky headland in Western Cape, South Africa.
Cape Bojador (رأس بوجادور, trans. Rā's Būjādūr; ⴱⵓⵊⴷⵓⵔ, Bujdur; Spanish and Cabo Bojador; Cap Boujdour) is a headland on the northern coast of Western Sahara, at 26° 07' 37"N, 14° 29' 57"W (various sources give various locations: this is from the Sailing Directions for the region), as well as the name of the large nearby town with a population of 41,178.
Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States.
The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa.
The Cape Fold Belt is a fold and thrust belt of late Paleozoic age, which affected the sequence of sedimentary rock layers of the Cape Supergroup in the southwestern corner of South Africa.
Cape Hatteras is a thin, broken strand of islands in North Carolina that arch out into the Atlantic Ocean away from the US mainland, then back toward the mainland, creating a series of sheltered islands between the Outer Banks and the mainland.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The capelin or caplin (Mallotus villosus) is a small forage fish of the smelt family found in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Arctic Oceans.
A carbonate platform is a sedimentary body which possesses topographic relief, and is composed of autochthonous calcareous deposits (Wilson, 1975).
The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South America.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central American Seaway, also known as the Panamanic Inter-American and Proto-Caribbean Seaway, was a body of water that once separated North America from South America.
The Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) is the Earth's largest continental large igneous province, covering an area of roughly 11 million km2.
The Challenger expedition of 1872–76 was a scientific exercise that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography.
Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone is a system of two parallel fracture zones.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.
In 1992 the Canadian Federal Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, John Crosbie, declared a moratorium on the Northern Cod fishery, which for the preceding 500 years had largely shaped the lives and communities of Canada's eastern coast.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
The Cunene horse mackerel (Trachurus trecae) is a species named after mackerel in the family Carangidae.
Davis Strait (Détroit de Davis) is a northern arm of the Labrador Sea.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
The Denmark Strait or Greenland Strait ('Greenland Sound') is an oceanic strait between Greenland (to its northwest) and Iceland (to its southeast).
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.
A dike swarm or dyke swarm is a large geological structure consisting of a major group of parallel, linear, or radially oriented dikes intruded within continental crust.
In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Dogger Bank (Dutch: Doggersbank, German: Doggerbank, Danish: Doggerbanke) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about off the east coast of England.
Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.
The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.
Drift netting is a fishing technique where nets, called drift nets, hang vertically in the water column without being anchored to the bottom.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)—also called Wellfleet oyster, Atlantic oyster, Virginia oyster, or American oyster—is a species of true oyster native to the eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of North America.
In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid is in a turbulent flow regime.
The Ekman layer is the layer in a fluid where there is a force balance between pressure gradient force, Coriolis force and turbulent drag.
Enkapune Ya Muto, also known as Twilight Cave, is a Late Stone Age site on the Mau Escarpment of Kenya.
The transition between the end of the Eocene and the beginning of the Oligocene is marked by large-scale extinction and floral and faunal turnover (although minor in comparison to the largest mass extinctions).
The Equatorial Counter Current is an eastward moving, wind-driven current flowing 10-15m deep found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
In meteorology, the equilibrium level (EL), or level of neutral buoyancy (LNB), or limit of convection (LOC), is the height at which a rising parcel of air is at the same temperature as its environment.
The Ertebølle culture (ca 5300 BC – 3950 BC) is the name of a hunter-gatherer and fisher, pottery-making culture dating to the end of the Mesolithic period.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Basin, is one of the two major basins into which the North Polar Basin of the Arctic Ocean is split by the Lomonosov Ridge, the other big basin is the Amerasian Basin.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a species of eel, a snake-like, catadromous fish.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
Eyjafjallajökull (English Island Mountain Glacier, is one of the smaller ice caps of Iceland, north of Skógar and west of Mýrdalsjökull. The ice cap covers the caldera of a volcano with a summit elevation of. The volcano has erupted relatively frequently since the last glacial period, most recently in 2010.
Farfantepenaeus aztecus is a species of marine penaeid shrimps found around the east coast of the USA and Mexico.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, offshore from the Brazilian coast.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The Fifteen-Twenty or 15°20' Fracture Zone (FTFZ), also known as the Cabo Verde Fracture Zone, is a fracture zone located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the central Atlantic Ocean between 14–16°N.
Georges Bank (formerly known as St. Georges Bank) is a large elevated area of the sea floor between Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States), and Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia (Canada).
The German Meteor expedition (German: Deutsche Atlantik Expedition) was an oceanographic expedition that explored the South Atlantic ocean from the equatorial region to Antarctica in 1925–1927.
The Gibraltar Arc is a geological region corresponding to an arcuate orogen surrounding the Alboran Sea, between the Iberian Peninsula and Africa.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gough and Inaccessible Islands is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean.
The Grand Banks of Newfoundland are a group of underwater plateaus south-east of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenland halibut or Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) belongs to the Pleuronectidae family (the right eye flounders), and is the only species of the genus Reinhardtius.
The Greenland Sea is a body of water that borders Greenland to the west, the Svalbard archipelago to the east, Fram Strait and the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Norwegian Sea and Iceland to the south.
Grenadiers or rattails are generally large, brown to black gadiform marine fish of the subfamily Macrourinae, the largest subfamily of the family Macrouridae.
Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes.
The Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is a small marine filter-feeding fish belonging to the family Clupeidae.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
A guyot (pronounced), also known as a tablemount, is an isolated underwater volcanic mountain (seamount), with a flat top over below the surface of the sea.
The haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a saltwater fish from the family Gadidae, the true cods, it is the only species in the monotypic genus Melanogrammus.
The term hake refers to fish in either of.
Haliotis midae, known commonly as the South African abalone or the perlemoen abalone, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Haliotidae, the abalones.
Sir Henry Mainwaring (1587–1653), was an English lawyer, soldier, author, seaman and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1621 to 1622.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Horse mackerel is a vague vernacular term for a range of species of fish throughout the English-speaking world.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
The Iapetus Ocean was an ocean that existed in the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras of the geologic timescale (between 600 and 400 million years ago).
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Iceland hotspot is a hotspot which is partly responsible for the high volcanic activity which has formed the island of Iceland.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Illex argentinus, commonly known as the Argentine shortfin squid is a species of squid in the family Ommastrephidae from the south western Atlantic Ocean.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was a Venetian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England was the first European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.
Laacher See or Lake Laach (in English) is a volcanic caldera lake with a diameter of in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, about northwest of Koblenz and south of Bonn, and is closest to the town of Andernach situated to the east on the river Rhine.
The Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador, Danish: Labradorhavet) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland.
Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is an intermediate water mass characterized by cold water, relatively low salinity compared to other intermediate water masses, and high concentrations of both oxygen and anthropogenic tracers.
Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo) is a large brackish tidal bay (or tidal estuary) in Venezuela and an "inlet of the Caribbean Sea." It is sometimes considered a lake rather than a bay or lagoon.
The Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is a research unit of Columbia University located on a campus in Palisades, N.Y., north of Manhattan on the Hudson River.
Landnámabók (“Book of Settlements”), often shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work which describes in considerable detail the settlement (''landnám'') of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries CE.
The Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture is a Unesco World Heritage Site on Pico Island.
In geology, a large igneous province (LIP) is an extremely large accumulation of igneous rocks, including plutonic rocks (intrusive) or volcanic rock formations (extrusive), arising when hot magma extrudes from inside the Earth and flows out.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The Laurentian fan or abyss is an underwater depression off the eastern coast of Canada in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.
This is a list of states and territories (in italics) with a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean (including the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas) are.
This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease.
This is a list of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the largest of which is Great Britain.
This is a list of ports and harbours of the Atlantic Ocean, excluding the ports of the Baltic Sea.
This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
Snappers are a family of perciform fish, Lutjanidae, mainly marine, but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in fresh water.
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
The Magdalenian (also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, dating from around 17,000 to 12,000 years ago.
Magmatism is the emplacement of magma within and at the surface of the outer layers of a terrestrial planet, which solidifies as igneous rocks.
Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core.
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.
Marine isotope stages (MIS), marine oxygen-isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages (OIS), are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earth's paleoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from data from deep sea core samples.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Merluccius capensis (shallow-water Cape hake or South African hake) is a ray-finned fish in the genus Merluccius, found in the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean, along the coast of South Africa.
Merluccius paradoxus, the deep-water Cape hake, is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius, found in the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean, along the coast of Southern Africa, south of Angola.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
Milwaukee Deep, also known as The Milwaukee Depth, is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean and is part of the Puerto Rico Trench.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The oceanic or limnological mixed layer is a layer in which active turbulence has homogenized some range of depths.
Nephrops norvegicus, known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, langoustine (compare langostino) or scampi, is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe".
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Norse exploration of North America began in the late 10th century AD when Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America.
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.
The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.
North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a deep water mass formed in the North Atlantic Ocean.
The North Atlantic Gyre, located in the Atlantic Ocean, is one of the five major oceanic gyres.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic low and the Azores high.
The North Equatorial Current is a significant Pacific and Atlantic Ocean current that flows east-to-west between about 10° north and 20° north.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Norwegian Sea (Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
In oceanography, a gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.
An oceanic or submarine plateau is a large, relatively flat elevation that is higher than the surrounding relief with one or more relatively steep sides.
Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Pandalus borealis is a species of caridean shrimp found in cold parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Panthalassa, also known as the Panthalassic or Panthalassan Ocean, (from Greek πᾶν "all" and θάλασσα "sea"), was the superocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea.
The Paraná-Etendeka traps (or Paraná and Etendeka Plateau; or Paraná and Etendeka Province) comprise a large igneous province that includes both the main Paraná traps (in Paraná Basin, a South American geological basin) as well as the smaller severed portions of the flood basalts at the Etendeka traps (in northwest Namibia and southwest Angola).
A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere that is not an active plate margin.
Paul S. Martin (born in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1928 - died in Tucson, Arizona September 13, 2010Mari N. Jensen.. University of Arizona. Retrieved 2010-09-17.) was an American geoscientist at the University of Arizona who developed the theory that the Pleistocene extinction of large mammals worldwide was caused by overhunting by humans.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters – being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore – in contrast with demersal fish, which do live on or near the bottom, and reef fish, which are associated with coral reefs.
Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
Pillow lavas are lavas that contain characteristic pillow-shaped structures that are attributed to the extrusion of the lava under water, or subaqueous extrusion.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Piracy was a phenomenon that was not limited to the Caribbean region.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The saithe, (Pollachius virens) is a species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus.
Porcupine Bank is an area of the Irish shelf, on the fringes of the Atlantic Ocean approximately west of Ireland.
Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories relate to visits or interactions with the Americas and/or indigenous peoples of the Americas by people from Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania before Columbus's first voyage to the Caribbean in 1492.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Puerto Rico Trench is located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
Redfish is a common name for several species of fish.
A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
The Rio Grande Rise is an aseismic ocean ridge in the southern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil.
The Rocas Atoll (Atol das Rocas) is the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean.
The Romanche Trench, also called the Romanche Furrow or Romanche Gap, is the third deepest of the major trenches of the Atlantic Ocean, after the Puerto Rico Trench and the South Sandwich Trench.
The round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Sardinella found in both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sand eel or sandeel is the common name used for a considerable number of species of fish.
Sardinella brasiliensis, (Brazilian sardinella or orangespot sardine) is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Sardinella.
Sardinops is a monotypic genus of sardines of the family Clupeidae.
Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales.
The sargassum fish, anglerfish, or frog fish, Histrio histrio, is a frogfish of the family Antennariidae, the only species in its genus.
The Scotia Arc is the island arc system forming the north, east and south border of the Scotia Sea.
The Scotia Sea is a sea located at the northern edge of the Southern Ocean at its boundary with the South Atlantic Ocean.
The Scotian Shelf is a geological formation, part of the Continental shelf, located southwest of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock.
Sebastes is a genus of fish in the family Sebastidae (though some include this in Scorpaenidae), most of which have the common name of rockfish.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
The "Seven Seas" (as in the idiom "sail the Seven Seas") is an ancient phrase for all of the world's oceans.
A shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is an effect of global warming on a major ocean circulation.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another.
Slavery in Great Britain existed and was recognized from before the Roman occupation until the 12th century, when chattel slavery disappeared after the Norman Conquest.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Solutrean hypothesis on the peopling of the Americas claims that the earliest human migration to the Americas took place from Europe, during the Last Glacial Maximum.
The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The South Atlantic Gyre is the subtropical gyre in the south Atlantic Ocean.
The South Sandwich Trench is a deep arcuate trench in the South Atlantic Ocean lying 100 km to the east of the South Sandwich Islands.
The Southern African anchovy (Engraulis capensis) is a species of anchovy which occurs in the southeast Atlantic Ocean near Namibia and South Africa.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
The spiny dogfish, spurdog, mud shark, or piked dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is one of the best known species of the Squalidae (dogfish) family of sharks, which is part of the Squaliformes order.
Stesichorus (Στησίχορος, Stēsikhoros; c. 630 – 555 BC) was the first great lyric poet of the West.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
A submarine canyon is a steep-sided valley cut into the seabed of the continental slope, sometimes extending well onto the continental shelf, having nearly vertical walls, and occasionally having canyon wall heights of up to 5 km, from canyon floor to canyon rim, as with the Great Bahama Canyon.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
In oceanography, a sverdrup (symbol: Sv) is a non-SI unit of flow, with equal to.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake) or air (such as an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
The Transatlantic crossings are passages of passengers and cargo across the Atlantic Ocean between the Americas and Europe or Africa.
The Triassic–Jurassic extinction event marks the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods,, and is one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic eon, profoundly affecting life on land and in the oceans.
The Tristan hotspot is a volcanic hotspot which is responsible for the volcanic activity which forms the volcanoes in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The United States Hydrographic Office prepared and published maps, charts, and nautical books required in navigation.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, a continent which was largely unknown in Europe and outside the Old World political and economic system.
The Walvis Ridge (walvis means whale in Dutch and Afrikaans) is an aseismic ocean ridge in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
An oceanographic water mass is identifiable body of water with a common formation history which has physical properties distinct from surrounding water.
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial value.
The Wilson cycle is a model where a continent rifts, forms an ocean basin in-between, and then begins a process of convergence that leads to the collision of the two plates and closure of the ocean.
Wind shear (or windshear), sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and/or direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere.
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus, known in English by a variety of common names including the witch, witch flounder, pole flounder, craig fluke, Torbay sole and grey sole, is a species of flatfish from the family Pleuronectidae.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
The yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) is a species of fish in the family Pleuronectidae.
The 15th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 15 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 16th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 16 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 20° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 25th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 25 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 25th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 25 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane, just south of the Tropic of Capricorn.
The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 42nd parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 42 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 53rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 53 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of Earth's equator.
The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 8th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 8 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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