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Phonological history of English consonants

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This article describes those aspects of the phonological history of the English language which concern consonants. [1]

100 relations: -ing, African-American Vernacular English, Alban, Albania, Albany, Allophone, Alps, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, American English, Apical consonant, Aspirated consonant, Australian English, Bilabial consonant, Bristol, Buchan, Cardiff English, Caribbean English, Celtic nations, Chicano English, Cockney, Compensatory lengthening, Consonant, Coronal consonant, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Devon, Diphthong, Dundalk, Dutch language, Early Modern English, Elision, English language, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/, Estuary English, Flapping, Fortis and lenis, Function word, General American, Geordie, German language, Glasgow, Glottal stop, Glottalization, H-dropping, Hard and soft C, Hiberno-English, Holborn, Homophone, Hypercorrection, ..., Indian English, John C. Wells, L-vocalization, Labial consonant, Labiodental approximant, Labiodental consonant, Linking and intrusive R, List of recurring South Park characters, Midwestern United States, Nasal consonant, New York City English, New Zealand English, North American English, Northumbrian burr, Obstruent, Phonological history of English, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Phonological history of English diphthongs, Phonological history of English vowels, Preaspiration, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, R-colored vowel, Ralph, Received Pronunciation, Relative articulation, Rhotic consonant, Rhoticity in English, Schwa, Scottish English, Scouse, Social stigma, South African English, South Park, Southern American English, Spelling pronunciation, Stereotype, Stop consonant, Stress and vowel reduction in English, T-glottalization, Th-fronting, Th-stopping, Velarization, Voice (phonetics), Voiced bilabial fricative, Voiced dental fricative, Voiceless bilabial fricative, Voiceless dental fricative, West Country, Zulu English. Expand index (50 more) »

-ing

-ing is a suffix used to make one of the inflected forms of English verbs.

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African-American Vernacular English

African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.

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Alban

Alban may refer to.

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Albania

Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Albany

Albany may refer to.

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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Alveolar and postalveolar approximants

The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Australian English

Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Bristol

Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.

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Buchan

Buchan is one of the six committee areas and administrative areas of Aberdeenshire Council, Scotland.

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Cardiff English

The Cardiff accent, also known as Cardiff English is the regional accent of English, and a variety of Welsh English, as spoken in and around the city of Cardiff, and is somewhat distinctive in Wales, compared with other Welsh accents.

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Caribbean English

Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean and Liberia, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana and Suriname on the coast of South America.

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Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.

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Chicano English

Chicano English, or Mexican-American English, is a dialect of American English spoken primarily by Mexican Americans (sometimes known as Chicanos), particularly in the Southwestern United States, ranging from Texas to CaliforniaNewman, Michael.

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Cockney

The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.

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Compensatory lengthening

Compensatory lengthening in phonology and historical linguistics is the lengthening of a vowel sound that happens upon the loss of a following consonant, usually in the syllable coda, or of a vowel in an adjacent syllable.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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Dental and alveolar flaps

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.

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Devon

Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dundalk

Dundalk is the county town of County Louth, Ireland.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Early Modern English

Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

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Elision

In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English-language vowel changes before historic /r/

In English, many vowel shifts only affect vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by an that has since been elided in non-rhotic dialects.

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Estuary English

Estuary English is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames and its estuary, centering around London.

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Flapping

Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).

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Fortis and lenis

In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.

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Function word

In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.

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General American

General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.

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Geordie

Geordie is a nickname for a person from the Tyneside area of North East England, and the dialect spoken by its inhabitants.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glasgow

Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Glottalization

Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.

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H-dropping

H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound",.

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Hard and soft C

In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.

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Hiberno-English

Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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Holborn

Holborn is a district in the London boroughs of Camden and City of Westminster and a locality in the ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London.

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Homophone

A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.

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Hypercorrection

In linguistics or usage, hypercorrection is a non-standard usage that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of grammar or a usage prescription.

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Indian English

Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.

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John C. Wells

John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.

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L-vocalization

L-vocalization, in linguistics, is a process by which a lateral approximant sound such as, or, more often, velarized, is replaced by a vowel or a semivowel.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labiodental approximant

The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Labiodental consonant

In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.

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Linking and intrusive R

Linking R and intrusive R are sandhi or linking phenomena involving the appearance of the rhotic consonant (which normally corresponds to the letter) between two consecutive morphemes where it would not normally be pronounced.

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List of recurring South Park characters

The following is a list of recurring characters in the animated television series South Park.

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Midwestern United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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New York City English

New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.

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New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.

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North American English

North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.

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Northumbrian burr

The Northumbrian burr is the distinctive uvular pronunciation of R in the traditional dialects of Northumberland, Tyneside ('Geordie'), and northern County Durham, but it is now prevalent only in the older residents of rural Northumberland.

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Obstruent

An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.

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Phonological history of English

The phonological history of English describes the changing phonology of the English language over time, starting from its roots in proto-Germanic to diverse changes in different dialects of modern English.

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Phonological history of English consonant clusters

The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.

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Phonological history of English diphthongs

English diphthongs have undergone many changes since the Old and Middle English periods.

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Phonological history of English vowels

In the history of English phonology, there were many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.

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Preaspiration

In phonetics, preaspiration (sometimes spelled pre-aspiration) is a period of voicelessness or aspiration preceding the closure of a voiceless obstruent, basically equivalent to an -like sound preceding the obstruent.

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Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩

In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).

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Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩

The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.

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R-colored vowel

In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.

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Ralph

Ralph (pronounced; or, more commonly used) is an English, Irish, Scottish, Dutch, Scandinavian and German masculine given name, derived from the Old Norse Raðulfr (rað "counsel" + ulfr "wolf") through Old English Rædwulf and the longer form Radulf.

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Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.

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Relative articulation

In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Rhoticity in English

Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.

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Schwa

In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Scottish English

Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.

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Scouse

Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.

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Social stigma

Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.

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South African English

South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.

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South Park

South Park is an American adult animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for the Comedy Central television network.

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Southern American English

Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.

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Spelling pronunciation

A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.

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Stereotype

In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress and vowel reduction in English

Stress is a prominent feature of the English language, both at the level of the word (lexical stress) and at the level of the phrase or sentence (prosodic stress).

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T-glottalization

In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.

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Th-fronting

Th-fronting refers to the pronunciation of the English "th" as "f" or "v".

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Th-stopping

Th-stopping is the realization of the dental fricatives as stops—either dental or alveolar—which occurs in several dialects of English.

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Velarization

Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced bilabial fricative

The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced dental fricative

The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless bilabial fricative

The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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West Country

The West Country is a loosely defined area of south western England.

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Zulu English

Zulu English is a variety of English, spoken almost exclusively in South Africa among the Zulu.

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Redirects here:

Ban-van merger, Ban–van merger, Bin-pin merger, Bin–pin merger, Den-ten merger, Den-then merger, Den–ten merger, Den–then merger, Elimination of velar fricatives in English, Ewe-yew-you merger, Fin-thin merger, Final consonant deletion, Final-consonant deletion, Fin–thin merger, Gold-cold merger, Gold–cold merger, Higher-hire merger, Higher–hire merger, Husian-hus split, Husian–hus split, Hūsian-hūs split, Hūsian–hūs split, Initial fricative voicing, Jet-yet merger, Jet–yet merger, L breaking, L dropping, L-breaking, L-dropping, Let-net merger, Let–net merger, Lick-lit-lip merger, Lick–lit–lip merger, Lip-rip merger, Lip–rip merger, Lock-loch merger, Lock–loch merger, Mettle smoothing, Mettle-smoothing, Money smoothing, Money-smoothing, Phonological history of English fricatives, Phonological history of English fricatives and affricates, Phonological history of English t, Pit-fit merger, Pit–fit merger, Pleasure-pressure merger, Pleasure–pressure merger, R breaking, R rolling, R tapping, R-breaking, Rip-lip merger, Rip–lip merger, S-retraction, Seal-zeal merger, Seal–zeal merger, Ship-chip merger, Ship–chip merger, Sip-ship merger, Sip–ship merger, Th weakening, Th-weakening, Vest-west merger, Vest–west merger, W dropping, W-dropping, Wing-ring merger, Wing–ring merger, Winter weakening, Y dropping, Y-dropping, Zip-gyp merger, Zip–gyp merger.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonological_history_of_English_consonants

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