651 relations: A Dry White Season, Aaron Klug, Aaron Mokoena, Aaron Motsoaledi, AB de Villiers, Abdullah Ibrahim, Acacia, Acacia mearnsii, Acacia saligna, Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Adansonia, Affirmative action, Africa, African French, African initiated church, African leopard, African National Congress, African Union, Afrikaans, Agriculture in South Africa, Alan Paton, Albany thickets, Allan McLeod Cormack, Aloe, André Brink, Anglican Church of Southern Africa, Anglo-Zulu War, Angola, Anno Domini, Antarctic Treaty System, Apartheid, Arid, Ascension Island, Asian South Africans, Association football, Athol Fugard, Atlantic Ocean, Attrition warfare, Australasia, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, Azania, Azanian People's Liberation Army, Azanian People's Organisation, Bantu Education Act, 1953, Bantu expansion, Bantu peoples, Barbecue, Barrydale, Bartolomeu Dias, ..., Batavian Republic, Battle of Isandlwana, BBC News, Benni McCarthy, Berlin International Film Festival, Bhisho, Biodiversity action plan, Biodiversity hotspot, Biome, Black Economic Empowerment, Black people, Bloemfontein, Blue crane, Blue wildebeest, Bobby Locke, Boer, Boer Republics, Bolivia, Border Cave, Born a Crime, Botswana, Boycott, Brenda Fassie, Breyten Breytenbach, Brian Mitchell (boxer), BRICS, British Empire, Bryan Habana, Burundi, Bushveld, C. R. 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A Dry White Season is a 1989 American drama-historical film directed by Euzhan Palcy and starring Donald Sutherland, Jürgen Prochnow, Marlon Brando, Janet Suzman, Zakes Mokae and Susan Sarandon.
Sir Aaron Klug (born 11 August 1926) is a Lithuanian-born, South African-educated, British chemist and biophysicist, and winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes.
Teboho Aaron Mokoena (born 25 November 1980 in Boipatong), known as Aaron Mokoena, is a South African footballer who last played for South African football team Bidvest Wits and the South African national team.
Pakishe Aaron Motsoaledi (born 7 August 1958 in Transvaal) is the Minister of Health of South Africa.
Abraham Benjamin de Villiers (born 17 February 1984), commonly known as AB de Villiers and Mister 360 Degree, also simply known as ABD, is a former South African cricketer who played for the South African national team He is regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time.
Abdullah Ibrahim (born Adolph Johannes Brand on 9 October 1934 and formerly known as Dollar Brand) is a South African pianist and composer.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Acacia mearnsii is a fast-growing, extremely invasive leguminous tree native to Australia.
Acacia saligna, commonly known by various names including coojong, golden wreath wattle, orange wattle, blue-leafed wattle, Western Australian golden wattle, and, in Africa, Port Jackson willow, is a small tree in the family Fabaceae.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
Adansonia is a genus of deciduous trees known as baobabs.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
African French (français africain) is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries.
An African initiated church is a Christian church independently started in Africa by Africans and not by missionaries from another continent.
The African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) is the leopard nominate subspecies native to many countries in Africa.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Agriculture in South Africa contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual laborers and contributing around 2.6 percent of GDP for the nation.
Alan Stewart Paton (11 January 1903 – 12 April 1988) was a South African author and anti-apartheid activist.
The Albany thickets is an ecoregion of dense woodland in southern South Africa, which is concentrated around the Albany region of the Eastern Cape (whence the region's name originates).
Allan MacLeod Cormack (February 23, 1924 – May 7, 1998) was a South African American physicist who won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (along with Godfrey Hounsfield) for his work on X-ray computed tomography (CT).
Aloe, also written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants.
André Philippus Brink, (29 May 1935 – 6 February 2015) was a South African novelist.
The Anglican Church of Southern Africa, known until 2006 as the Church of the Province of Southern Africa, is the province of the Anglican Communion in the southern part of Africa.
The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Asian South Africans are South Africans of Asian descent.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard OIS (born 11 June 1932) is a South African playwright, novelist, actor, and director who writes in South African English.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Australopithecus africanus is an extinct (fossil) species of the australopithecines, the first of an early ape-form species to be classified as hominin (in 1924).
Australopithecus sediba is a species of Australopithecus of the early Pleistocene, identified based on fossil remains dated to about 2 million years ago.
Azania (Ἀζανία) is a name that has been applied to various parts of southeastern tropical Africa.
The Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA), formerly known as Poqo, was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress, an African nationalist movement in South Africa.
The Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO) is a South African political party.
The Bantu Education Act, 1953 (Act No. 47 of 1953; later renamed the Black Education Act, 1953) was a South African segregation law which legalised several aspects of the apartheid system passed by the Apartheid regime which was really not on the side of the black community.
The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ or barbie) is a cooking method, a style of food, and a name for a meal or gathering at which this style of food is cooked and served.
Barrydale is a village located on the border of the Overberg and Klein Karoo regions of the Western Cape Province in South Africa.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
The Battle of Isandlwana (alternative spelling: Isandhlwana) on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benedict Saul "Benni" McCarthy (born 12 November 1977) is a South African former footballer who is currently the head coach of Cape Town City in South Africa.
The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany.
Bhisho (formerly Bisho) is the capital of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is a racially selective programme launched by the South African government to redress the inequalities of Apartheid by giving black (Blacks, Coloureds and Indians) South African citizens economic privileges previously not available to them under White rule.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
The blue crane (Grus paradisea), also known as the Stanley crane and the paradise crane, is the national bird of South Africa.
The blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), also called the common wildebeest, white-bearded wildebeest or brindled gnu, is a large antelope and one of the two species of wildebeest.
Arthur D'Arcy "Bobby" Locke (20 November 1917 – 9 March 1987) was a South African professional golfer.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent, self-governed republics in the last half of the nineteenth century, created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Colony and their descendants, variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Border Cave is a rock shelter on the western scarp of the Lebombo Mountains in KwaZulu-Natal near the border between South Africa and Swaziland.
Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood is an autobiographical comedy book written by the South African comedian Trevor Noah.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.
Brenda Nokuzola Fassie (3 November 1964 – 9 May 2004) was a South African anti-apartheid Afropop singer.
Breyten Breytenbach (born 16 September 1939) is a South African writer and painter known for his opposition to apartheid, and consequent imprisonment by the South African government.
Brian Mitchell (born 30 August 1961 in Johannesburg, South Africa) is a former professional boxer and quite possibly the best South African boxer of all time.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bryan Gary Habana OIS (born 12 June 1983) is a South African rugby union player who plays as a wing for Toulon in the French Top 14 competition, and for the South Africa national team (the Springboks).
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
The Bushveld is a sub-tropical woodland ecoregion of Southern Africa named after the term veld.
Charles Robberts Swart, (5 December 1894 – 16 July 1982), nicknamed Blackiehttp://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/charles-robberts-blackie-swart-first-state-president-south-africa-born was a South African politician who served as the last Governor-General of Union of South Africa from 1959 to 1961 and the first State President of the Republic of South Africa from 1961 to 1967.
The Cabinet of South Africa is the most senior level of the executive branch of the Government of South Africa.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
In Southern Africa, Cape Coloureds is the name given to an ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race.
The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa.
The Cape Fold Belt is a fold and thrust belt of late Paleozoic age, which affected the sequence of sedimentary rock layers of the Cape Supergroup in the southwestern corner of South Africa.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The Cape Peninsula (Kaapse Skiereiland) is a generally rocky peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean at the south-western extremity of the African continent.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Capital formation is a concept used in macroeconomics, national accounts and financial economics.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in South Africa is part of the worldwide Catholic Church composed of the Roman Rite and 22 Eastern Rites, of which the South African church is under the spiritual leadership of the Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference and the Pope in Rome.
The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE) was a Geneva-based international non-governmental organisation founded in 1994 by Scott Leckie as a foundation in the Netherlands (Stichting COHRE).
The Charismatic Movement is the international trend of historically mainstream Christian congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostalism.
Charl Adriaan Schwartzel (born 31 August 1984) is a South African professional golfer who plays on the PGA Tour, European Tour, and the Sunshine Tour.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital is the third largest hospital in the world after the West China Hospital of West China Medical Center of Sichuan University, and, entry on "Just Another Day at the World's Biggest Hospital" occupying, with 3,400 beds and 6,760 staff members.
Christopher McGregor (24 December 1936 – 26 May 1990) was a South African jazz pianist, bandleader and composer born in Somerset West, South Africa.
Christiaan Neethling Barnard (8 November 1922 – 2 September 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first human-to-human heart transplant on 3 December 1967 at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The cinema of South Africa refers to the films and film industry of the nation of South Africa.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
The Congress Alliance was an anti-apartheid political coalition formed in South Africa in the 1950s.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.
The Constitutional Court of South Africa is a supreme constitutional court established by the Constitution of South Africa.
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
Cooper's Cave is a series of fossil-bearing breccia filled cavities.
Cornelia is a ghost town in the Free State province of South Africa.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The courts of South Africa are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in South Africa.
The Cradle of Humankind is a paleoanthropological site about northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, in the Gauteng province.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Cry, the Beloved Country is a novel by Alan Paton, published in 1948.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician and, since 15 February 2018, the fifth and current President of South Africa.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
ǀXam (/Kham) (English pronunciation), or ǀXam Kaǃkʼe, is an extinct Khoisan language of South Africa, part of the ǃUi branch of the Tuu languages.
Dale Willem Steyn (born 27 June 1983) is a South African cricketer who plays in Tests, T20 Internationals and One Day International cricket for South Africa.
Daniël Hartman Craven (11 October 1910 – 4 January 1993) was a South African rugby union player (1931–38), national coach, national and international rugby administrator, academic, and author.
Darian Roy Townsend (born 28 August 1984) is a competition swimmer and Olympic gold medalist who competed for South Africa.
David Dabede Mabuza (born 25 August 1960) is the Deputy President of South Africa and Deputy President of the African National Congress (ANC).
Delron Sebastian Buckley (born 7 December 1977 in Durban) is a former South African footballer.
The Democratic Alliance (DA) is a South African political party and the official opposition to the governing African National Congress (ANC).
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
The demographics of South Africa encompasses about 56 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions.
Departmentalization (or departmentalisation) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments.
The Deputy President of South Africa is the deputy head of government of South Africa.
Dingaan Bongane Thobela (born 24 September 1966 in Soweto, South Africa), is a professional boxer in the Super Middleweight (168lb) division.
Diogo Cão, anglicised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer and one of the most notable navigators of the Age of Discovery.
Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest of South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-1980s.
District 9 is a 2009 science fiction action horror film directed by Neill Blomkamp, written by Blomkamp and Terri Tatchell, and produced by Peter Jackson and Carolynne Cunningham.
The nine provinces of South Africa are divided into 52 districts (sing. district, kgaolo; setereke; selete; distrikte; isifunda; isiyingi; isithili; isigodzi; tshiṱiriki; xifundza), which are either metropolitan or district municipalities.
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.
The Drakensberg (Afrikaans: Drakensberge, Zulu: uKhahlamba, Sotho: Maluti) is the name given to the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment, which encloses the central Southern African plateau.
DRUM is a South African family magazine mainly aimed at black readers containing market news, entertainment and feature articles.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Reformed Church (abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.
The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, UK) and west of the antimeridian (which crosses the Pacific Ocean and relatively little land from pole to pole).
The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) is a South African far-left political party, that has been described by some political analysts as being fascist or racial nationalist in nature.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Elections in South Africa are held for the National Assembly, provincial legislatures and municipal councils.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Theodore Ernest Els (born 17 October 1969) is a South African professional golfer.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
In South Africa, the Executive Council of a province is the cabinet of the provincial government.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996.
Francois "Faf" du Plessis (born 13 July 1984) is a South African international cricketer and the current captain of the South African national team across all formats.
Fanagalo is a pidgin (simplified language) based primarily on Zulu, with English and a small Afrikaans input.
fDi Magazine is an English-language bi-monthly news and foreign direct investment (FDI) publication, providing an up-to-date review of global investment activity.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Secrecy Index (FSI) was created by the Tax Justice Network (TJN) in 2009 to identify and rank the scale of the contribution of global jurisdictions to individual and/or corporate tax avoidance and tax evasion, that was independent of the, potentially more politicised, OECD-IMF type rankings.
The First Boer War (Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally "First Freedom War"), also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic (also known as Transvaal Republic; not to be confused with the modern-day Republic of South Africa).
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Florisbad is a health resort 45 km northwest of Bloemfontein and 47 km south-west of Brandfort, near the Haagenstad salt-pan.
The Florisbad Skull was originally discovered by T. F. Dreyer at the Florisbad site in 1932.
Fokofpolisiekar (Fuckoffpolicecar) is an Afrikaans alternative rock band from Bellville, near Cape Town, South Africa.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The France national rugby union team competes annually against England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales in the Six Nations Championship.
Jacobus Francois Pienaar (born 2 January 1967) is a retired South African rugby union player.
Frank Welsh (born in 1931) is a historian, novelist and former international banker.
Franschhoek (Afrikaans for "French Corner", Dutch spelling before 1947 Fransche Hoek) is a small town in the Western Cape Province and one of the oldest towns of the Republic of South Africa.
The Free State (Vrystaat, Foreistata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a province of South Africa.
The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance, which consisted of the African National Congress (ANC) and its allies - the South African Indian Congress, the South African Congress of Democrats and the Coloured People's Congress.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Frederik Christoffel Hendrik "Frik" du Preez (born 28 November 1935) is a former South African rugby union player who represented Northern Transvaal and the Springboks.
Fringe theatre is theatre that is experimental in style or subject matter.
Fynbos (meaning fine-leaved plants) is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).
The Garden Route (Afrikaans: Tuinroete) is a stretch of the south-western coast of South Africa which extends from Mossel Bay (many say Mossel Bay is not part of the Garden Route, because it is positioned behind what locals call the "Boom Gordyn" roughly translates to "Tree Curtain") in the Western Cape to the Storms River in the Eastern Cape.
Gary Player DMS, OIG (born 1 November 1935) is a South African professional golfer.
In its modern form, a gated community (or walled community) is a form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences.
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.
A court of general jurisdiction is a court with authority to hear cases of all kinds – criminal, civil, family, probate, and so forth.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gerhardus Christian "Gerrie" Coetzee (born 8 April 1955) is a South African former professional boxer who competed from 1974 to 1986, and in 1993 and 1997.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
Godfrey Mwakikagile (born 4 October 1949) is a prominent Tanzanian scholar, writer and specialist in African studies.
The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.
Gondolin Cave is a fossiliferous dolomitic paleocave system in the Northwest Province, South Africa.
The Governor-General of the Union of South Africa (Goewerneur-generaal van Unie van die Suid-Afrika, Gouverneur-generaal van de Unie van Zuid-Afrika) was the highest state official in the Union of South Africa between 31 May 1910 and 31 May 1961.
The Grand Slam in professional golf is winning all of golf's major championships in the same calendar year.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Escarpment is a major geological formation in Africa that consists of steep slopes from the high central Southern African plateauAtlas of Southern Africa.
The Great Fish River (called great to distinguish it from the Namibian Fish River) (Groot-Visrivier) is a river running through the South African province of the Eastern Cape.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Groot River is a river in the southern area of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.
Groote Schuur Hospital is a large, government-funded, teaching hospital situated on the slopes of Devil's Peak in the city of Cape Town, South Africa.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Guy Arnold (born 6 May 1932) is a British author based in Marylebone, London, and a specialist in north-south relations who writes mainly in the areas of African history and politics, and international affairs.
Hakea (pin-cushion tree) is a genus of 149 species of shrubs and small trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia and surrounding islands.
Harry Heinz Schwarz (13 May 1924 – 5 February 2010) was a South African lawyer, statesman and long-time political opposition leader against apartheid in South Africa, who eventually served as the South African Ambassador to the United States during the country's transition to majority rule.
Hashim Mohamed Amla OIS (born 31 March 1983) is a South African International cricketer who plays for South Africa in all three formats of the game, widely regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.
A herder is a worker who lives a possibly semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, in places where these animals wander pasture lands.
The High Court of South Africa is a superior court of law in South Africa.
The Highveld (Afrikaans: Hoëveld) is the portion of the South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regions to the south-east of the Highveld.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is practised in various provinces of South Africa, but primarily in KwaZulu-Natal.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
South Africa since 1994 transitioned from the system of apartheid to one of majority rule.
The history of the Jews in South Africa mainly began under the British Empire, following a general pattern of increased European settlement in the 19th century.
HIV/AIDS denialism is the belief, contradicted by conclusive medical and scientific evidence, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
HIV/AIDS is the most serious health concern in South Africa.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.
Homo naledi is an extinct species of hominin, which anthropologists first described in September 2015 and have assigned to the genus Homo.
Homo rhodesiensis is the species name proposed by Arthur Smith Woodward (1921) to classifiy Kabwe 1 (the "Kabwe skull" or "Broken Hill skull", also "Rhodesian Man"), a fossil recovered from a cave at Broken Hill, or Kabwe, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
Hugh Ramapolo Masekela (4 April 1939 – 23 January 2018) was a South African trumpeter, flugelhornist, cornetist, composer and singer.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), established in 2007, provides an annual assessment of the quality of governance in African countries.
The ICC World Twenty20 (also referred to as the World T20, and colloquially as the T20 World Cup) is the international championship of Twenty20 International cricket.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The impala; (Aepyceros melampus) is a medium-sized antelope found in eastern and southern Africa.
The Indian Act (An Act respecting Indians, Loi sur les Indiens), (the Act) is a Canadian Act of Parliament that concerns registered Indians, their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian Premier League (IPL), officially Vivo Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons, is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities and some states.
Indian South Africans are citizens and residents of South Africa of Indian descent.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and sometimes natural sciences.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.
The International Studies Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Studies Association.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
An ironworks or iron works is a building or site where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and steel products are made.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Islam in South Africa is a minority religion, practised, according to 2015 estimates, by roughly 1.5% of the total population.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Maxwell Coetzee (born 9 February 1940) is a South African novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, Central America, South America, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Bahamas.
Jacob "Baby Jake" Matlala (1 August 1962 – 7 December 2013) was a South African boxer and junior flyweight champion from Meadowlands, Johannesburg.
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.
Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher.
Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (21 April 1619 – 18 January 1677) was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator who founded Cape Town in what then became the Dutch Cape Colony of the Dutch East India Company.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jeremy Thomas Hewitt, (born 4 March 1984), known by his stage name Jeremy Loops, is a South African singer, songwriter, and record producer.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jody David Scheckter (born 29 January 1950) is a South African former auto racing driver.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John II (Portuguese: João II,; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495.
The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG6) since 2016.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Jonas Mosa Gwangwa (born 1937) is a South African Jazz musician, songwriter and producer.
Jonathan Kenneth Butler (born 10 October 1961) is a South African singer-songwriter and guitarist.
Joost Heystek van der Westhuizen (20 February 1971 – 6 February 2017) was a South African rugby union player who made 89 appearances in test matches for the national team, scoring 38 tries.
Jordan Michael "Jordy" Smith (born 11 February 1988) is a South African professional surfer, competing on the World Championship Tour (WCT).
The Journal of African Economies is published five times a year by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julius Sello Malema (born 3 March 1981) is a Member of Parliament and the leader of the Economic Freedom Fighters, a far-left and racial nationalist South African political party, which he founded in July 2013.
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
The Karoo (from a Khoikhoi word, possibly garo "desert") is a semidesert natural region of South Africa.
The Khoe languages are the largest of the non-Bantu language families indigenous to southern Africa.
The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.
The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Khwe (also rendered Kxoe, Khoe; or) is a dialect continuum of the Khoe family of Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and parts of Zambia, with some 8,000 speakers.
Kimberley is the capital and largest city of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.
The Klasies River Caves are a series of caves located to the east of the Klasies River mouth on the Tsitsikamma coast in the Humansdorp district of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
The Knysna-Amatole montane forests ecoregion, of the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Biome, is in South Africa.
Kromdraai Conservancy is a protected conservation park located to the south-west of Gauteng province in north-east South Africa.
Kruger National Park is one of the largest game reserves in Africa.
The kudus are two species of antelope of the genus Tragelaphus.
Kwaito is a music genre that emerged in Johannesburg, South Africa, during the 1990s.
The Kwazulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of South Africa.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
Ladysmith Black Mambazo are a South African male choral group singing in the vocal styles of isicathamiya and mbube.
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
There are eleven official languages of South Africa: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, SiSwati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Lantana is a genus of about 150 species of perennial flowering plants in the verbena family, Verbenaceae.
South Africa has a 'hybrid' or 'mixed' legal system, formed by the interweaving of a number of distinct legal traditions: a civil law system inherited from the Dutch, a common law system inherited from the British, and a customary law system inherited from indigenous Africans (often termed African Customary Law, of which there are many variations depending on the tribal origin).
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa.
The Limpopo River rises in South Africa, and flows generally eastwards to the Indian Ocean in Mozambique.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
Banned books are books or other printed works such as essays or plays which are prohibited by law or to which free access is not permitted by other means.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene (roughly 6 million years ago).
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
This is a list of universities in South Africa.
In South Africa, a local municipality (mmasepalaselegae; masepala wa lehae; mmasepala wa selegae; plaaslike munisipaliteit; umasipala wendawo; umasipaladi wendawo; umasipala wengingqi; masipaladi wasekhaya; masipalawapo; masipala wa muganga) or Category B municipality is a type of municipality that serves as the third, and most local, tier of local government.
Lodewicus Theodorus "Louis" Oosthuizen (born 1982) is a South African professional golfer who won the 2010 Open Championship.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 – 10 June 1580), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.
Lucas Valeriu Ntuba Radebe OIS (born 12 April 1969) is a South African former footballer who played primarily as a centre-back.
Lyndon Ferns (born 24 September 1983 in Pietersburg, South Africa) is a retired Olympic gold-medalist and former world record swimmer from South Africa.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mafadi (Mafadipiek) is a peak on the border of South Africa and Lesotho.
The magistrates' courts are the lowest level of the court system in South Africa.
Mahikeng, formerly and still commonly known as Mafikeng and historically Mafeking in English, is the capital city of the North-West Province of South Africa.
The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith was a statement of core principles laid down by South African political leaders Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz on 4 January 1974.
The Mail & Guardian is a South African weekly newspaper, published by M&G Media in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Makapansgat (/mɐkɐˈpɐnsxɐt/) (or Makapan Valley world heritage site) is an archaeological location within the Makapansgat and Zwartkrans Valleys, northeast of Mokopane in Limpopo province, South Africa.
Malapa is a fossil-bearing cave located about northeast of the well known South African hominid-bearing sites of Sterkfontein and Swartkrans and about north-northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Malnutrition continues to be a problem in the Republic of South Africa, although it is not as endemic as in other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Mangosuthu Buthelezi (born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu tribal leader who founded the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in 1975 and was Chief Minister of the KwaZulu bantustan until 1994.
Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who is the founder and CEO of Canonical Ltd., the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system.
Max Theiler (30 January 1899 – 11 August 1972) was a South African-American virologist and physician.
The media of South Africa has a large mass media sector and is one of Africa's major media centres.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
MeerKAT, originally the Karoo Array Telescope, is a radio telescope under construction in the Northern Cape of South Africa.
The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
The Methodist Church of Southern Africa (MCSA) is a large Wesleyan Methodist denomination, with local churches across South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and a more limited presence in Mozambique.
In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or Category A municipality is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a city or conurbation.
Mfecane (isiZulu, In another tradition transcribed. is the current IPA symbol for a dental click, not a lower-case.), also known by the Sesotho name Difaqane or Lifaqane (all meaning "crushing, scattering, forced dispersal, forced migration"), was a period of widespread chaos and warfare among indigenous ethnic communities in:southern Africa during the period between 1815 and about 1840.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
During World War II, many South Africans saw military service.
The Mineral Revolution is a term used by historians to refer to the rapid industrialisation and economic changes which occurred in South Africa from the 1870s onwards.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
A ministry is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister, that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration.
Zenzile Miriam Makeba (4 March 1932 – 9 November 2008), nicknamed Mama Africa, was a South African singer, actress, United Nations goodwill ambassador, and civil-rights activist.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Mpumalanga is a province of South Africa.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
The South African music scene includes both popular (jive) and folk forms.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mzilikazi (1790 – 9 September 1868) was a Southern African king who founded the Matabele Kingdom (khumalo), Matabeleland, in what became British South Africa Company-ruled Rhodesia and is now Zimbabwe.
Hendrik Egnatius 'Naas' Botha (born 27 February 1958) is a South African former rugby union player, who played for Northern Transvaal and South Africa (the Springboks).
Nadine Gordimer (20 November 1923 – 13 July 2014) was a South African writer, political activist and recipient of the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Namaqualand (Namakwaland) is an arid region of Namibia and South Africa, extending along the west coast over and covering a total area of.
The Namib is a coastal desert in southern Africa.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Province of Natal (Provinsie Natal), commonly called Natal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until 1994.
The current national anthem of South Africa was adopted in 1997 and is a hybrid song combining new English lyrics with extracts of the 19th century hymn "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" ("God Bless Africa") and the Afrikaans song "Die Stem van Suid-Afrika" ("The Call of South Africa"), which was formerly used as the South African national anthem from the late 1950s to the mid-1990s.
The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province.
The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997.
The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.
The National Senior Certificate or NSC is a high school diploma and is the main school-leaving certificate in South Africa.
The Native Location Act of 1879 was an act of racial segregation in South Africa.
The Natives Land Act, 1913 (subsequently renamed Bantu Land Act, 1913 and Black Land Act, 1913; Act No. 27 of 1913) was an Act of the Parliament of South Africa that was aimed at regulating the acquisition of land.
The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Nelspruit (also known by its official name, Mbombela) is a city in northeastern South Africa.
Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is an economic development program of the African Union.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
The Nguni people are a group of Bantu peoples who primarily speak Nguni languages and currently reside predominantly in Southern Africa.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
North West is a province of South Africa.
The Northern Cape (Noord-Kaap; Kapa Bokone) is the largest and most sparsely populated province of South Africa.
Northern Ndebele, also called Sindebele, Zimbabwean Ndebele or North Ndebele, and formerly known as Matabele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Northern Ndebele people, or Matabele, of Zimbabwe.
The Northern Ndebele people (amaNdebele) are a Bantu nation and ethnic group in Southern Africa, who share a common Ndebele culture and Ndebele language.
Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa), also (incorrectly) known by the name of its standardised dialect version Sepedi (or Pedi) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages.
As a member of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, South Africa uses nuclear science for peaceful means.
Ocotea bullata, (stinkwood or black stinkwood, Stinkhout, Umhlungulu, Umnukane) is a species of flowering tree native to South Africa.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.
Olea capensis, also known by the common name black ironwood, is an African tree species belonging to the Olive family (Oleaceae).
Olive Schreiner (24 March 1855 – 11 December 1920) was a South African author, anti-war campaigner and intellectual.
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.
The Orange River (from Afrikaans/Dutch: Oranjerivier) is the longest river in South Africa and the Orange River Basin extends extensively into Namibia and Botswana to the north.
Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (– 1580) and first published in 1572.
Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius (born 22 November 1986) is a South African former sprint runner who was convicted of murdering his girlfriend in 2013.
Oudtshoorn, the "ostrich capital of the world", is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa, located between the Swartberg mountains to the north and the Outeniqua Mountains to the south.
In North American financial context an out-of-pocket expense (or out-of-pocket cost) is the direct outlay of cash that may or may not be later reimbursed from a third-party source.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to South Africa: South Africa – A sovereign country located at the southern tip of Africa.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pieter Willem Botha, (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), commonly known as "P.
Paarl (Afrikaans: or more commonly; derived from Parel, meaning Pearl in Dutch) is a city with 191,013 inhabitants in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (formerly known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC) is a South African Black Nationalist movement that is now a political party.
The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and under the country's current Constitution is composed of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Participation in social science refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions – and ideally exert influence – regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
In South Africa, pass laws were a form of internal passport system designed to segregate the population, manage urbanisation, and allocate migrant labour.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Penelope ("Penny") Heyns OIS (born 8 November 1974) is a former South African swimmer, who is best known for being the only woman in the history of the Olympic Games to have won both the 100 m and 200 m breaststroke events - at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games - making her South Africa's first post-apartheid Olympic gold medallist following South Africa's re-admission to the Games in 1992.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Philemon Raul "Phil" Masinga (born 28 June 1969 in Klerksdorp) is a South African former professional footballer and manager who played as a striker from 1991 to 2002.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phuthi (Síphùthì) is a Nguni Bantu language spoken in southern Lesotho and areas in South Africa adjacent to the same border.
Pietermaritzburg (Zulu: umGungundlovu) is the capital and second-largest city in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pinnacle Point a small promontory immediately south of Mossel Bay, a town on the southern coast of South Africa.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Podocarpus latifolius (broad-leaved yellowwood or real yellowwood, Opregte-geelhout, Mogôbagôba, Umcheya, Umkhoba) is a large evergreen tree up to 35 m high and 3 m trunk diameter, in the conifer family Podocarpaceae; it is the type species of the genus Podocarpus.
South Africa has a liberal constitution that protects all basic political freedoms.
Polokwane (meaning "Place of Safety" in Northern Sotho City of Polokwane official website. Retrieved on October 15, 2009.), also known by its former name, Pietersburg, is the capital of the Limpopo Province of South Africa.
Port Elizabeth or The Bay (iBhayi; Die Baai) is one of the largest cities in South Africa; it is situated in the Eastern Cape Province, east of Cape Town.
The Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA) is a non-profit, inter-governmental organization made up of Port Operators, Government Line Ministries, Logistics and Maritime Service Providers and other port and shipping stakeholders from the Eastern, Western and Southern African and Indian Ocean regions.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Preamble to the United Nations Charter is the opening (preamble) of the United Nations Charter.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
In South Africa, a Premier is the head of government of one of South Africa's nine provinces.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.
The Prime Minister of South Africa (Eerste Minister van Suid-Afrika) was the head of government in South Africa between 1910 and 1984.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa.
The private security industry in South Africa is an industry providing guarding, monitoring, armed reaction, escorting, investigating and other security-related services to private individuals and companies in the country.
Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of South African flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes (Afrikaans: suikerbos) or Fynbos.
Protea cynaroides, the king protea, is a flowering plant.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
South Africa is divided into nine provinces.
In South Africa, a provincial legislature is the legislative branch of the government of a province.
Punk rock (or "punk") is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Rainbow nation is a term coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu to describe post-apartheid South Africa, after South Africa's first fully democratic election in 1994.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off.
Raymond Arthur Dart (4 February 1893 – 22 November 1988) was an Australian anatomist and anthropologist, best known for his involvement in the 1924 discovery of the first fossil ever found of Australopithecus africanus, an extinct hominin closely related to humans, at Taung in the North of South Africa in the province Northwest.
Barbecue varies by the type of meat, sauce, rub, or other flavorings used, the point in barbecuing at which they are added, the role smoke plays, the equipment and fuel used, cooking temperature, and cooking time.
South Africa is a secular state with a very diverse religious population.
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Retief Goosen (born 3 February 1969) is a South African professional golfer who was in the top ten in the Official World Golf Ranking for over 250 weeks between 2001 and 2007.
Ringball is a traditional South African sport that stems from basketball and has been played since 1907.
The riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticularis), also known as the bushman rabbit or bushman hare, is one of the most endangered mammals in the world, with only around 500 living adults, and 1500 overall.
The Roggeveld Mountains (Afrikaans: Roggeveldberge) is a mountain range situated mainly in the Northern Cape province of South Africa.
Roland Mark Schoeman OIS (born 3 July 1980) is a South African swimmer and was a member of the South African swimming team at the 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012 Olympic Games.
Roman-Dutch law (Dutch: Rooms-Hollands recht, Afrikaans: Romeins-Hollandse reg) is an uncodified, scholarship-driven, judge-made legal system based on Roman law as applied in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Royal Court Theatre, at different times known as the Court Theatre, the New Chelsea Theatre, and the Belgravia Theatre, is a non-commercial West End theatre on Sloane Square, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Rustenburg (Afrikaans and Dutch: Town of Rest) is a city at the foot of the Magaliesberg mountain range in North West Province of South Africa.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
Ryk Neethling OIS (born 17 November 1977) is a South African swimmer.
Sabi Sand Game Reserve is located adjacent to the Kruger National Park in the Lowveld of Mpumalanga, South Africa.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Beatrice "Sathima Bea" Benjamin (17 October 1936 – 20 August 2013) was a South African vocalist and composer, based for nearly 45 years in New York City.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem) and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight.
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
Scouts South Africa is the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) recognised Scout association in South Africa.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Joseph "Sepp" Blatter (born 10 March 1936) is a Swiss football administrator who was the eighth president of FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) from 1998 to 2015.
The rate of sexual violence in South Africa is among the highest in the world.
Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. 1787 – 22 September 1828), also known as Shaka Zulu, was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom.
Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes.
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write, compose, and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (9 October 1876 – 19 June 1932) was a South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator and writer.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
The South Africa Act 1909 was an Act of the British Parliament which created the Union of South Africa from the British colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River Colony, and Transvaal.
From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
The South Africa National Blind Cricket Team represents South Africa in Blind cricket, a version of the sport of cricket adapted for blind and partially sighted players.
The South African national cricket team, nicknamed the Proteas (after South Africa's national flower, Protea cynaroides, commonly known as the "king protea"), is administered by Cricket South Africa.
The South Africa men's national football team represents South Africa in association football and is controlled by the South African Football Association, the governing body for football in South Africa.
The South African Air Force (SAAF) is the air force of South Africa, with headquarters in Pretoria.
South African Airways (SAA) is the flag carrier airline of South Africa.
A referendum on ending apartheid was held in South Africa on 17 March 1992.
The South African Army is the army of South Africa, first formed after the Union of South Africa was created in 1910.
South African art is the visual art produced by the people inhabiting the territory occupied by the modern country of South Africa.
The Constitution of 1983 (formally the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1983) was South Africa's third constitution.
The cuisine of South Africa can be generalised as.
The South African Defence Force (SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
In attacks on South African farms, predominantly white farmers and black farm workers are subjected to violent crime, including murder.
General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.
South Africa held national and provincial elections to elect a new National Assembly as well as the provincial legislature in each province on 22 April 2009.
The 2014 South African general election was held on 7 May 2014, to elect a new National Assembly and new provincial legislatures in each province.
The South African giraffe or Cape giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) is a subspecies of giraffe ranging from South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique.
Established in 1929http://www.sairr.org.za/profile/ the South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) is a research and policy organisation in South Africa.
South African literature is the literature of South Africa, which has 11 national languages: Afrikaans, English, Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Pedi, Tswana, Venda, SiSwati, Tsonga, and Ndebele.
The South African Military Health Service is the branch of the South African National Defence Force responsible for medical facilities and the training and deployment of all medical personnel within the force.
The South African National Census of 2011 is the 3rd comprehensive census performed by Statistics South Africa.
The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) comprises the armed forces of South Africa.
The South African Navy (SAN) is the naval warfare branch of the South African National Defence Force.
The South African Party was a political party that existed in the Union of South Africa from 1911 to 1934.
The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in South Africa on 5 October 1960.
South African Sign Language (SASL) is the primary sign language spoken by Deaf in South Africa.
South African Standard Time (SAST) is the time zone used by all of South Africa, Botswana as well as Swaziland and Lesotho.
The South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone (abbreviations: ZPCAS or ZOPACAS; Zona de Paz y Cooperación del Atlántico Sur; Zona de Paz e Cooperação do Atlântico Sul; also called the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic) is an organization and a military alliance created in 1986 through resolution A/RES/41/11 of the U.N. general assembly on Brazil's initiative, with the aim of promoting cooperation and the maintenance of peace and security in the South Atlantic region.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
The Southern Africa mangroves are an ecoregion of mangrove swamps in rivers and estuaries on the eastern coast of South Africa.
The South African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus), also known as the Namibian cheetah, is the most numerous and the nominate cheetah subspecies native to Southern Africa.
The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is a customs union among five countries of Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana.
The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a 10-metre class optical telescope designed mainly for spectroscopy.
The Southern African lion (Panthera leo melanochaita) is a lion subspecies in Southern Africa.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
Southern Ndebele, also known as Transvaal Ndebele, isiNdebele, Ndebele or South Ndebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Ndebele people of South Africa.
The southern white rhinoceros or southern square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum), is one of the two subspecies of the white rhinoceros (the other being the Northern white rhinoceros).
The Soweto String Quartet is a string quartet from Soweto in South Africa composed of Reuben Khemese, Makhosini Mnguni, Sandile Khemese and Thami Khemese.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a large multi radio telescope project aimed to be built in Australia and South Africa.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
The State President of the Republic of South Africa (Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa from 1961 to 1994.
Statistics South Africa (frequently shortened to Stats SA) is the national statistical service of South Africa, with the goal of producing timely, accurate, and official statistics in order to advance economic growth, development, and democracy.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).
Stellenbosch Thomas Baldwin, 1852.
Sterkfontein (Afrikaans for Strong Spring) is a set of limestone caves of special interest to paleo-anthropologists located in Gauteng province, about 40 km (23 miles) northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa in the Muldersdrift area close to the town of Krugersdorp.
Steve Hofmeyr (born 29 August 1964) is a South African singer, songwriter, political activist, actor and TV presenter.
Steven Jerome Pienaar (born 17 March 1982) is a South African former professional footballer.
The Stockholm Industry Water Award recognises impressive contributions made by businesses and industries to improve the world water situation.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Supreme Court of Appeal or SCA (formerly known as the Appellate Division) is an appellate court in South Africa.
Sutherland is a town with about 2,841 inhabitants in the Northern Cape province of South Africa.
The Swartberg mountains (black mountain in Afrikaans) are a mountain range in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
Swartkrans is a fossil-bearing cave designated as a South African National Heritage Site, located about from Johannesburg.
The Swartland is a region of Western Cape Province that begins some north of Cape Town and consists of the area between the towns of Malmesbury in the south, Darling in the west, Piketberg in the north, and the Riebeek West and Riebeek Kasteel in the east.
The Swazi or Swati language (Swazi: siSwati) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa by the Swazi people.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Sydney Brenner (born 13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Taung is a small town situated in the North West Province of South Africa.
The Taung Child (or Taung Baby) is the fossilised skull of a young Australopithecus africanus.
South Africa has switched to a closed numbering system.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.
Thawte Consulting (pronounced "thought") is a certificate authority (CA) for X.509 certificates.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Story of an African Farm (published in 1883 under the pseudonym Ralph Iron) was South African author Olive Schreiner's first published novel.
Timothy Henry Clark (born 17 December 1975) is a South African professional golfer who currently plays on the PGA Tour.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
Traditional African medicine is an alternative medicine discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives, and herbalists.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
Traditional healers of South Africa are practitioners of traditional African medicine in Southern Africa.
Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed.
The Transvaal Colony was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, and the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
In the history of Southern Africa, the Trekboere (now referred to as "Trekboer" in English; pronounced) were nomadic pastoralists descended from European settlers on the frontiers of the Dutch Cape Colony.
Trevor John Immelman (born 16 December 1979) is a South African professional golfer who has played on the PGA Tour, European Tour and Sunshine Tour.
Tsonga (Xitsonga) is a southern African Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people.
Tsotsi is a 2005 film directed by Gavin Hood and produced by Peter Fudakowski.
U-Carmen eKhayelitsha is a 2005 South African operatic film directed and produced by Mark Dornford-May.
uMkhonto we Sizwe (abbreviated as MK,, meaning "Spear of the Nation") was the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC), co-founded by Nelson Mandela in the wake of the Sharpeville massacre.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) is a military formation which constitutes part of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO).
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Party was a political party in South Africa.
Unity in diversity is a concept of "unity without uniformity and diversity without fragmentation" that shifts focus from unity based on a mere tolerance of physical, cultural, linguistic, social, religious, political, ideological and/or psychological differences towards a more complex unity based on an understanding that difference enriches human interactions.
Upington is a town founded in 1884 and located in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, on the banks of the Orange River.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Vaal River is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
The Vela Incident, also known as the South Atlantic Flash, was an unidentified double flash of light detected by an American Vela Hotel satellite on 22 September 1979 near the Prince Edward Islands off Antarctica.
Veld, also spelled veldt, is a type of wide open rural landscape in:Southern Africa.
Venda, also known as Tshivenḓa or Luvenḓa, is a Bantu language and an official language of South Africa.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Verisign, Inc. is an American company based in Reston, Virginia, United States that operates a diverse array of network infrastructure, including two of the Internet's thirteen root nameservers, the authoritative registry for the,, and generic top-level domains and the and country-code top-level domains, and the back-end systems for the,, and top-level domains.
Vernon Darryl Philander (born 24 June 1985) is a South African right-handed bowling all-rounder, he has previously represented his country at under 19 level.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
The virgin cleansing myth (also referred to as the virgin cure myth, virgin rape myth, or simply virgin myth) is the belief that having sex with a virgin girl cures a man of HIV/AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases.
Vuyani Bungu (born 26 February 1967) is a South African former professional boxer who competed from 1987 to 2005.
Walvis Bay (Afrikaans Walvisbaai, German Walfischbucht or Walfischbai, all meaning "Whale Bay") is a city in Namibia and the name of the bay on which it lies.
The Waterberg (Thaba Meetse) is a mountainous massif of approximately in north Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Welcome Ncita (born 25 October 1965) is a retired professional boxer and former IBF Super Bantamweight Champion.
The West Coast National Park lies north of Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
The West Indies cricket team, colloquially known as and (since June 2017) officially branded as the Windies, is a multi-national cricket team representing the Caribbean region and administered by Cricket West Indies.
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
Prior to 1994, immigrants from elsewhere faced discrimination and even violence in South Africa.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.
The Xhosa Wars (also known as the Cape Frontier Wars, or Africa's 100 Years War) were a series of nine wars or flare-ups (from 1779 to 1879) between the Xhosa tribes and European settlers in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Youth in South Africa constituted 37% of the population in 2010, numbering 19.1 million individuals.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The Zion Christian Church (or ZCC) is the largest African initiated church operating across Southern Africa.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
The Zulu (amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.
.za is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for South Africa.
The meridian 16° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1820 Settlers were several groups or parties of white British colonists settled by the British government and the Cape authorities in the South African Eastern Cape in 1820.
The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup.
The 1996 African Cup of Nations was the 20th edition of the Africa Cup of Nations, the soccer championship of Africa (CAF).
The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
The 1998 ICC Knock Out Tournament (officially known as Wills International Cup) was a One Day International cricket tournament held in Bangladesh.
The 2003 Cricket World Cup (known officially as ICC Cricket World Cup 2003) was the eighth Cricket World Cup, organized by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 22nd parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 22 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 33° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 35th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 78th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), took place on March 5, 2006, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:00 p.m. PST / 8:00 p.m. EST.
Afrique du sud, Azania/South Africa, IRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika, IRiphabhuliki yaseNingizimu Afrika, IRiphabliki yeSuwela Afrika, IRiphabliki yomZantsi Afrika, ISO 3166-1:ZA, Mzansi, Ningizimu Afrika, Rep. of SOUTH AFRICA, Rep. of South Africa, Repabliki ya Afrika-Borwa, Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa, Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa, Rephabuliki ya Afurika Tshipembe, Republic of South Africa, Republic of south africa, Republiek van Suid-Afrika, Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga, Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe, S Afr, S Africa, S. Africa, Saffa, Seth efrika, Sou'frica, Soufrica, South Africa's, South African, South Africaà, South africa, South-Africa, South-African, Southafrica, Suid Africa, Suid-Afrika, The Republic of South Africa, Third Republic (South Africa), Zuid Africa, Zuid Afrika, Zuid-Afrika, Zuidafrika.