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Burger, Washington Hilton, Washington National Cathedral, We begin bombing in five minutes, Wealth inequality in the United States, Weekly Radio Address of the President of the United States, Welfare, Welfare state, West Texas Historical Association, White House, White House Chief of Staff, White House Historical Association, White House press corps, WHO (AM), William Holden, William Knowland, William Rehnquist, Windfall profits tax, Winter 1985 cold wave, Yitzhak Shamir, Yuri Andropov, 1968 Republican National Convention, 1976 Republican National Convention, 1984 Summer Olympics, 1986 United States bombing of Libya, 1986 West Berlin discotheque bombing, 1992 Republican National Convention. Expand index (572 more) » « Shrink index
"A Time for Choosing", also known as "The Speech", was a speech presented during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by future president Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater.
Aaron Mitchell (1930 – April 12, 1967) was executed in the gas chamber for murdering police officer Arnold Gamble in Sacramento on February 15, 1963.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) is an international direct action advocacy group working to impact the lives of people with AIDS (PWAs) and the AIDS pandemic to bring about legislation, medical research and treatment and policies to ultimately bring an end to the disease by mitigating loss of health and lives.
In the United States, federal assistance, also known as federal aid, federal benefits, or federal funds, is defined as any federal program, project, service, or activity provided by the federal government that directly assists domestic governments, organizations, or individuals in the areas of education, health, public safety, public welfare, and public works, among others.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Albert Angrisani, also known as Al Angrisani is a leading expert on corporate turnarounds and the former Assistant U.S. Secretary of Labor under President Ronald Reagan, as well as an author and business media personality.
Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American Conservative Union (ACU) is an American political organization that advocates for conservative policies, ranks politicians based on their level of conservatism, and organizes the Conservative Political Action Conference.
American exceptionalism is an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in positive or negative connotations, with respect to its ideas of democracy and personal freedom.
American Experience is a television program airing on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television stations in the United States.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
American Presidents: Life Portraits is a series produced by C-SPAN in 1999.
This article refers to a defunct organization.
Americo Makk (1927–May 5, 2015) was a painter and portrait artist originally from Hungary, who immigrated to the United States with his family in 1962 to escape the communist movement in Brazil.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
Anthony Charles Beilenson (October 26, 1932 – March 5, 2017) was a former Democratic Congressman from Southern California who served ten terms in the United States House of Representatives, from 1977 until 1997.
Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is the senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Anti-abortion movements, also referred to as pro-life movements, are involved in the abortion debate advocating against the practice of abortion and its legality.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.
The Guatemalan Armed Forces consists of the National Army of Guatemala (Ejercito Nacional de Guatemala, ENG), the Guatemalan National Defense Navy (Marina de la Defensa Nacional, includes Marines), the Guatemalan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Guatemalteca, FAG), and the Presidential Honor Guard (Guardia de Honor Presidencial).
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
Arthur Betz Laffer (born August 14, 1940) is an American economist who first gained prominence during the Reagan administration as a member of Reagan's Economic Policy Advisory Board (1981–89).
The phrase "ash heap of history" (or "dustbin of history") literarily speaking refers to ghost towns or artifacts that have lost their relevance.
The Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor is the head of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor within the United States Department of State.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
On March 30, 1981, President Ronald Reagan and three others were shot and wounded by John Hinckley Jr. in Washington, D.C., as they were leaving a speaking engagement at the Washington Hilton Hotel.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial movie, but not an arthouse film.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.
Bantam Books is an American publishing house owned entirely by parent company Random House, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House; it is an imprint of the Random House Publishing Group.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.
The Barry Goldwater presidential campaign of 1964 began when United States Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona elected to seek the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States to challenge incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson.
Baton Rouge is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana and its second-largest city.
Bedtime for Bonzo is a 1951 American comedy film directed by Fred de Cordova, starring Ronald Reagan, Diana Lynn, and Peggy as Bonzo.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Bel Air Church (also known as Bel Air Presbyterian Church) is a conservative church of the Presbyterian Church (USA), and is located in the Bel Air neighborhood of Los Angeles, California.
Bel Air (or Bel-Air) is a neighborhood in the Westside area of Los Angeles, California, in the foothills of the Santa Monica Mountains.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989) was an American actress of film, television, and theater.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
This bibliography of Ronald Reagan includes major books and articles about 40th President of the United States Ronald Reagan and his policies.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Birthplace of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Graham Building, is located in an apartment on the second floor of a late 19th-century commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, United States.
Bitburg (Bitbourg; Béibreg) is a city in Germany, in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate approximately 25 km (16 mi.) northwest of Trier and 50 km (31 mi.) northeast of Luxembourg city.
In finance, Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed.
The Black Panther Party or the BPP (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966.
Bosley Crowther (July 13, 1905 – March 7, 1981) was an American journalist and author who was film critic for The New York Times for 27 years.
Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, often referred to as the Brady Act or the Brady Bill, is an Act of the United States Congress that mandated federal background checks on firearm purchasers in the United States, and imposed a five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998.
The Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor) is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the (temporarily) successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution.
Brent Scowcroft (born March 19, 1925) is a retired United States Air Force lieutenant general who was the United States National Security Advisor under U.S. Presidents Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush.
Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939) is a Canadian politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993.
Brother Rat is a 1938 film about cadets at Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia, directed by William Keighley, and starring Ronald Reagan, Priscilla Lane, Eddie Albert (in his film debut), Jane Wyman and Wayne Morris.
Bruce Reeves Bartlett (born October 11, 1951) is an American historian whose area of expertise is supply-side economics.
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States, northwest of downtown Los Angeles.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California gubernatorial election, 1966 was held on November 8, 1966.
The California gubernatorial election, 1970 was held on November 3, 1970.
The California Hall of Fame honors individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history.
The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is the highway patrol agency for the state of California and has jurisdiction anywhere in the state.
The California National Guard is a federally funded California military force, part of the National Guard of the United States.
The Penal Code of California forms the basis for the application of criminal law in the American state of California.
The California State Capitol is home to the government of California.
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
In the United States Army (USA), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), captain (abbreviated "CPT" in the USA and "Capt" in the USMC and USAF) is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3.
Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cattle Queen of Montana is a 1954 American Western film directed by Allan Dwan and starring Barbara Stanwyck and Ronald Reagan.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) is an economic policy think-tank, co-founded by economists Dean Baker and Mark Weisbrot, and is based in Washington, D.C. It has been described as left-leaning.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Century City is a 176-acre (71.2 ha) neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles County's Westside.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Federal Reserve, which is the central banking system of the United States.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
Chasen's was a restaurant frequented by entertainers in West Hollywood, California.
The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois.
The Chicago Theatre, originally known as the Balaban and Katz Chicago Theatre, is a landmark theater located on North State Street in the Loop area of Chicago, Illinois, in the United States.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States in the Reformed tradition with close ties to the Restoration Movement.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
Citizens for the Republic (CFTR) is an American political action committee founded in 1977 by Ronald Reagan, five months after he narrowly lost his bid for the 1976 Republican Party (GOP) presidential nomination to Gerald R. Ford, Jr. The committee was first directed by the Reagan aide Lyn Nofziger.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
The Civil Rights Restoration Act, or Grove City Bill, was a US legislative act that specified that recipients of federal funds must comply with civil rights laws in all areas, not just in the particular program or activity that received federal funding.
Clarence McClane Pendleton, Jr. (November 10, 1930 – June 5, 1988), was the politically conservative African American chairman of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, a position that he held from 1981 until his death during the administration of U.S. President Ronald W. Reagan.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), one of the longest-running programs of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, funds local community development activities such as affordable housing, anti-poverty programs, and infrastructure development.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
A Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress; the Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are the highest civilian awards in the United States.
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.
A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a nation or state.
The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.
County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The American crack epidemic was a surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across the United States between the early 1980s and the early 1990s.
Craigan Paul Shirley (born September 24, 1956) is an American author, lecturer, historian and public affairs consultant.
Culver City is a city in Los Angeles County, California.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
Dark Victory is a 1939 American drama film directed by Edmund Goulding, starring Bette Davis and featuring George Brent, Humphrey Bogart, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Ronald Reagan, Henry Travers and Cora Witherspoon.
David Richmond Gergen (born May 9, 1942) is an American political commentator and former presidential adviser who served during the administrations of Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, and Bill Clinton.
David Gaub McCullough (born July 7, 1933) is an American author, narrator, historian, and lecturer.
Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
On April 22, 1994, Richard Milhous Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, died after suffering a stroke four days earlier, at the age of 81.
On June 5, 2004, Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, died after having suffered from Alzheimer's disease for nearly a decade.
Death Valley Days is an American radio and television anthology series featuring true stories of the old American West, particularly the Death Valley area.
The Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, also known as the DEFRA, was a federal law enacted in the United States in 1984.
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Des Moines is the capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Iowa.
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Dinesh Joseph D'Souza (born April 25, 1961) is an Indian American conservative political commentator, author and filmmaker who has been described as far-right.
Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dixon High School (DHS) is a high school located on Lincoln Statue Drive and Peoria Avenue on the northern side of Dixon, Illinois.
Dixon is a city and the county seat of Lee County, Illinois, United States.
David Donald "Don" Mulford (August 27, 1915—March 20, 2000) served in the California legislature, and during World War II he served in the United States Army.
Donald Thomas "Don" Regan (December 21, 1918 – June 10, 2003) was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1981 to 1985 and the White House Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 in the Ronald Reagan Administration.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Douglas Howard Ginsburg (born May 25, 1946) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
Dupuytren's contracture is a condition in which one or more fingers become permanently bent in a flexed position.
The Dutch Boy Group is a paint manufacturing company currently headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The early 1980s recession was a severe global economic recession that affected much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The United States federal earned income tax credit or earned income credit (EITC or EIC) is a refundable tax credit for low- to moderate-income working individuals and couples, particularly those with children.
The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, also known as the ERTA or "Kemp–Roth Tax Cut", was a federal law enacted in the United States in 1981.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Edmund Sixtus Muskie (March 28, 1914March 26, 1996) was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 58th United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter, a United States Senator from Maine from 1959 to 1980, the 64th Governor of Maine from 1955 to 1959, a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1946 to 1951, and the Democratic Party's candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1968 election.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
Edwin John Feulner Jr. (born August 12, 1941) served as President of the conservative think tank, The Heritage Foundation from 1977 to 2013 and again from 2017 to 2018.
Howard Edwin "Ed" Reinecke (January 7, 1924 – December 24, 2016) was a California politician who served in the United States House of Representatives, and as the 39th state lieutenant governor.
José Efraín Ríos Montt (June 16, 1926 – April 1, 2018) was a Guatemalan general and politician who was born in Huehuetenango.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Embassy of the United States of America in London is the diplomatic mission of the United States in the United Kingdom.
Engel v. Vitale,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
Equal pay for equal work is the concept of labor rights that individuals in the same workplace be given equal pay.
Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943) is an American historian.
Ernest Angelo, Jr., known as Ernie Angelo (born March 7, 1934), is an American oilman and Republican politician who served from 1972 to 1980 as mayor of the West Texas city of Midland and was in 1976 the co-manager of the presidential primary campaign in Texas for Ronald W. Reagan.
Ernest Warren Lefever (November 12, 1919 – July 29, 2009) was an Republican American political theorist and foreign affairs expert who founded the Ethics and Public Policy Center in 1976 and was nominated for a State Department post by President Ronald Reagan, but withdrew after his nomination was rejected by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
Errol Leslie Flynn (20 June 1909 – 14 October 1959) was an Australian-born American actor who achieved fame in Hollywood after 1935.
Eureka College is a private, non-profit Christian college in Eureka, Illinois, related by covenant to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).
The phrase "evil empire" was first applied to the Soviet Union in 1983 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who took an aggressive, hard-line stance that favored matching and exceeding the Soviet Union's strategic and global military capabilities, in calling for a rollback strategy that would, in his words, "write the final pages of the history of the Soviet Union".
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
In United States presidential elections, a faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who does not vote for the presidential or vice-presidential candidate for whom they had pledged to vote.
Family values, sometimes referred to as familial values, are traditional or cultural values that pertain to the family's structure, function, roles, beliefs, attitudes, and ideals.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The first inauguration of Ronald Reagan as the 40th President of the United States was held on Tuesday, January 20, 1981, on the West Front of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
The First Lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the title held by the hostess of the White House, usually the wife of the President of the United States, concurrent with the President's term in office.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
The First Motion Picture Unit (FMPU), later 18th Army Air Forces Base Unit, was the primary film production unit of the US Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II and was the first military unit made up entirely of professionals from the film industry.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Forest Lawn Memorial Park is a privately owned cemetery in Glendale, California, US.
Fort MacArthur is a former United States Army installation in San Pedro, Los Angeles, California (now the port community of Los Angeles).
Fort Mason, once known as San Francisco Port of Embarkation, US Army, in San Francisco, California, is a former United States Army post located in the northern Marina District, alongside San Francisco Bay.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a massive, long-lasting student protest which took place during the 1964–65 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
Galesburg is a city in Knox County, Illinois, United States.
Gallup's most admired man and woman poll is an annual poll that Gallup has conducted at the end of most years since 1948.
Gary Lee Bauer (born May 4, 1946) is an American politician and activist.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
General Electric Theater was an American anthology series hosted by Ronald Reagan that was broadcast on CBS radio and television.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
The Geneva Summit of 1985 was a Cold War-era meeting in Geneva, Switzerland.
Gennadi (or Gennady) Ivanovich Gerasimov (Russian, Геннадий Иванович Герасимов, 3 March 1930, Yelabuga – 14 September 2010, Moscow) was the last Soviet, and then Russian ambassador to Portugal from 1990 to 1995.
George Chandler (June 30, 1898 – June 10, 1985) was an American actor best known for playing the character of "Uncle Petrie Martin" on the CBS television series Lassie.
George Christopher (December 8, 1907 – September 14, 2000) was a Greek-American politician, and the 34th Mayor of San Francisco, serving in that office from January 1956 until January 1964.
George Gipp (February 18, 1895 – December 14, 1920), nicknamed "The Gipper", was a college football player at the University of Notre Dame under head coach Knute Rockne.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Stanley McGovern (July 19, 1922 – October 21, 2012) was an American historian, author, U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election.
George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.
George C. Runner, Jr. (born March 25, 1952) is the Chairman of the California State Board of Equalization, the only publicly elected tax commission in the United States.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The George Washington University Hospital is located in Washington, D.C. in the United States.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawar (غازي مشعل عجيل الياور, born 1958) is an Iraqi politician.
Gilbert Lynel "Gil" Dozier (March 19, 1934 – September 23, 2013), was an attorney, businessman, farmer, and rancher who served from 1976 to 1980 as the Louisiana Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry.
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
The is the highest award for adult leaders in the Scout Association of Japan.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California.
Joseph Graham "Gray" Davis Jr. (born December 26, 1942) is a retired American politician and attorney who served as the 37th Governor of California from 1999 to 2003.
Grosvenor Square is a large garden square in the Mayfair district of London.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
The Guatemalan genocide, Mayan genocide, or Silent Holocaust refers to the massacre of Maya civilians during the Guatemalan military government's counterinsurgency operations.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
In the first Gulf of Sidra incident, 19 August 1981, two Russian made Libyan Su-22 Fitter fired upon and were subsequently shot down by two U.S. F-14 Tomcats off the Libyan coast.
The H.C. Pitney Variety Store Building is a commercial building in downtown Tampico, Illinois, United States, constructed in 1900.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss.
Helen Gahagan Douglas (November 25, 1900 – June 28, 1980) was an American actress and politician.
Hellcats of the Navy is a 1957 black-and-white World War II submarine film drama from Columbia Pictures, produced by Charles H. Schneer and directed by Nathan Juran.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
Hissène Habré (Arabic: حسين حبري Ḥusaīn Ḥabrī, Chadian Arabic:;; born 13 September 1942), also spelled Hissen Habré, is a Chadian politician who served as the President of Chad from 1982 until he was deposed in 1990.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s.
The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), found its way to the United States as early as 1960, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in young gay men in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco in 1981.
The Hobbs Act, named after Congressman Sam Hobbs (D-AL) and codified at, is a U.S. federal law enacted in 1946 that provides: Section 1951 also proscribes conspiracy to commit robbery or extortion without reference to the conspiracy statute at.
The Hollywood blacklist - as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally known - was the practice of denying employment to screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other American entertainment professionals during the mid-20th century because they were accused of having Communist ties or sympathies.
Homelessness is the circumstance when people are without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment.
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC, or House Committee on Un-American Activities, or HCUA) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Houston Irving Flournoy (October 7, 1929 – January 7, 2008) was an American politician who served as a California legislator and State Controller.
Harry Clifford Keel (April 13, 1919November 7, 2004), known professionally as Howard Keel, was an American actor and singer.
Howard Alan Kurtz (born August 1, 1953) is an American journalist and author best known for his coverage of the media.
Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899January 14, 1957) was an American screen and stage actor.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA),, also known as the Simpson–Mazzoli Act or the Reagan Amnesty, signed into law by Ronald Reagan on November 6, 1986, is an Act of Congress which reformed United States immigration law.
The inauguration of George H. W. Bush as the 41st President of the United States was held on Friday, January 20, 1989.
Income taxes in the United States are imposed by the federal, most state, and many local governments.
The incumbent is the current holder of a political office.
Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
The Institute for the Study of the Americas (ISA) was established in 2004 following a merger of the Institute of Latin American Studies and the Institute of United States Studies.
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) is the abbreviated name of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union (and later its successor states, in particular the Russian Federation).
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
On 3 July 1988, Iran Air Flight 655, a scheduled civilian passenger flight from Tehran to Dubai, was shot down by an SM-2MR surface-to-air missile fired from, a guided missile cruiser of the United States Navy.
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
As of 2018, there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States.
Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.
The Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, also known as the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance or Peshawar Seven, was an Afghan alliance formed in either 1981 or 1985 (see Alliance Formation below) by the seven Afghan mujahideen parties fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan forces in the Soviet-Afghan War.
The Ixil (pronounced) are a Maya people indigenous to Guatemala.
John Edward "Jack" Reagan (July 13, 1883 – May 18, 1941) was the father of radio station manager Neil Reagan (1908–1996) and Ronald Reagan (1911–2004), motion picture actor, 33rd Governor of California, and 40th President.
James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) is an American attorney and political figure.
James Scott Brady (August 29, 1940 – August 4, 2014) was an assistant to the U.S. President and White House Press Secretary under President Ronald Reagan.
Jane Wyman (born Sarah Jane Mayfield; January 5, 1917 – September 10, 2007).
Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 39th and current Governor of California since 2011, previously holding the position from 1975 to 1983, making him the state's longest-serving Governor.
Jesse Marvin Unruh (September 30, 1922 – August 4, 1987), also known as Big Daddy Unruh, was a well-known American Democratic politician and the California State Treasurer.
Jet is a magazine, currently in digital format, marketed to African-American readers.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
The Job Training Partnership Act of 1982 (et seq.) was a United States federal law passed October 13, 1982, by the United States Department of Labor during the Ronald Reagan administration.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Bayard Anderson (February 15, 1922 – December 3, 2017) was a United States Congressman and presidential candidate from Illinois.
John Lester Hubbard Chafee (October 22, 1922 – October 24, 1999) was an American politician.
John Warnock Hinckley Jr. (born May 29, 1955) is an American man who, on March 30, 1981, attempted to assassinate U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Washington, D.C. He wounded Reagan with a bullet that ricocheted and hit him in the chest.
John L. Harmer (born April 28, 1934) is a former California politician who served in the California State Senate as a Republican from 1966 to 1974.
John Loves Mary is a 1949 comedy film directed by David Butler and written by Henry Ephron and Phoebe Ephron.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John Patrick Sears (born 1940) is an American attorney and a Republican political strategist.
John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States Senator from Texas since Reconstruction.
"Just Say No" was an advertising campaign, part of the U.S. "War on Drugs", prevalent during the 1980s and early 1990s, to discourage children from engaging in illegal recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying no.
Keble College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Kings Row is a 1942 film starring Ann Sheridan, Robert Cummings, and Ronald Reagan that tells a story of young people growing up in a small American town at the turn of the twentieth century.
Knute Rockne, All American is a 1940 biographical film which tells the story of Knute Rockne, Notre Dame football coach.
Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)KAL 007 was used by air traffic control, while the public flight booking system used KE 007 was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska.
The Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, better known as the Taft–Hartley Act, (80 H.R. 3020) is a United States federal law that restricts the activities and power of labor unions.
In economics, the Laffer curve illustrates a theoretical relationship between rates of taxation and the resulting levels of government revenue.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Larry King (born Lawrence Harvey Zeiger; November 19, 1933) is an American television and radio host, whose work has been recognized with awards including two Peabodys and 10 Cable ACE Awards.
Lawrence Patton McDonald (April 1, 1935 – September 1, 1983) was an American politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Georgia's 7th congressional district as a Democrat from 1975 until he was killed while a passenger on board Korean Air Lines Flight 007 when it was shot down by Soviet interceptors.
Las Vegas (Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lech Aleksander Kaczyński (18 June 194910 April 2010) was a Polish lawyer and politician who served as the Mayor of Warsaw from 2002 until 2005 and as the President of Poland from 2005 until his death in 2010.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Lemuel Ricketts Boulware (1895 in Springfield, Kentucky – November 7, 1990 in Delray Beach, Florida) was General Electric's vice president of labor and community relations from 1956 until 1961.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Lesley Rene Stahl (born December 16, 1941) is an American television journalist.
The LGM-118 Peacekeeper, also known as the MX missile (for Missile-eXperimental), was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A lifeguard is a rescuer who supervises the safety and rescue of swimmers, surfers, and other water sports participants such as in a swimming pool, water park, beach or river.
In political philosophy, limited government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution.
The line-item veto, or partial veto, is a special form of veto that authorizes a chief executive to reject particular provisions of a bill enacted by a legislature without vetoing the entire bill.
This article provides a list of political scandals that involve officials from the government of the United States, sorted from most recent date to least recent.
This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights or Dames by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which do not carry pre-nominal styles.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
This is a list of presidents of the United States by age.
Although many paths may lead to the Presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been lawyer.
This is a list of UN peacekeeping missions since the United Nations was founded in 1945, organized by region, with the dates of deployment, the name of the related conflict, and the name of the UN operation.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the United States.
Looney Tunes is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros. from 1930 to 1969 during the golden age of American animation, alongside its sister series Merrie Melodies.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louie Broady Nunn (March 8, 1924 – January 29, 2004) was the 52nd governor of Kentucky.
Louis Uchitelle (born March 21, 1932) is a journalist and author.
The Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) is a state agency of Louisiana, headquartered in Baton Rouge.
Love is on the Air is a 1937 American film directed by Nick Grinde, and starring Ronald Reagan (in his film debut), June Travis, Eddie Acuff, Robert Barrat, Raymond Hatton and Willard Parker.
Lying in state is the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, major is a field grade military officer rank above the rank of captain and below the rank of lieutenant colonel.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962) was an American actress, model, and singer.
Mark Alan Weisbrot is an American economist and columnist.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Martin Luther King Jr.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Maureen Elizabeth Reagan (January 4, 1941 – August 8, 2001) was the first child of U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his first wife, actress Jane Wyman.
Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.
In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.
Merrill Lynch Wealth Management is a wealth management division of Bank of America.
The MGM-31A Pershing was the missile used in the Pershing 1 and Pershing 1a field artillery missile systems.
Michael Keith Deaver (April 11, 1938 – August 18, 2007) was a member of President Ronald Reagan's White House staff serving as White House Deputy Chief of Staff under James Baker III and Donald Regan from January 1981 until May 1985.
Michael Edward Reagan (born John Flaugher; March 18, 1945) is an American political commentator, Republican strategist, former radio talk show host, and author.
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, Texas, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
The Minden Press-Herald is a Monday-Friday daily newspaper published in Minden, the parish seat of Webster Parish in northwestern Louisiana, by Specht Newspapers, Inc.
The minimum wage in the United States is set by US labor law and a range of state and local laws.
Moneron Island, (Монерон, 海馬島 Kaibato, Ainu: Todomoshiri) is a small island located off Sakhalin Island.
Monmouth is a city in and the county seat of Warren County, Illinois, United States.
"Prouder, Stronger, Better", commonly referred to by the name "Morning in America", is a 1984 political campaign television commercial, known for its opening line, "It's morning again in America." The ad was part of the U.S. presidential campaign of Republican Party candidate Ronald Reagan.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The Mulford Act was a 1967 California bill that repealed a law allowing public carrying of loaded firearms.
The Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in August 1982 following the 1981 U.S.-brokered ceasefire between the PLO and Israel to end their involvement in the conflict between Lebanon's pro-government and pro-Syrian factions.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins; July 6, 1921 – March 6, 2016) was an American film actress and the wife of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States.
The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is a trade association and lobby group representing the interests of commercial and non-commercial over-the-air radio and television broadcasters in the United States.
The National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) is an association of evangelical denominations, organizations, schools, churches and individuals.
A national day of mourning is a day marked by mourning and memorial activities observed among the majority of a country's populace.
The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
The National Press Club is a professional organization and business center for journalists and communications professionals.
The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is an American nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.
The National Speakers Association (NSA) is a professional speakers' organization in the United States that supports the pursuit of public speaking as a business.
The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is composed of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
John Neil Reagan (September 16, 1908 – December 11, 1996) was an American radio station manager, CBS senior producer, and senior vice president of McCann Erickson.
Nelle Clyde Wilson Reagan (July 24, 1883 – July 25, 1962) was the mother of United States President Ronald Reagan (1911–2004) and his older brother Neil "Moon" Reagan (1908–1996).
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, and previously as the 49th Governor of New York (1959–1973).
Nicholas Berthelot Lemann is the Joseph Pulitzer II and Edith Pulitzer Moore Professor of Journalism and Dean Emeritus of the Faculty of Journalism at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party.
The oath of office of the President of the United States is the oath or affirmation that the President of the United States takes after assuming the presidency but before carrying out any duties of the office.
The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (or OBRA-93) was a federal law that was enacted by the 103rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton.
In the United States, open carry refers to the practice of "openly carrying a firearm in public", as distinguished from concealed carry, where firearms cannot be seen by the casual observer.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
is Japan's highest order.
The Order of the White Eagle (Order Orła Białego) is Poland's highest order awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits.
The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration, protection of human and legal rights, and the encouragement of good governance between countries and dependencies in the Lesser Antilles in the Eastern Caribbean.
The Oval Office is the working office space of the President of the United States located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. (April 21, 1905 – February 16, 1996) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 32nd Governor of California from 1959 to 1967.
Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American paleoconservative political commentator, author, syndicated columnist, politician, and broadcaster.
Patricia Nell Scott "Pat" Schroeder (born July 30, 1940) is an American politician who represented Colorado in the United States House of Representatives from 1973–1997.
Patti Davis (born Patricia Ann Reagan; October 21, 1952) is an American actress and author.
Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954), granddaughter of American publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst, became internationally known for events following her 1974 kidnapping and physical violation by a domestic American terrorist group known as the Symbionese Liberation Army.
Paul Kengor (born 1966) is an author and professor of political science at Grove City College, a four-year, private Christian liberal arts college in Grove City, Pennsylvania.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (born September 5, 1927) is an American economist.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
"Peace through strength" is a phrase which suggests that military power can help preserve peace.
Margaret Ellen "Peggy" Noonan (born September 7, 1950) is an American author of several books on politics, religion, and culture, and a weekly columnist for The Wall Street Journal.
The People of the State of California v. Robert Page Anderson, 493 P.2d 880, 6 Cal.
People's Park in Berkeley, California is a park located off Telegraph Avenue, bounded by Haste and Bowditch streets and Dwight Way, near the University of California, Berkeley.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Peter Victor Ueberroth (born September 2, 1937) is an American executive.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
The politics of Iran take place in a framework of a theocracy in a format of syncretic politics that is guided by Islamic ideology.
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from 1958 to 1981.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
The presidency of Jimmy Carter began at noon EST on January 20, 1977, when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as 39th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1981.
The President of Guatemala (Presidente de Guatemala) officially known as the President of the Republic of Guatemala (Presidente de la República de Guatemala), is the head of state and head of government of Guatemala, elected to a single four-year term.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President-elect of the United States is the person who has won the quadrennial presidential election in the United States, but who has not yet been inaugurated as President of the United States.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
Presidents of the United States have frequently appeared on U.S. postage stamps since the mid–1800s.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a United States trade union that operated from 1968 until its decertification in 1981 following a strike that was declared illegal and broken by the Reagan Administration.
Project Socrates was a classified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency program established in 1983 within the Reagan administration.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Public housing in the United States is administered by federal, state and local agencies to provide subsidized assistance for low-income households.
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
The War on Drugs is a term for the actions taken and legislation enacted by the United States government, intended to reduce or eliminate the production, distribution, and use of illicit drugs.
Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.
A racket is a planned or organized criminal act, usually in which the criminal act is a form of business or a way to earn illegal or extorted money regularly or briefly but repeatedly.
The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, commonly referred to as the RICO Act or simply RICO, is a United States federal law that provides for extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization.
Rancho del Cielo, also named Sky's Ranch or Heaven's Ranch, is a ranch located atop the Santa Ynez Mountain range northwest of Santa Barbara, California, United States.
Rasmussen Reports is an American polling company, founded in 2003.
Ray Anderson Barnhart (January 12, 1928 – May 26, 2013) was a businessman and Republican politician, formerly from Pasadena in Harris County, Texas.
"Read my lips: no new taxes" is a phrase spoken by then-American presidential candidate George H. W. Bush at the 1988 Republican National Convention as he accepted the nomination on August 18.
A Reagan Democrat is a traditionally Democratic voter in the United States, referring especially to white working-class Rust Belt residents, who defected from their party to support Republican President Ronald Reagan in either or both of the 1980 and 1984 elections as well as Republican Presidents George H. W. Bush in the 1988 election and George W. Bush in either or both of the 2000 and 2004 elections.
The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union in an attempt to end the Cold War.
The Reagan Era or Age of Reagan is a periodization of recent American history used by historians and political observers to emphasize that the conservative "Reagan Revolution" led by President Ronald Reagan in domestic and foreign policy had a lasting impact.
Reaganomics (a portmanteau of Reagan and economics attributed to Paul Harvey) refers to the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.
Real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP) is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation).
A realigning election (often called a critical election, political realignment, or critical realignment) is a term from political science and political history describing a dramatic change in the political system.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Regret is a negative conscious and emotional reaction to one's personal decision-making, a choice resulting in action or inaction.
The Republican Governors Association (RGA) is a Washington, D.C.-based 527 organization founded in 1963, consisting of U.S. state and territorial Republican governors.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
This article contains lists of official candidates associated with the 2008 Republican Party presidential primaries for the 2008 United States presidential election.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in Höfði in Reykjavík, on 11–12 October 1986.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Richard Schultz Schweiker (June 1, 1926 – July 31, 2015) was an American businessman and politician.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Robert Heron Bork (March 1, 1927 – December 19, 2012) was an American judge, government official, and legal scholar who advocated the judicial philosophy of originalism.
Robert Hutchinson Finch (October 9, 1925 – October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from La Canada Flintridge, California.
Robert Montgomery (born Henry Montgomery Jr.; May 21, 1904 – September 27, 1981) was an American film and television actor, director, and producer.
Robert Alexander Mundell, CC (born October 24, 1932) is a Canadian economist.
Robert Merton Solow, GCIH (born August 23, 1924), is an American economist, particularly known for his work on the theory of economic growth that culminated in the exogenous growth model named after him.
The Rock River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey.
The Rockwell B-1 LancerThe name "Lancer" is only applied to the B-1B version, after the program was revived.
In political science, rollback is the strategy of forcing a change in the major policies of a state, usually by replacing its ruling regime.
Ronald Prescott Reagan (born May 20, 1958) is an American former radio host and political analyst for KIRO radio and later, Air America Radio, where he hosted his own daily three-hour show.
The Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home is the house located at 816 South Hennepin Avenue, Dixon, Illinois, in which the 40th President of the United States Ronald Reagan lived as a youth beginning in 1920.
The Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, named after former United States President Ronald Reagan, is located in downtown Washington, D.C., and was the first federal building in Washington designed for both governmental and private sector purposes.
Ronald Reagan Day is a day of recognition that occurs every February 6, starting in 2011, in the state of California for Ronald Reagan, who was that state's governor from 1967 to 1975 and President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award is the highest civilian honor bestowed by the private Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation.
This article is about fictional appearances of the real-life person Ronald Reagan.
The Ronald Reagan Park (Park imienia Ronalda Reagana) is located in the neighborhood of Przymorze Wielkie, Gdańsk, Poland.
The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center for Public Affairs is the presidential library and final resting place of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989), and his wife Nancy Reagan.
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is the primary airport serving Washington, D.C..
The RSD-10 Pioneer (ракета средней дальности (РСД) «Пионер» tr.: Raketa Sredney Dalnosti (RSD) "Pioneer"; Medium-Range Missile "Pioneer") was an intermediate-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead, deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
A running mate is a person running together with another person on a joint ticket during an election.
Samuel Riley Pierce Jr. (September 8, 1922October 31, 2000) was Ronald Reagan's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development from January 23, 1981 until January 20, 1989.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
San Quentin State Prison (SQ) is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation state prison for men, located north of San Francisco in the unincorporated town of San Quentin in Marin County.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, having served from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until 2006.
Santa Barbara (Spanish for "Saint Barbara") is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U.S. state of California.
Santa Fe Trail is a 1940 American western film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Raymond Massey, Ronald Reagan and Alan Hale.
A savings and loan association (S&L), or thrift institution, is a financial institution that specializes in accepting savings, deposits, and making mortgage and other loans.
The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s and 1990s (commonly dubbed the S&L crisis) was the failure of 1,043 out of the 3,234 savings and loan associations in the United States from 1986 to 1995: the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) closed or otherwise resolved 296 institutions from 1986 to 1989 and the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) closed or otherwise resolved 747 institutions from 1989 to 1995.
School prayer, in the context of religious liberty, is state-sanctioned or mandatory prayer by students in public schools.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
The is the major Scouting organization of Japan.
The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) was an American labor union which represented over 100,000 film and television principal and background performers worldwide.
The Secretary of State of California is the chief clerk of the U.S. State of California, overseeing a department of 500 people.
Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937, often called Section 8, as repeatedly amended, authorizes the payment of rental housing assistance to private landlords on behalf of approximately 4.8 million low-income households, as of 2008, in the United States.
Series E U.S. Savings Bonds were marketed by the United States government as war bonds from 1941 to 1980.
Siena College is an independent Roman Catholic liberal arts college in Loudonville, Albany County, New York, United States.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Space Shuttle Challenger (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was the second orbiter of NASA's space shuttle program to be put into service, after ''Columbia''.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
Under United States tax law, the standard deduction is a dollar amount that non-itemizers may subtract from their income before income tax is applied.
START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States.
Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory arguing that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation.
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California.
Surrey is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties.
The Sylvanus Thayer Award is an award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point.
The United Federated Forces of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) was an American left-wing revolutionary and domestic terrorist organization active between 1973 and 1975 that considered itself a vanguard army.
The Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) is an act of the United States Congress. Since the recognition of the People's Republic of China, the Act has defined the substantial but non-diplomatic relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan.
Tampico is a village located in Tampico Township, Whiteside County, Illinois, United States.
Tau Kappa Epsilon (ΤΚΕ), commonly known as TKE or Teke, is an international all-male secret and social college fraternity founded on January 10, 1899, at Illinois Wesleyan University.
A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government.
The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, also known as TEFRA, is a United States federal law that rescinded some of the effects of the Kemp-Roth Act passed the year before.
The U.S. Congress passed the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA) to simplify the income tax code, broaden the tax base and eliminate many tax shelters.
"Tear down this wall!" is a line from a speech made by US President Ronald Reagan in West Berlin on June 12, 1987, calling for the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, to open up the barrier which had divided West and East Berlin since 1961.
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was an American politician who served in the United States Senate from Massachusetts for almost 47 years, from 1962 until his death in 2009.
Tennessee's Partner is a 1955 American Western film directed by Allan Dwan, written by Graham Baker, D. D. Beauchamp, Milton Krims, and Teddi Sherman with uncredited rewrites by Dwan, and starring John Payne, Ronald Reagan, Rhonda Fleming, and Coleen Gray.
Terry Golway is a Kean University professor, historian, author, and a journalist, having served as a columnist and editorial board member for The New York Times and a long-time editor and writer at The New York Observer.
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia that was established in 1846 and closed in 1957.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The California Museum, formerly The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts – home of the California Hall of Fame – is housed in the State Archives Building in Sacramento, one block from the State Capitol.
The Greatest American was a four-part American television series hosted by Matt Lauer in 2005.
The Hasty Heart is a 1949 Anglo-American co-production directed by Vincent Sherman and starring Ronald Reagan, Patricia Neal, and Richard Todd.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Killers, released in the UK as Ernest Hemingway's "The Killers", is a 1964 crime film released by Universal Studios.
The Lincoln Academy of Illinois is a not-for-profit and non-partisan organization dedicated to recognizing contributions made by living Illinoisans.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness is a book by Michelle Alexander, a civil rights litigator and legal scholar.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Reagan Diaries is a published version of diaries written by President Ronald Reagan while in the White House.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Voice of the Turtle (1947) is a comedy film starring Ronald Reagan, Eleanor Parker, Eve Arden, and Wayne Morris, directed by Irving Rapper, and based on the long-running 1943 The Voice of the Turtle by John Van Druten.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theodore J. "Ted" Lowi (July 9, 1931 – February 17, 2017) was an American political scientist.
"There you go again" was a phrase spoken during the 1980 United States presidential election debate by Republican presidential candidate Governor Ronald Reagan to his Democratic opponent, incumbent President Jimmy Carter.
This Is the Army is a 1943 American wartime musical comedy film produced by Hal B. Wallis and Jack L. Warner, and directed by Michael Curtiz, adapted from a wartime stage musical with the same name, designed to boost morale in the U.S. during World War II, directed by Ezra Stone.
Thomas K. Delahanty (born c. 1935) is a former District of Columbia policeman, who was wounded during the assassination attempt on U.S. President Ronald Reagan on Monday, March 30, 1981, in Washington, D.C.
Thomas Starr King (December 17, 1824 – March 4, 1864) was an American Universalist and Unitarian minister, influential in California politics during the American Civil War, and Freemason.
The Three Communiqué or The Three Joint Communiqués are a collection of three joint statements made by the governments of the United States and the People's Republic of China.
Timothy J. McCarthy (born June 20, 1949) is a former United States Secret Service agent who served under five U.S presidents; from Richard Nixon to Bill Clinton.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The Tower Commission was commissioned on December 1, 1986 by United States president Ronald Reagan in response to the Iran–Contra affair, in which senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo.
Trickle-down economics, also referred to as trickle-down theory, is an economic theory that advocates reducing taxes on businesses and the wealthy in society as a means to stimulate business investment in the short term and benefit society at large in the long term.
Truman is a 1992 biography of the 33rd President of the United States Harry S. Truman written by popular historian David McCullough.
The Tudeh Party of Iran (lit) is an Iranian communist party.
The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) to the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times a person is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army.
The United States Capitol rotunda is the central rotunda (built 1818–1824) of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is a bipartisan, independent commission of the United States federal government, created in 1957, that is charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations concerning civil rights issues in the United States.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States District Court for the Central District of California (in case citations, C.D. Cal.; commonly referred to as the CDCA or CACD) serves over 19 million people in Southern and Central California, making it the most populous federal judicial district.
The United States Court for the Middle District of Louisiana (in case citations, M.D. La.) comprises the parishes of Ascension, East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Iberville, Livingston, Pointe Coupee, St. Helena, West Baton Rouge, and West Feliciana.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The 1980 United States House of Representatives elections was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1980 which coincided with the election of Ronald Reagan as President.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Navy Memorial, on Pennsylvania Avenue NW between 7th Street Northwest and 9th Street Northwest in Washington, D.C., honors those who have served or are currently serving in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and the Merchant Marine.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The United States presidential election of 1948 was the 41st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948.
The United States presidential election of 1964, the 45th quadrennial American presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964.
The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968.
The United States presidential election of 1972, the 47th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972.
The United States presidential election of 1976 was the 48th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976.
The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1984 was the 50th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, a member of the President's Cabinet, and twelfth in the Presidential line of succession.
The 1950 United States Senate election in California followed a campaign characterized by accusations and name-calling.
The 1980 United States Senate elections coincided with Ronald Reagan's victory in the presidential election.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
Vaughn Richard Walker (born 1944) served as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California from 1989 to 2011.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician, diplomat, and lawyer who served as the 42nd Vice President of the United States from 1977 to 1981, and as a United States Senator from Minnesota (1964–76).
Walter Davis Pidgeon (September 23, 1897 – September 25, 1984) was a Canadian-American actor.
The Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) — known as Walter Reed General Hospital (WRGH) until 1951 — was the U.S. Army's flagship medical center from 1909 to 2011.
The Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC), formerly known as the National Naval Medical Center and colloquially referred to as the Bethesda Naval Hospital, Walter Reed, or Navy Med, is a United States' tri-service military medical center, located in the community of Bethesda, Maryland, near the headquarters of the National Institutes of Health.
War bonds are debt securities issued by a government to finance military operations and other expenditure in times of war.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1986.
The Washington Hilton, which was officially known as the Hilton Washington for a period in the early 21st century and is sometimes referred to colloquially as the Hinckley Hilton by locals, is a hotel in Washington, D.C. It is located at 1919 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., roughly at the boundaries of the Kalorama, Dupont Circle, and Adams Morgan neighborhoods.
The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the City and Diocese of Washington, commonly known as Washington National Cathedral, is a cathedral of the Episcopal Church located in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
On August 11, 1984, United States President Ronald Reagan, while running for re-election, was preparing to make his weekly Saturday radio address on National Public Radio.
Wealth inequality in the United States (also known as the wealth gap) is the unequal distribution of assets among residents of the United States.
The Weekly Address of the President of the United States (also known as the Weekly (Radio) Address or Your Weekly Address) is the weekly speech by the President of the United States to the nation.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
The West Texas Historical Association is an organization of both academics and laypersons dedicated to the preservation and dissemination of the total history of West Texas, loosely defined geographically as all Texas counties and portions of counties located west of Interstate 35.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking non-elected employee of the White House.
The White House Historical Association, founded in 1961 through efforts of First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, is a private, non-profit organization with a mission to enhance the public's understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of the White House, the official home and principal workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House press corps is the group of journalists, correspondents, or members of the media usually stationed at the White House in Washington, D.C., to cover the President of the United States, White House events, and news briefings.
WHO (1040 kHz "Newsradio 1040") is a commercial AM radio station in Des Moines, Iowa.
William Holden (born William Franklin Beedle Jr.; April 17, 1918 – November 12, 1981) was an American actor who was one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s and 1960s.
William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was an American politician, newspaper publisher, and Republican Party leader.
William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.
A windfall profits tax is a higher tax rate on profits that ensue from a sudden windfall gain to a particular company or industry.
The Winter 1985 cold wave was a meteorological event, the result of the shifting of the polar vortex further south than is normally seen.
Yitzhak Shamir (יצחק שמיר,; born Yitzhak Yezernitsky; October 22, 1915 – June 30, 2012) was an Israeli politician and the seventh Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms, 1983–84 and 1986–1992.
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The 1968 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Dade County, Florida, from August 5 to August 8, 1968.
The 1976 Republican National Convention was a United States political convention of the Republican Party that met from August 16 to August 19, 1976, to select the party's nominee for President.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.
The 1992 National Convention of the Republican Party (GOP) of the United States was held in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, from August 17 to August 20, 1992.
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