119 relations: African National Congress, Afrikaans, Afrikaner nationalism, Afrikaners, Andries Treurnicht, Angola, Angolan Civil War, Anna Elizabeth Botha, Anti-Apartheid Movement, Apartheid, Asian South Africans, Bantustan, Barend du Plessis, Berlin Wall, Bethlehem, Free State, Bloemfontein, Bophuthatswana, British Empire, Cape Province, Cape Town, Christian nationalism, Ciskei, Civil disorder, Coloureds, Commando, Commonwealth of Nations, Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act, Confederation, Connie Mulder, Conscription, Conservative Party (South Africa), Cuba, Dan van der Vat, Decoration for Meritorious Services, Defence minister, Desmond Tutu, Disinvestment, Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (NGK), Economic sanctions, Executive (government), F. W. de Klerk, Federation, Freedom of speech, Gaborone, George, Western Cape, Group Areas Act, Harare, Harry Schwarz, Helen Suzman, Hendrik Verwoerd, ..., Homeland, House of Assembly of South Africa, Internment, Interracial marriage, Jan Christiaan Heunis, Jim Fouché, John Vorster, Jonas Savimbi, Kenneth Kaunda, Koevoet, Kosie Marais, Lusaka, Magnus Malan, Majority rule, Marais Viljoen, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minister of Defence and Military Veterans, Miscegenation, Mozambique, Muldergate, Myocardial infarction, Namibia, National Party (South Africa), Nazi Party, Nelson Mandela, New National Party (South Africa), Nuclear weapon, Operation Barbarossa, Orange Free State (province), Ossewabrandwag, Paul Roux, Pik Botha, Portuguese Empire, Prime Minister of South Africa, Progressive Federal Party, Ronald Reagan, Rubicon speech, Second Boer War, Self-governance, South Africa, South Africa and weapons of mass destruction, South African apartheid referendum, 1992, South African Border War, South African Council of Churches, South African Defence Force, South African general election, 1948, South African rand, Soviet Union, State of emergency, State President of South Africa, State Security Council, Thabo Mbeki, The New York Times, Tricameral Parliament, Tripartite Accord (Angola), Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa), Union of South Africa, UNITA, United Nations, United Nations Security Council resolution, United States, University of the Free State, Venda, Voortrekkers, Western Cape, Wilderness, Western Cape, World communism, World War II, Zambia. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaner nationalism is a political ideology that was born in the late nineteenth century among Afrikaners in South Africa.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Andries Petrus Treurnicht (19 February 1921 – 22 April 1993) was a South African politician, Minister of Education during the Soweto Riots and for a short time leader of the National Party in Transvaal.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
Anna Elizabeth Botha (née Rossouw; 6 May 1922 – 6 June 1997) was the First Lady of South Africa, as the wife of State President Pieter Willem Botha, from 1984 to 1989.
The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organisation that was at the centre of the international movement opposing the South African apartheid system and supporting South Africa's non-White population who were persecuted by the policies of apartheid.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Asian South Africans are South Africans of Asian descent.
A Bantustan (also known as Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state or simply homeland) was a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia), as part of the policy of apartheid.
Barend Jacobus du Plessis (born 19 January 1940 in Johannesburg) is a South African politician and a former member of the now-dissolved National Party, as well as Minister of Finance in 1984–1992.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bethlehem is a large town in the eastern Free State province of South Africa that is situated on the Liebenbergs river (also called Liebenbergs Vlei) along a fertile valley just north of the Rooiberg Mountains on the N5 road.It is the fastest growing town in the Free state province, with its target of being the Fourth largest city after Kroonstad in balance.
Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
Bophuthatswana (meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"), officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana (Tswana: Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana; Afrikaans: Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a Bantustan ("homeland"; an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity) and nominally independent (independence was recognized only by South Africa) parliamentary democracy in the northwestern region of South Africa.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope (Provinsie van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province (Kaapprovinsie) and colloquially as The Cape (Die Kaap), was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Christian nationalism is Christianity-affiliated religious nationalism.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Ciskei was a nominally independent state – a Bantustan – in the south east of South Africa.
Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities incur difficulties in maintaining public safety and order, over the disorderly crowd.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 was a law enacted by the United States Congress.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
Connie Mulder, born Petrus Cornelius Mulder (5 June 1925– 12 January 1988 in Johannesburg), was a South African politician, cabinet minister and father of Pieter Mulder, former leader of the Freedom Front Plus.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a right wing party that wished to preserve many aspects of apartheid in the system's final decade, and formed the official opposition in the white-only House of Assembly in the last seven years of minority rule.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Daniel Francis Jeroen van der Vat (born 28 October 1939, Alkmaar, North Holland) is a journalist, writer and military historian, with a focus on naval history.
The Decoration for Meritorious Services was an honour conferred until 1986 by the Government of the Republic of South Africa, usually for political services to the country.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist.
Disinvestment refers to the use of a concerted economic boycott to pressure a government, industry, or company towards a change in policy, or in the case of governments, even regime change.
The Dutch Reformed Church (abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Gaborone (English) is the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 based on the 2011 census, about 10% of the total population of Botswana.
George is a city in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
Group Areas Act was the title of three acts of the Parliament of South Africa enacted under the apartheid government of South Africa.
Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.
Harry Heinz Schwarz (13 May 1924 – 5 February 2010) was a South African lawyer, statesman and long-time political opposition leader against apartheid in South Africa, who eventually served as the South African Ambassador to the United States during the country's transition to majority rule.
Helen Suzman, DBE (7 November 1917 – 1 January 2009) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and liberal politician.
Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 – 6 September 1966), also commonly referred to as H. F. Verwoerd and Dr.
A homeland (country of origin and native land) is the concept of the place (cultural geography) with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began.
The House of Assembly (known in Afrikaans as the Volksraad, or "People's Council") was the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa from 1910 to 1981, the sole parliamentary chamber between 1981 and 1984, and latterly the white representative house of the Tricameral Parliament from 1984 to 1994, when it was replaced by the current National Assembly.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
Jan Christiaan 'Chris' Heunis, DMS (20 April 1927 – 27 January 2006) was a South African Afrikaner lawyer, politician, member of the National Party and cabinet minister in the governments of John Vorster and P.W. Botha.
Jacobus Johannes Fouché, (6 June 1898 – 23 September 1980) served as the second State President of South Africa from 1968 to 1975.
Balthazar Johannes "B.
Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (3 August 1934 – 22 February 2002) was an Angolan political and military leader who founded and led the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).
Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.
Koevoet (translates to crowbar, abbreviated Operation K or SWAPOL-COIN) was the counter-insurgency branch of the South West African Police (SWAPOL).
Jacobus Petrus (Kosie) Marais (22 June 1900 – 8 April 1963), was the son of Jacobus Petrus (Kowie) Marais and Catharina Elizabeth (Kitty) Eksteen.
Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.
Magnus André de Merindol Malan (30 January 1930 – 18 July 2011) was the Minister of Defence in the cabinet of President P. W. Botha, Chief of the South African Defence Force (SADF) and Chief of the South African Army.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Marais Viljoen, (2 December 1915 – 4 January 2007) was the last ceremonial State President of South Africa from 4 June 1979 until 3 September 1984.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The Minister of Defence and Military Veterans (formerly the Minister of Defence) is a Minister in the Government of South Africa, who is responsible for overseeing the Department of Defence, the Department of Military Veterans and the South African National Defence Force.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The Muldergate scandal, also known as the Information Scandal, was a South African political scandal involving the Department of Information.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
The New National Party (NNP) was a South African political party formed in 1997 as the successor to the National Party, which ruled the country from 1948 to 1994.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Province of the Orange Free State (Provinsie van die Oranje-Vrystaat), commonly referred to as the Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrystaat), Free State (Vrystaat) or by its abbreviation OFS, was one of the four provinces of South Africa from 1910 to 1994.
The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war.
Paul Roux is a small town in the Free State province of South Africa that produces poplar wood for the safety match industry.
Roelof Frederik "Pik" Botha, (born 27 April 1932) is a former politician from South Africa who served as the country's foreign minister in the last years of the apartheid era.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Prime Minister of South Africa (Eerste Minister van Suid-Afrika) was the head of government in South Africa between 1910 and 1984.
The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) (Progressiewe Federale Party) was a South African political party formed in 1977.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Rubicon speech was delivered by South African President P. W. Botha on the evening of 15 August 1985 in Durban.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
A referendum on ending apartheid was held in South Africa on 17 March 1992.
The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, and sometimes denoted in South Africa as the Angolan Bush War, was a largely asymmetric conflict that occurred in Namibia (then South West Africa), Zambia, and Angola from 26 August 1966 to 21 March 1990.
The South African Council of Churches (SACC) is an interdenominational forum in South Africa.
The South African Defence Force (SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994.
The parliamentary election in South Africa on 26 May 1948 represented a turning point in the country's history.
The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The State President of the Republic of South Africa (Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa from 1961 to 1994.
The State Security Council (SSC) was formed in South Africa in 1972 to advise the government on the country's national policy and strategy concerning security, its implementation and determining security priorities.
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994, established by the South African Constitution of 1983.
The Agreement among the People's Republic of Angola, the Republic of Cuba, and the Republic of South Africa (also known as the Tripartite Accord, Three Powers Accord or New York Accords) granted independence to Namibia from South Africa and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (Portuguese: União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of the Free State is a multi campus public university in Bloemfontein, the capital of the Free State and the judicial capital of South Africa.
Venda was a Bantustan in northern South Africa, close to the South African border with Zimbabwe to the north, while to the south and east, it shared a long border with another black homeland, Gazankulu.
The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans and Dutch for pioneers, or "pathfinders" or "fore-trekkers") were Boer pastoralists from the frontiers of the Cape Colony who migrated eastwards during the Great Trek.
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
Wilderness is a seaside town on the Garden Route of the southern Cape in South Africa.
World communism (also international communism and global communism) is a form of communism of international scope.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.