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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
The African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is a group of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that was created by the Georgetown Agreement in 1975.
The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans who mostly have West African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community.
Agriculture in Cuba has played an important part in the economy for several hundred years.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Alan Phillip Gross (born May 2, 1949) is a United States government contractor employed by United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alejo Carpentier y Valmont (December 26, 1904 – April 24, 1980) was a Cuban novelist, essayist, and musicologist who greatly influenced Latin American literature during its famous "boom" period.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Amateur boxing (also called Olympic Boxing) is a variant of boxing practised at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (25 November 1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
In population genetics, an ancestry-informative marker (AIM) is a single-nucleotide polymorphism that exhibits substantially different frequencies between different populations.
The Andalusians (andaluces) are a Spanish ethnic group that live in the southern region in Spain approximated by what is now called Andalusia.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The Antebellum era was a period in the history of the Southern United States, from the late 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1861, marked by the economic growth of the South.
The Aponte Conspiracy (also known as the Aponte Rebellion) was a large-scale slave rebellion in Cuba that occurred in 1812.
The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and of the Caribbean.
Arbitrary arrest and arbitrary detention are the arrest or detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Artemisa Province is one of the two new provinces created from the former La Habana Province, whose creation was approved by the Cuban National Assembly on August 1, 2010, the other being Mayabeque Province.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (ASCE) is a professional association for the study of the Cuban economy.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The August 1994 uprising or Maleconazo uprising was a protest against government policies in Cuba.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Baracoa is a municipality and city in Guantánamo Province near the eastern tip of Cuba.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Baseball is one of the most popular sports in Cuba.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Bay of Pigs (Spanish: Bahía de Cochinos) is an inlet of the Gulf of Cazones located on the southern coast of Cuba.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Beja is a city and a municipality in the Alentejo region, Portugal.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Black Spring refers to the 2003 crackdown on Cuban dissidents.
The Brazilian Armed Forces (Forças Armadas Brasileiras) is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy (including the Brazilian Marine Corps and Brazilian Naval Aviation) and the Brazilian Air Force.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
The Bureau of Public Affairs (PA) is the part of the United States Department of State that carries out the Secretary of State's mandate to help Americans understand the importance of foreign policy.
Cabo Catoche or Cape Catoche, in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, is the northernmost point on the Yucatán Peninsula.
Calixto García Iñiguez (August 4, 1839 – December 11, 1898) was a general in three Cuban uprisings, part of the Cuban War for Independence: Ten Years' War, the Little War and the War of 1895, itself sometimes called the Cuban War for Independence, which bled into the Spanish–American War, ultimately resulting in national independence for Cuba.
Camagüey is a city and municipality in central Cuba and is the nation's third largest city with more than 321,000 inhabitants.
Camagüey is the largest of the provinces of Cuba.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canal Educativo is a Cuban television channel devoted to educational programming.
Canarreos Archipelago is an archipelago of Cuba.
Canary Islanders, or Canarians (canarios), are an ethnic group living in the archipelago of the Canary Islands (an autonomous community of Spain), near the coast of Western Africa.
The Captaincy General of Cuba (Capitanía General de Cuba) was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire created in 1607 as part of Habsburg Spain's attempt to better defend the Caribbean against foreign powers, which also involved creating captaincies general in Puerto Rico, Guatemala and Yucatán.
Carabalí is a surname.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, (Caribbean.). Accessed July 2011.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Caribbean Spanish (Spanish: español caribeño) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region.
Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo (April 18, 1819, Bayamo, Spanish Cuba – February 27, 1874, San Lorenzo, Spanish Cuba) was a Cuban revolutionary hero.
Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada (August 12, 1871, New York City, New York, United States – March 28, 1939, Vedado, Havana, Cuba) was a Cuban writer, politician, diplomat, and President of Cuba.
Carlos Prío Socarrás (July 14, 1903 – April 5, 1977) was the President of Cuba from 1948 until he was deposed by a military coup led by Fulgencio Batista on March 10, 1952, three months before new elections were to be held.
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso (October 21, 1925 – July 16, 2003) was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career.
Cha-cha-chá is a genre of Cuban music.
Charles Edward Magoon (December 5, 1861 – January 14, 1920) was an American lawyer, judge, diplomat, and administrator who is best remembered as a governor of the Panama Canal Zone, Minister to Panama, and an occupation governor of Cuba.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese Cubans (sino-cubano) are Cubans of full or mixed Chinese ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Cuba.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The Chromista is an eukaryotic kingdom, probably polyphyletic.
The Ciboney, or Siboney, were a Taíno people of Cuba.
Ciego de Ávila is one of the provinces of Cuba, and was previously part of Camagüey Province.
Cienfuegos is one of the provinces of Cuba.
CimaVax-EGF is a vaccine used to treat cancer, specifically non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Coffee has been grown in Cuba since the mid-18th century.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
The Colorados Archipelago (Archipiélago de los Colorados, also called Archipiélago de Santa Isabel and Archipiélago de Guaniguanico) is a chain of isles and cays on Cuba's north-western coast.
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
The Communist Party of Cuba is the political party that rules in Republic of Cuba, although others exist without legal recognition or incorporation.
Concert dance (also known as performance dance or theatre dance in the United Kingdom) is dance performed for an audience.
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River.
Even before attaining its independence from Spain, Cuba had several constitutions either proposed or adopted by insurgents as governing documents for territory they controlled during their war against Spain.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
The Council of Ministers (Spanish: Consejo de ministros), also referred to as simply the Cabinet of Cuba, is the highest ranking executive and administrative body of the Republic of Cuba, and constitutes the nation's government.
The Council of State of Cuba is a 31-member body of the government of Cuba, elected by the National Assembly of People's Power.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Cuba first participated at the Olympic Games in 1900, and has sent athletes to compete in 20 of 28 Summer Olympic Games overall.
Cuba is a town and municipality in the District of Beja in Portugal.
After the establishment of diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military aid, becoming an ally of the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Cuban bread is a fairly simple white bread, similar to French bread and Italian bread, but has a slightly different baking method and ingredient list (in particular, it generally includes a small amount of fat in the form of lard or vegetable shortening); it is usually made in long, baguette-like loaves.
The convertible peso (sometimes given as CUC$ and informally called a cuc or a chavito) is one of two official currencies in Cuba, the other being the Cuban peso.
The Cuban dissident movement is a political movement in Cuba whose aim is "to replace the current regime with a more democratic form of government".
The term "Cuban exile" refers to the many Cubans who fled from or left the island of Cuba.
In November 1975, on the eve of Angola's independence, Cuba launched a large-scale military intervention in support of the leftist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) against United States-backed interventions by South Africa and Zaire in support of two right-wing independence movements competing for power in the country, the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).
There is a significant Cuban diaspora in Mexico.
Cuban immigration has greatly influenced modern Miami, creating what is known as "Cuban Miami." However, Miami reflects global trends as well, such as the growing trends of multiculturalism and multiracialism; this reflects the way in which international politics shape local communities.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The Cuban National Ballet (Ballet Nacional de Cuba) is a classical ballet company based at Alicia Alonso Great Theatre of Havana in Havana, Cuba.
The peso (ISO 4217 code: CUP, sometimes called the "national currency" or in Spanish moneda nacional) is one of two official currencies in use in Cuba, the other being the convertible peso (ISO 4217 code: CUC, occasionally called "dollar" in the spoken language).
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias – FAR) consist of ground forces, naval forces, air and air defence forces, and other paramilitary bodies including the Territorial Troops Militia (Milicias de Tropas Territoriales – MTT), Youth Labor Army (Ejército Juvenil del Trabajo – EJT), and the Defense and Production Brigades (Brigadas de Producción y Defensa – BPD), plus the Civil Defense Organization (Defensa Civil de Cuba – DCC) and the National Reserves Institution (Instituto Nacional de las Reservas Estatales – INRE).
Cuban Spanish—also referred to colloquially as simply cubano, or even cubañol— is the variety of the Spanish language as it is spoken in Cuba.
The Cuban thaw was a warming of Cuba–United States relations that began in December 2014 ending a 54-year stretch of hostility between the nations.
The Cuban War of Independence (1895–98) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) and the Little War (1879–1880).
Cubans or Cuban people (Cubanos) are the inhabitants or citizens of Cuba.
Cubavision is a Cuban open television channel, the main channel of Cuban Television.
The culture of Cuba is a complex mixture of different, often contradicting, factors and influences.
Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
Daína Chaviano (born in Havana, Cuba, in 1957).
The Kingdom of Dahomey was an African kingdom (located within the area of the present-day country of Benin) that existed from about 1600 until 1894, when the last king, Béhanzin, was defeated by the French, and the country was annexed into the French colonial empire.
Danzón is the official musical genre and dance of Cuba.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
Department of Revolutionary Orientation (DOR) is a division of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 in Cuéllar, Spain – c. June 12, 1524 in Santiago de Cuba) was a Spanish conquistador.
The Intelligence Directorate (Dirección de Inteligencia, DI), commonly known as G2 and, until 1989, named Dirección General de Inteligencia (DGI), on cubamilitar.org is the main state intelligence agency of the government of Cuba.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Dulce María Loynaz (10 December 1902 – 27 April 1997) was a Cuban poet.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Earl of Albemarle is a title created several times from Norman times onwards.
Cuba has a planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises.
EcuRed is a Cuban online encyclopedia built on MediaWiki software.
Escuela Latinoamericana de Medicina (ELAM), formerly Escuela Latinoamericana de Ciencias Médicas (in Spanish; in English: Latin American School of Medicine (LASM), formerly Latin American School of Medical Sciences), is a major international medical school in Cuba and a prominent part of the Cuban healthcare system.
Encomienda was a labor system in Spain and its empire.
The Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was the main independence movement in Eritrea which sought Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia during the 1960s and 1970s.
The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, both before and during the Ethiopian Civil War.
Ernesto Lecuona y Casado (August 6, 1895 – November 29, 1963) was a Cuban composer and pianist of worldwide fame.
The Escambray Mountains are a mountain range in the central region of Cuba, in the provinces of Sancti Spíritus, Cienfuegos and Villa Clara.
The Escambray rebellion was a six-year rebellion (1959–1965) in the Escambray Mountains by a group of insurgents who opposed the Cuban government led by Fidel Castro.
Juan Esteban Lazo Hernández (born February 26, 1944 in Jovellanos) is a Cuban politician who has been the President of the National Assembly of People's Power, Cuba's parliament, since 2013.
Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Cuba S.A. (Telecommunications Company of Cuba; ETECSA) is the monopoly full telecommunications service provider for Cuba.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba (Primer Secretario del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba.) is the highest office within the Communist Party of Cuba and is ranked first in the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Cuba, which makes the office holder the most powerful person in Cuban government.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was the 14th President of the United States (1853–1857), a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation.
In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color (French: gens de couleur libres, Spanish: gente libre de color) were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Galicians (galegos, gallegos) are a national, cultural and ethnic group whose historic homeland is Galicia, in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula.
The güiro is a Latin American percussion instrument consisting of an open-ended, hollow gourd with parallel notches cut in one side.
General George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle KG PC (London, 8 April 1724 – 13 October 1772), styled Viscount Bury until 1754, was a British soldier and nobleman.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Gerardo Machado y Morales (28 September 1871 – 29 March 1939) was a general of the Cuban War of Independence and President of Cuba from 1925 to 1933.
Gloria Estefan (née Fajardo; born September 1, 1957) is a Cuban-American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman.
Since the 16th century the island of Cuba had been under the control of the governor-captain general of Santo Domingo.
Granma is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party.
Granma is the yacht that was used to transport 82 fighters of the Cuban Revolution from Mexico to Cuba in November 1956 for the purpose of overthrowing the regime of Fulgencio Batista.
Granma is one of the provinces of Cuba.
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Greg Grandin (born 1962) is a professor of history at New York University.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guanahani is an island in the Bahamas that was the first land in the New World sighted and visited by Christopher Columbus' first voyage, on October 12, 1492.
The Guanahatabey (also spelled Guanajatabey) were an indigenous people of western Cuba at the time of European contact.
Guantánamo Bay (Bahía de Guantánamo) is a bay located in Guantánamo Province at the southeastern end of Cuba.
Guantánamo is the easternmost province of Cuba.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guillermo Cabrera Infante (Gibara, 22 April 1929 – 21 February 2005) was a Cuban novelist, essayist, translator, screenwriter, and critic; in the 1950s he used the pseudonym G. Caín.
Guillermo Rosales (1946–1993) was a Cuban novelist.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Haitians (French: Haïtiens, Haitian: Ayisyen) are people affiliated with Haiti.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
The Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad) Act of 1996 (Helms–Burton Act) is a United States federal law which strengthens and continues the United States embargo against Cuba.
Hernando de Soto (1495 – May 21, 1542) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (through Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and most likely Arkansas).
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
Holguín is one of the provinces of Cuba, the third most populous after Havana and Santiago de Cuba.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
A house church or home church is a label used to describe a group of Christians who regularly gather for worship in private homes.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human rights in Cuba are under the scrutiny of human rights organizations, who accuse the Cuban government of systematic human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment and unfair trials.
Human Rights Quarterly (HRQ) is a quarterly academic journal founded by Richard Pierre Claude in 1982 covering human rights.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hurricane Irma was an extremely powerful and catastrophic Cape Verde hurricane, the strongest observed in the Atlantic in terms of maximum sustained winds since Wilma, and the strongest storm on record to exist in the open Atlantic region.
Hurricane Jose was a powerful and erratic tropical cyclone which was the longest-lived Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Nadine in 2012.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Cuba.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The indigenous peoples of the Caribbean included the Taíno, the Island Caribs of the Lesser Antilles, and the Guanahatabey of western Cuba.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The internet in Cuba stagnated since its introduction in the late 1990s because of lack of funding, tight government restrictions, and the U.S. embargo, especially the Torricelli Act.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Irving Louis Horowitz (September 25, 1929 – March 21, 2012) was an American sociologist, author and college professor who wrote and lectured extensively in his field.
Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban island and the seventh-largest island in the West Indies (after Cuba itself, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Andros Island).
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Buchanan Jr. (April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American politician who served as the 15th President of the United States (1857–61), serving immediately prior to the American Civil War.
James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was an American politician who served as the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849).
James Stuart Olson is an academic and Pulitzer Prize-nominated author.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Jardines de la Reina (Gardens of the Queen) is an archipelago in the southern part of Cuba, in the provinces of Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John, Prince of Asturias (Juan; 30 June 1478 – 4 October 1497), was the only son of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon who survived to adulthood.
Jorge Armando Pérez is a Cuban humanitarian, author, and evangelist.
Jorge I. Domínguez (born 1945) is the Antonio Madero Professor for the Study of Mexico at Harvard University, a position from which he is on paid administrative leave.
José Lezama Lima (December 19, 1910 – August 9, 1976) was a Cuban writer and poet who is considered one of the most influential figures in Latin American literature.
José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban National Hero and an important figure in Latin American literature.
José Miguel Gómez y Gómez (July 6, 1858 – June 13, 1921) was a Cuban who was one of the leaders of the rebel forces in the Cuban War of Independence and President of Cuba from 1909 to 1913.
José Ramón Machado Ventura, M.D. (born 26 October 1930) is a Cuban revolutionary and politician who was the First Vice President of the Council of State of Cuba from 2008 to 2013.
The Journal of Latin American Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Key West (Cayo Hueso) is an island and city in the Straits of Florida on the North American continent, at the southwesternmost end of the roadway through the Florida Keys in the state of Florida, United States.
El Himno de Bayamo (The Bayamo Anthem) is the national anthem of Cuba.
The agrarian reform laws of Cuba sought to break up large landholdings and redistribute land to those peasants who worked it, to cooperatives, and the state.
Las Tunas is one of the provinces of Cuba.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latin American migration to the United Kingdom dates back to the early 19th century.
Leonardo de la Caridad Padura Fuentes (born 1955) is a Cuban novelist and journalist.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by literacy rate.
This is a list of notable and well-known Cubans, ordered alphabetically by first name within each category.
This is a list of institutions using the term institute of technology or polytechnic.
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
This is a list of places in Cuba.
This article lists political parties in Cuba.
The following is a list of universities in Cuba.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The Little War or Small War (Guerra Chiquita) was the second of three conflicts between Cuban rebels and Spain.
Lucumí is a lexicon of words and short phrases derived from Yoruba language in Cuba and used in as the liturgical language of Santería in Cuba and the Cuban Diaspora.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a genre of narrative fiction and, more broadly, art (literature, painting, film, theatre, etc.) that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, expresses a primarily realistic view of the real world while also adding or revealing magical elements.
Mambo is a musical genre and dance style that developed originally in Cuba.
The Manifesto of Montecristi is the official document of the Revolutionary Party in Cuba; it was written by José Martí and signed by himself and Máximo Gómez on March 25, 1895 in Monte Cristi, Dominican Republic.
Manuel Urrutia Lleó (December 8, 1901 – 5 July 1981) was a liberal Cuban lawyer and politician.
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves.
Maraca, sometimes called rumba shaker, shac-shac, and various other names, is a rattle which appears in many genres of Caribbean and Latin music.
The marímbula is a plucked box musical instrument of the Caribbean.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Matanzas is one of the provinces of Cuba.
Mayabeque Province is one of two new provinces created from the former La Habana Province, whose creation was approved by the Cuban National Assembly on August 1, 2010, the other being Artemisa Province.
The mayohuacán or bayohabao was a wooden slit drum played by the indigenous Taíno people of the Caribbean.
Máximo Gómez y Báez (November 18, 1836 – June 17, 1905) was a Major General in Cuba's Ten Years' War (1868–1878) against Spain.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melvyn Paul Leffler (born May 31, 1945 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American historian and educator, currently Edward Stettinius Professor of History at the University of Virginia.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Miguel Angel Barnet Lanza (born January 28, 1940) is a Cuban writer, novelist and ethnographer.
Miguel Mario Díaz-Canel Bermúdez (born 20 April 1960) is a Cuban politician serving as the current President of Cuba.
Minority Rights Group International (MRG) is an international human rights organisation founded with the objective of working to secure rights for ethnic, national, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples around the world.
Mission Barrio Adentro (English: Into the Neighborhood Mission) is a Bolivarian national social welfare program established under late Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez.
Moa is a municipality and an industrial city in the Holguín Province of Cuba.
San Fernando de Monte Cristi is the capital of Monte Cristi Province in the Dominican Republic.
Moros y Cristianos or Moros i Cristians literally in English Moors and Christians, is a set of festival activities which are celebrated in many towns and cities of Spain, mainly in the southern Valencian Community.
Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho), is a political party that has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
Multivisión is the fifth national network of Cuba, established in 2008 and operated by the ICRT.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nat Turner's Rebellion (also known as the Southampton Insurrection) was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, during August 1831.
The National Assembly of People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular) is the legislative parliament of the Republic of Cuba and the supreme body of State power.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
La Niña (Spanish for The Girl) was one of the three Spanish ships used by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus in his first voyage to the West Indies in 1492.
Nicolás Cristóbal Guillén Batista (10 July 1902 – 16 July 1989) was a Cuban poet, journalist, political activist, and writer.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
Odd Arne Westad FBA (born 5 January 1960) is a Norwegian historian specializing in the Cold War and contemporary East Asian history.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Organopónicos or organoponics is a system of urban agriculture using organic gardens.
The exact ethnic or national origin of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) has been a source of speculation since the 19th century.
Oshun (known as Ochún or Oxúm in Latin America) also spelled Ọṣun, is an orisha, a spirit, a deity, or a goddess that reflects one of the manifestations of God in the Ifá and Yoruba religions.
Osmani "La Voz" García González is a Cuban reggaeton (cubatón) singer.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Cuba: Cuba – island country in the Caribbean.
The Pact of Zanjón ended the armed struggle of Cubans for independence from Spain that lasted from 1868 to 1878, the Ten Years' War.
Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, and West Africans.
The Partido Independiente de Color (PIC) was a Cuban political party composed almost entirely of African former slaves.
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
Pedro Juan Gutiérrez, born 27 January 1950 in Matanzas, Cuba, is a Cuban novelist.
Pentarchy of 1933, formally known as the Executive Commission of the Provisional Government of Cuba, was a coalition that ruled Cuba from September 5 to September 10, 1933 after Gerardo Machado was deposed on August 12, 1933.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
The People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular) is the highest body of judicial power in Cuba.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pico Turquino is the highest point in Cuba.
Pinar del Río (formerly Nuevas Filipinas) is one of the provinces of Cuba.
La Pinta (Spanish for The Painted One, The Look, or The Spotted One http://www.indepthinfo.com/columbus-christopher/nina-pinta-santa-maria.htm -->) was the fastest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first transatlantic voyage in 1492.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
On March 2, 1901, the Platt Amendment was passed as part of the 1901 Army Appropriations Bill.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
The "Havana University of Technologies José Antonio Echeverría" (Universidad Tecnológica de la Habana José Antonio Echeverría), originally named "José Antonio Echeverría Higher Polytechnic Institute" (Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría, CUJAE) is an undergraduate, post-graduate and doctoral research university located in Marianao, Havana, Cuba.
Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The President of Bolivia (Presidente de Bolivia) officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is head of state and head of government of Bolivia.
The President of Cuba (Presidente de Cuba), officially called from 1976 President of the Council of State (Presidente del Consejo de Estado de Cuba), is the head of the Council of State of Cuba.
The President of Venezuela (Presidente de Venezuela), officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela's presidential system.
The Prime Minister of Cuba (Primer Ministro de Cuba) – official title: President of the Council of Ministers (Presidente del Consejo de Ministros de Cuba) – is the head of the Council of Ministers of Cuba.
Prostitution in Cuba has always been a legal profession, though it has periodically been regulated or repressed.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Quintana Roo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.
Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.
Rationing in Cuba refers to the system of food distribution known in Cuba as the Libreta de Abastecimiento ("Supplies booklet").
Redfield Proctor (June 1, 1831March 4, 1908) was a U.S. politician of the Republican Party.
Reggaeton (also known as reggaetón and reguetón) is a music genre which originated in Puerto Rico during the late 1990s.
Reinaldo Arenas (July 16, 1943 – December 7, 1990) was a Cuban poet, novelist, and playwright known as an early sympathizer, and later critic of Fidel Castro and the 1959 revolution, and a rebel of the Cuban government.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
The Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba) of 1902 to 1959, refers to the historical period in Cuba from 1902, when Cuba seceded from US rule in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War that took Cuba from Spanish rule in 1898, until communist revolutionaries took power in 1959.
Ropa vieja (Spanish for "old clothes") is one of the national dishes of Cuba, but is also popular in other areas or parts of the Caribbean such as Puerto Rico and Panama.
Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center (founded 1898) is a cancer research and treatment center located in Buffalo, New York and founded by Dr. Roswell Park.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Sabana-Camagüey (Archipiélago de Sabana-Camagüey) is an archipelago that lines Cuba's north-central Atlantic coast.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.
Salvador Valdés Mesa (born 13 June 1945) is a Cuban politicianDamien Cave,, The New York Times, 24 February 2013 and former trade union leader.
Sancti Spíritus is one of the provinces of Cuba.
Santa Clara is the capital city of the Cuban province of Villa Clara.
La Santa María de la Inmaculada Concepción (Spanish for: The Holy Mary of the Immaculate Conception), or La Santa María, originally La Gallega, was the largest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
Santiago de Cuba is the second-largest city of Cuba and the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province.
Santiago de Cuba Province is the second most populated province in the island of Cuba.
Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.
Seven Stories Press is an independent American publishing company.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sex tourism is a phenomenon whereby a person travels away from his or her community to engage in sexual activity, particularly with prostitutes.
Sherritt International is a Canadian resource company, based in Toronto, Ontario.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Havana was a military action from March to August 1762, as part of the Seven Years' War.
Sierra Maestra is a mountain range that runs westward across the south of the old Oriente Province in southeast Cuba, rising abruptly from the coast.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Slavery in Cuba was associated with the sugar cane plantations and existed on the territory of the island of Cuba from the 16th century until it was abolished by royal decree on October 7, 1886.
Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operations of the Spanish Empire - it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Social dance is that category of dances that have a social function and context.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations (SHAFR) was founded in order to “promote excellence in research and teaching of American foreign relations history and to facilitate professional collaboration among scholars and students in this field around the world.” It is the preeminent organization in its field, with over 1,400 current members.
Son cubano is a genre of music and dance that originated in the highlands of eastern Cuba during the late 19th century.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
The Special Period in Time of Peace (Período especial) in Cuba was an extended period of economic crisis that began in 1989 primarily due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, by extension, the Comecon.
The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait (Estrecho de Florida) is a strait located south-southeast of the North American mainland, generally accepted to be between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Florida Keys (U.S.) and Cuba.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Taíno people are one of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.
Taíno is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean.
Teachers College, Columbia University (TC or Columbia University Graduate School of Education) is a graduate school of education, health and psychology in New York City.
Tele Rebelde is Cuba's second national television network, founded in 1968.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
Telephone numbers in Cuba all have the same format, consisting of the country code (53), followed by an area code.
The Ten Years' War (Guerra de los Diez Años) (1868–1878), also known as the Great War (Guerra Grande) and the War of '68, was part of Cuba's fight for independence from Spain.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Bodley Head is an English publishing house, founded in 1887 and existing as an independent entity until the 1970s.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The New Press is an independent non-profit public-interest book publisher established in 1992 by André Schiffrin"", Publishers Weekly.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Wilson Quarterly is a magazine published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. The magazine was founded in 1976 by Peter Braestrup and James H. Billington.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tomás Estrada Palma (July 9, 1835 – November 4, 1908) was a Cuban political figure.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Tourism in Cuba is an industry that generates over 4.5 million arrivals in 2017, and is one of the main sources of revenue for the island.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Paris of 1898 (Filipino: Kasunduan sa Paris ng 1898; Spanish: Tratado de París (1898)) was an agreement made in 1898 that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all of the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.
The tres (Spanish for three) is a guitar-like three-course chordophone of Cuban origin.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States embargo against Cuba (in Cuba called el bloqueo, "the blockade") is a commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Military Government in Cuba (Spanish: Gobierno militar estadounidense en Cuba or Gobierno militar americano en Cuba), was a provisional military government in Cuba that was established in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War in 1898 when Spain ceded Cuba to the United States.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.
The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in the Vedado district of Havana, the capital of the Republic of Cuba.
The University of Miami (informally referred to as UM, U of M, or The U) is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, Florida, United States.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh.
The University of Oriente - Santiago de Cuba (Spanish Universidad de Oriente - Santiago de Cuba, UO) is a university located in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.
The University Press of Florida (UPF) is the scholarly publishing arm of the State University System of Florida, representing Florida's twelve state universities.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
USS Maine (ACR-1) was an American naval ship that sank in Havana Harbor during the Cuban revolt against Spain, an event that became a major political issue in the United States.
UTC−04:00 is a time offset that subtracts 4 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC−05:00 is a time offset that subtracts five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, 1st Duke of Rubí, 1st Marquess of Tenerife, GE, KOGF, OCIII, LCSF, RMOSH (September 17, 1838October 20, 1930) was a Spanish general and colonial administrator who served as the Governor General of the Philippines and Cuba.
In the context of the theory of Marxist–Leninist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
Varadero is a resort town in the province of Matanzas, Cuba, and one of the largest resort areas in the Caribbean.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Vice Presidents of Cuba, officially called from 1976 Vice President of the Council of State, is the second highest political position obtainable in Council of State of Cuba.
Villa Clara is one of the provinces of Cuba.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.
The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
Westview Press was an American publishing house.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
White Latin Americans or European Latin Americans are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser.
William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897 until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
The Yucatán Channel or Straits of Yucatán (Spanish: Canal de Yucatán) is a strait between Mexico and Cuba.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).
Zoé Valdés (born May 2, 1959 in Havana, Cuba) is a Cuban novelist, poet, scriptwriter, film director and blogger.
.cu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Cuba.
The 1940 Constitution of Cuba was implemented during the presidency of Federico Laredo Brú and took effect on 10 October 1940.
The 19th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 19 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
In March 2009, President Raúl Castro of Cuba dismissed numerous government ministers.
The 24th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 24 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
The meridian 74° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 85° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Administrative divisions of Cuba, CUBA, Communism in Cuba, Communist Cuba, Cuban News Agency, Etymology of Cuba, ISO 3166-1:CU, Isla Juana, Name of Cuba, People's Republic of Cuba, Prehistory of Cuba, Red Cuba, Republic of Cuba, Republica de Cuba, República de Cuba, Second Republic of Cuba, Subdivisions of Cuba, The Republic of Cuba, The Socialist Republic of Cuba.