161 relations: Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Albanian language, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Alveolar ridge, Ankyloglossia, Apical consonant, Arabic, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Artos, Bengali language, Bengali phonology, Breton language, Brzeg, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Conservative (language), Consonant, Cypriot Greek, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish language, Danish phonology, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental consonant, Devanagari, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Działdowo, Eastern Armenian, Eastern Nagari script, Egyptian Arabic, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Esperanto, Esperanto orthography, Esperanto phonology, Filipino orthography, Finistère, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, Fricative consonant, German language, ..., German orthography, Gmina Istebna, Gokana language, Gothenburg, Greek alphabet, Guttural R, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hindustani language, Hindustani phonology, History of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Index of phonetics articles, Indo-European languages, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Jablunkov, Jutlandic dialect, Kashubian language, Kele language (New Guinea), Kobon language, Kyrgyz alphabets, Kyrgyz language, Laminal consonant, Language, Latvian language, Latvian orthography, Latvian phonology, Lubawa, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Malbork, Manner of articulation, Modern Greek, Modern Greek phonology, Morbihan, Nastaʿlīq script, Northern Portuguese, Nowy Targ, Olecko, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostrów Mazowiecka, Papua New Guinea, Place of articulation, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Postalveolar consonant, Racibórz, Rambutan, Relative articulation, Resh, Rhotic consonant, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Russian language, Russian orthography, Russian phonology, Scots language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic phonology, Sephardi Hebrew, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Siedlce, Silesian language, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, Slovak phonology, Slovene alphabet, Slovene language, Slovene phonology, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Standard German phonology, Starogard Gdański, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Tagalog language, Tagalog phonology, Tilquiapan Zapotec, Titan language, Trill consonant, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Voiced uvular fricative, Voiceless alveolar trill, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, Welsh phonology, Wieleń, Wołomin, X-SAMPA, Yiddish, Yiddish orthography, Yiddish phonology, Zapotec languages. Expand index (111 more) » « Shrink index
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The alveolar ridge (also known as the alveolar margin) is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth.
Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a congenital oral anomaly that may decrease mobility of the tongue tip and is caused by an unusually short, thick lingual frenulum, a membrane connecting the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
An artos (Ἄρτος, "leavened loaf", "bread") is a loaf of leavened bread that is blessed during services in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine rite catholic churches.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Bengali phonology is, like that of its neighbouring Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, characterised by a wide variety of diphthongs and inherent back vowel (both and) instead of the schwa used by almost all other branches of the Indo-Aryan language family.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Cypriot Greek (Κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and Greek Cypriot diaspora.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The phonology of Danish is similar to that of the other Scandinavian languages such as Swedish and Norwegian, but it also has distinct features setting it apart from the phonologies of its most closely related languages.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Filipino orthography specifies the correct use of the writing system of the Filipino language, the national and co-official language of the Philippines.
Finistère (Penn-ar-Bed) is a department of France in the extreme west of Brittany.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in the former Häme Province in central south Finland.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Gmina Istebna is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland, in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.
Gokana (Gòkánà) is an Ogoni language spoken by some 130,000 people in Rivers State, Nigeria.
Gothenburg (abbreviated Gbg; Göteborg) is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
The International Phonetic Alphabet was created soon after the International Phonetic Association was established in the late 19th century.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent occurrence of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
Jablunkov (Jabłonków, Jablunkau) is a town in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
Jutlandic or Jutish (Danish: jysk) is the western dialect of Danish, spoken on the peninsula of Jutland.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.
Kele or Gele’ is a language spoken in the easterly section of inland Manus Island, New Guinea.
Kobon (pronounced Kxombon) is a language of Papua New Guinea.
The Kyrgyz alphabets (Кыргыз алфавити, Qırğız alfaviti, قىرعىز الفابىتى, Qьrƣьz alfaviti) are the alphabets used to write the Kyrgyz language.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Latvian orthography, historically, has used a system based upon German phonetic principles and the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles.
This article is about the phonology of the Latvian language.
Lubawa (Löbau in Westpreußen, Old Prussian: Lūbawa) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
The modern Malay alphabet or Indonesian alphabet (Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore: Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", Indonesia: "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.
Morbihan (Mor-Bihan) is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Northern Portuguese is the oldest dialect of the Portuguese language.
Nowy Targ (Novum Forum, Nový Targ, Neumarkt, ניימארקט Naymarkt) is a town in southern Poland with 34,000 inhabitants (2006).
Olecko (former since 1560, colloquially also, since 1928, Alėcka) is a city in Masuria, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, near Ełk and Suwałki.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
Ostrów Mazowiecka is a town in northeastern Poland with 23,486 inhabitants (2004).
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary between dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Racibórz (Ratibor, Ratiboř, Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland.
The rambutan (taxonomic name: Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae.
In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
This article is about the phonology of the Scottish Gaelic language.
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
Siedlce (שעדליץ, Седлец) is a city in eastern Poland with 76,585 inhabitants.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovak language.
The Slovene alphabet (slovenska abeceda, or slovenska gajica) is an extension of the Latin script and is used in the Slovene language.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovene language.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Starogard Gdański (meaning approximately "the old stronghold"; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Starogarda; Preußisch Stargard) is a town in Eastern Pomerania in northwestern Poland with 48,328 inhabitants (2004).
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the set of rules and conventions used for writing Swedish.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
This article deals with current phonology and phonetics and with historical developments of the phonology of the Tagalog language, including variants.
Tilquiapan Zapotec (Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiápam) is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.
Titan, also known as Manus, is an East Manus language of the Austronesian language family spoken in the southeastern part of Manus Island, New Guinea, and neighboring islands by about 4,000 people.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill only by the vibrations of the vocal cord.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are rare in European languages, such as the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and several voiceless sonorants (nasals and liquids), some of which result from consonant mutation.
Wieleń (Filehne) is a town in Czarnków-Trzcianka County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland.
Wołomin is the main town of Wołomin County situated in the Masovian Voivodship.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yiddish orthography is the writing system used for the Yiddish language.
— There is significant phonological variation among the various Yiddish dialects.
The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Alveolar Trill, Alveolar fricative trill, Alveolar trill, Dental trill, IPA R, IPA r, Ipa r, Post-alveolar trill, Postalveolar trill, R (IPA), Raised alveolar non-sonorant trill, Raised alveolar trill, R̝, Trilled R, Voiced alveolar fricative trill, Voiced alveolar raised non-sonorant trill, Voiced alveolar trill, Voiced dental trill, Voiced post-alveolar trill, Voiced postalveolar trill, Voiceless alveolar raised non-sonorant trill, Voiceless raised alveolar non-sonorant trill, ɼ.