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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaner nationalism is a political ideology that was born in the late nineteenth century among Afrikaners in South Africa.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Antwerp (Antwerpen) is the northernmost province both of the Flemish Region, also called Flanders, and of Belgium.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The archaeology of Northern Europe studies the prehistory of Scandinavia and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland and the Netherlands.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bargoens is a form of Dutch slang, more specifically, it is a cant language that arose in the 17th century, and was used by criminals, tramps and travelling salesmen as a secret code, like Spain's Germanía or French Argot.
Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Berbice Dutch Creole is a now extinct Dutch-based creole language.
The Bergakker inscription is an Elder Futhark inscription discovered on the scabbard of a 5th-century sword.
Bernard S. Comrie, (born 23 May 1947) is a British-born linguist.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
Bourbourg is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic (Brabants, Standard Dutch pronunciation:, Brabantian), is a dialect group of the Dutch language.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historical class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organization of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies whose main objective is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In historical linguistics, a chain shift is a set of sound changes in which the change in pronunciation of one speech sound (typically, a phoneme) is linked to, and presumably causes, the change in pronunciation of other sounds as well.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
Colognian or Kölsch (natively Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian Central German group of languages.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In historical linguistics, a daughter language or son language, also known as offspring language, is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Deventer is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
Die Afrikaanse Patriot was the first Afrikaans-language newspaper.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Doesburg is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Gelderland.
Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands located in the northeastern part of the country.
The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Dutch Braille is the braille alphabet used for the Dutch language in the Netherlands (but not in Flanders).
This article explains the conjugation of Dutch verbs.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch Gold Coast or Dutch Guinea, officially Dutch possessions on the Coast of Guinea (Dutch: Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) was a portion of contemporary Ghana that was gradually colonized by the Dutch, beginning in 1598.
This article outlines the grammar of the Dutch language, which shares strong similarities with German grammar and also, to a lesser degree, with English grammar.
The Dutch Language Union (Dutch:, NTU) is an international regulatory institution that governs issues regarding the Dutch language.
Historically, many Dutch military terms have been influential and adopted as loanwords by many other languages all over the world.
Dutch Low Saxon (Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: Nederlaands Leegsaksies) are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands and are written there with local, unstandardised orthographies based on Standard Dutch orthography.
Dutch names consist of one or more given names and a surname.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
A Dutch creole is a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language.
Dutch-language literature comprises all writings of literary merit written through the ages in the Dutch language, a language which currently has around 23 million native speakers.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
East Flanders (Dutch: Oost-Vlaanderen, (Province de) Flandre-Orientale, Ostflandern) is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium.
East Flemish (Oost-Vlaams, flamand oriental) is a collective term for the two easternmost subdivisions ("true" East Flemish, also called Core Flemish,Hoppenbrouwers, Cor; Hoppenbrouwers, Geer (2001): De Indeling van de Nederlandse streektalen. and Waaslandic, as well as their transitional and city dialects) of the so-called Flemish dialects, a group of dialects native to the southwest of the Dutch language area, which also includes West Flemish.
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland (Ostfriesland; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oostfreesland; Oost-Friesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Bishopric of Utrecht (1024–1528) was a civil principality of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, in present Netherlands, which was ruled by the bishops of Utrecht as princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
Essequibo (Dutch: Essequebo) was a Dutch colony on the Essequibo River in the Guiana region on the north coast of South America from 1616 to 1814.
Estuary English is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames and its estuary, centering around London.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The Siege of Antwerp took place during the Eighty Years' War from July 1584 until August 1585.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Flemish (Vlaams), also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands), or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is any of the varieties of the Dutch language dialects spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people.
Flemish Brabant (Vlaams-Brabant, Brabant flamand) is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium.
The Flemish Movement (Vlaamse Beweging) is the political movement for greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language, for the overall protection of Flemish culture and history, and in some cases, for splitting from Belgium and forming an independent state.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
A flower bouquet is a collection of flowers in a creative arrangement.
Food storage containers are widespread in use throughout the world and have probably been in use since the first human civilizations.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
In Belgium, the French Community (Communauté française); refers to one of the three constituent constitutional linguistic communities.
French Flanders (La Flandre française; Frans-Vlaanderen) is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings and the Dutch were traditionally the dominant ethnic groups and where Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken.
French Flemish (French Flemish: Fransch vlaemsch, Standard Dutch: Frans-Vlaams, flamand français) is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In Northern European historiography, the term French period (Période française, Franzosenzeit, Franse tijd) refers to the period between 1794 and 1815 during which most of Northern Europe was controlled by Republican or Napoleonic France.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Friedrich Maurer (5 January 1898 – 7 November 1984) was a German linguist and medievalist.
Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gelderland (also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country.
In the Dutch language, the gender of a noun determines the articles, adjective forms and pronouns that are used in reference to that noun.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germania Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province located on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), but they are not historically the oldest or most original group.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
The Grand Dictation of the Dutch Language (Dutch: Groot Dictee der Nederlandse Taal) was a televised spelling test for adults organized by the Belgian newspaper De Morgen, the Dutch newspaper de Volkskrant and the Dutch public broadcaster NTR.
Gravelines is a commune in the Nord department in Northern France.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Groningen (Gronings: Grunn; Grinslân) is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands.
Gronings, in the dialect itself called Grunnegs or Grönnegs, is a collective name for some Friso-Saxon dialects spoken in the province of Groningen and around the Groningen border in Drenthe and Friesland.
Guelders or Gueldres (Gelre, Geldern) is a historical county, later duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.
Guilford Publications, Inc. is a New York City-based independent publisher founded in 1973 that specializes in publishing books, journals, and DVDs in psychology, psychiatry, the behavioral sciences, education, and geography.
A headword, head word, lemma, or sometimes catchword, is the word under which a set of related dictionary or encyclopaedia entries appears.
"Hebban olla vogala", sometimes spelled "hebban olla uogala", are the first three words of an 11th-century text fragment written in Old Dutch.
High Franconian (oberfränkische Dialekte) is a part of High German consisting of East Franconian and South Franconian.
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
Hollandic or Hollandish is, together with Brabantian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
The river IJssel (Iessel(t)), sometimes called Gelderse IJssel ("Gueldern IJssel") to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
In historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (also called the Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic nasal spirant law) is a description of a phonological development that occurred in the Ingvaeonic dialects of the West Germanic languages.
Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.
The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones (Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st century AD expanding into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia.
ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes used in most countries in the world today, although not in Canada, the United States, Mexico, or the Dominican Republic.
The Istvaeones (also spelled Istævones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine during the Roman empire which reportedly shared a common culture and origin.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jersey Dutch was an archaic Dutch dialect formerly spoken in and around Bergen and Passaic counties in New Jersey from the late 17th century until the early 20th century.
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.
Kampen is a city and municipality in the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
Cleves (Kleve; Kleef; Clèves; Clivia) is a town in the Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany near the Dutch border and the river Rhine.
The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Lancaster University, also officially known as the University of Lancaster, is a public research university in the City of Lancaster, Lancashire, England.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in a language.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Le Soir ("The Evening") is a French language daily Belgian newspaper.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: Limburg; Limbourg) is a province in Belgium.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: (Nederlands-)Limburg; Limbourg) is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands.
LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is an incomplete list of Dutch expressions used in English; some are relatively common (e.g. cookie), some are comparatively rare.
The Germanic languages include some 58 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects that originated in Europe; this language family is a part of the List of Indo-European languages Indo-European language family.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
Lombardic or Langobardic is an extinct West Germanic language that was spoken by the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic people who settled in Italy in the 6th century.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Low Dietsch (Platdiets, Platduutsj, francique rhéno-mosan or platdutch) refers to a handful of transitional Limburgish–Ripuarian dialects spoken in a number of towns and villages (e.g., Gemmenich, Hombourg, Montzen, Welkenraedt).
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch, Niederfränkisch, Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Maarten "Martin" Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was an American statesman who served as the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841.
Medieval Dutch literature (1150–1500) is the Dutch literature produced in the Low Countries from the 12th century up to the sixteenth century.
Meuse-Rhenish (German: Rheinmaasländisch, Dutch: Maas-Rijnlands, and French: francique rhéno-mosan) is a modern term that refers to the literature written in the Middle Ages in the greater Meuse-Rhine area.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
In linguistics, modal particles are always uninflected words, and are a type of grammatical particle.
Mohawk Dutch is a now extinct Dutch-based creole language mainly spoken during the 17th century west of Albany, New York in the area around the Mohawk River, by the Dutch colonists who traded with or to a lesser extent mixed with the local population from the Mohawk nation.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
In linguistics, morphological leveling or paradigm leveling is the generalization of an inflection across a paradigm or between words.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Negerhollands (English translation: Negro-Dutch) was a Dutch-based creole language that was once spoken in the Danish West Indies, now known as the U.S. Virgin Islands.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Netherlands New Guinea (Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea) refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1962.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings (Te Tatauranga o ngā Tāngata Huri Noa i Aotearoa me ō rātou Whare Noho) is a national population and housing census conducted by government department Statistics New Zealand every five years.
Nord-Pas-de-Calais (is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium (north and east) and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille. The second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain away; this makes Nord-Pas-de-Calais the closest continental European connection to the Great Britain. Other major towns include Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.
North Brabant (Noord-Brabant), also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands.
North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
North Holland (Noord-Holland, West Frisian Dutch: Noard-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.
In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a part of speech characterized by the designation of numbers; some examples are the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seventh'.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.
Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).
The Old Saxon Baptismal Vow, also called the Utrecht Baptismal Vow, is a 9th-century baptismal vow that was found in a monastery library in Mainz, Germany.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Overijssel (Dutch Low Saxon: Oaveriessel) is a province of the Netherlands in the central-eastern part of the country.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.
Pennsylvania German (Deitsch, Pennsylvania italic, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch,; often called Pennsylvania Dutch) is a variety of West Central German spoken by the Old Order Amish, Old Order Mennonites and other descendants of German immigrants in the United States and Canada, closely related to the Palatine dialects.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Queen Margaret University (formerly Queen Margaret University College and Queen Margaret College) is a public university located in Musselburgh, East Lothian near Edinburgh in Scotland.
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.
Radboud University Nijmegen (abbreviated as RU, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, formerly Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen) is a public university with a strong focus on research located in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
The Randstad is a megalopolis in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and their surrounding areas.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs.
The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta or Helinium is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks (Latin: Ripuarii or Ribuarii) were one of the two main groupings of early Frankish people, and specifically it was the name eventually applied to the tribes who settled in the old Roman territory of the Ubii, with its capital at Cologne on the Rhine river in modern Germany.
Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.
Rochester is a town and was a historic city in the unitary authority of Medway in Kent, England.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Ruanda-Urundi (in Dutch also Roeanda-Oeroendi) was a territory in the African Great Lakes region, once part of German East Africa, which was ruled by Belgium between 1916 and 1962.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
Saterland Frisian, also known as Sater Frisian or Saterlandic (Seeltersk), is the last living dialect of the East Frisian language.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Seahorse (also written sea-horse and sea horse) is the name given to 54 species of small marine fishes in the genus Hippocampus.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
A set phrase or fixed phrase is a phrase whose parts are fixed in a certain order, even if the phrase could be changed without harming the literal meaning.
Nederlands met Gebaren (NmG), or Signed Dutch, is a manually coded form of Dutch, using the signs of Dutch Sign Language, that is used for pedagogical purposes in the Netherlands.
Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.
In historical linguistics, sister languages, also known as sibling languages or brother languages are cognate languages; that is, languages that descend from a common ancestral language, the so-called proto-language.
Skepi is an extinct Dutch-based creole language of Guyana, spoken in the region of Essequibo.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Sojourner Truth (born Isabella (Belle) Baumfree; – November 26, 1883) was an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist.
South Guelderish (Dutch: Zuid-Gelders, German: Südgeldersch, Kleverländisch) refers to the easternmost group of Dutch dialects spoken along the lower Rhine (Dutch Nederrijn and German Niederrhein).
South Holland (Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
Sranan Tongo (also Sranantongo "Surinamese tongue", Sranan, Surinaams, Surinamese, Surinamese Creole, Taki Taki) is an English-based creole language that is spoken as a lingua franca by approximately 500,000 people in Suriname.
Stadsfries, Stadfries, Stedfrysk or Town Frisian is a set of dialects spoken in certain cities in the province of Friesland in the northern Netherlands, namely Leeuwarden, Sneek, Bolsward, Franeker, Dokkum, Harlingen, Stavoren, and to some extent in Heerenveen.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
The Statenvertaling (States Translation) or Statenbijbel (States Bible) was the first translation of the Bible from the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek languages to Dutch, ordered by the government of the Protestant Dutch Republic and first published in 1637.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Statistics New Zealand (Tatauranga Aotearoa), branded as Stats NZ, is the public service department of New Zealand charged with the collection of statistics related to the economy, population and society of New Zealand.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive mood in Dutch is a verb mood typically used in dependent clauses to express a wish, command, emotion, possibility, uncertainty, doubt, judgment, opinion, necessity, or action that has not yet occurred.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Surinam was a Dutch plantation colony in the Guianas, neighboured by the equally Dutch colony of Berbice to the west, and the French colony of Cayenne to the east.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into interrogative fragment (the "tag").
In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
Theodiscus is a Medieval Latin term literally meaning "popular" or "of the people".
Tiel is a municipality and a town in the middle of the Netherlands.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United States Virgin Islands (USVI; also called the American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is an insular area of the United States located east of Puerto Rico.
The University of Groningen (abbreviated as UG; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, abbreviated as RUG) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands.
The University of Kentucky (UK) is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky.
The New Sorbonne University (French: Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, also known as Paris III) is a public university in Paris, France.
The University of Pretoria (Universiteit van Pretoria, Yunibesithi ya Pretoria) is a multi-campus public research university in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa.
Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.
Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.
Van Dale's Great Dictionary of the Dutch Language (Van Dale Groot woordenboek van de Nederlandse taal), called Dikke Van Dale for short, is the leading dictionary of the Dutch language.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.
The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel is a Dutch-speaking university located in Brussels, Belgium.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
Walloon Brabant (Brabant wallon, Dutch:, Roman Payis) is a province of Belgium, located in Wallonia.
Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that is spoken in much of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of WisconsinUniversité du Wisconsin: collection de documents sur l'immigration wallonne au Wisconsin, enregistrements de témoignages oraux en anglais et wallon, 1976 until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen; West Flemish: West Vloandern; French: (Province de) Flandre-Occidentale; German: Westflandern) is the most western province of the Flemish Region, in Belgium.
West Flemish (West-Vlaams, flamand occidental) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in western Belgium and adjoining parts of the Netherlands and France.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and West Papua, is the part of the island of New Guinea (also known as Papua) annexed by Indonesia in 1962.
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).
Willemstad is a city in the Dutch province of North Brabant.
Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (Dictionary of the Dutch language, commonly abbreviated WNT) is a dictionary of the Dutch language.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.
Zeelandic Flanders (Zeelandic: Zeêuws-Vlaonderen) is the southernmost region of the province of Zeeland in the south-western Netherlands.
Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.
Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
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