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Andromeda Galaxy

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The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth. [1]

175 relations: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, Absolute magnitude, American Institute of Physics, Andromeda (constellation), Andromeda (mythology), Andromeda–Milky Way collision, Angular diameter, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Apparent magnitude, Apsis, Astronomy (magazine), Astronomy Picture of the Day, Astrophysics (journal), Astrophysics and Space Science, Barred spiral galaxy, BBC News, Binary star, Binoculars, Black hole, Blueshift, Book of Fixed Stars, Brady Haran, Bulge (astronomy), California Institute of Technology, Catalonia, Cavendish Astrophysics Group, Celestial coordinate system, Cepheid variable, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Charles Messier, Color index, Cosmic dust, Dark matter, Declination, Degree (angle), Disc (galaxy), Disc galaxy, Doppler effect, Dwarf galaxy, Earth, Edwin Hubble, Elliptical galaxy, Ernst Öpik, European Space Agency, Flocculent spiral galaxy, Frequency, Full moon, Galactic halo, Galaxy, Galaxy color–magnitude diagram, ..., Galaxy group, Galaxy merger, Galaxy rotation curve, Globular cluster, Gravitational microlensing, Great Debate (astronomy), Grote Reber, H I region, H II region, Harlow Shapley, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Heber Doust Curtis, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Hipparcos, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrogen, Hydrogen line, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Infrared Space Observatory, International Astronomical Union, Interstellar medium, Isaac Roberts, Jan Oort, Jodrell Bank Observatory, John E. Baldwin, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, Light pollution, Light-year, Linearity, List of galaxies, List of Messier objects, List of nearest galaxies, Local Group, Lowell Observatory, Luminosity, Luminous infrared galaxy, Magnitude (astronomy), Mayall II, Mega-, Messier 110, Messier 32, Messier object, Metallicity, Milky Way, Minute and second of arc, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Mount Wilson Observatory, Naked eye, NASA, Nature (journal), Neutron star, New General Catalogue, New Scientist, NGC 206, Nik Szymanek, Nova, Omega Centauri, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Parsec, Persian people, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Principal Galaxies Catalogue, Protogalaxy, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Radio astronomy, Red clump, Red giant, Right ascension, Ring galaxy, Robert Hanbury Brown, Satellite galaxy, Scott Tremaine, Second Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources, SIMBAD, Simon Marius, Sirius, SN 1885A, Solar mass, Solar System, Sombrero Galaxy, Space.com, Spanish National Research Council, Spectral line, Spectroscopy, Spectrum, Spiral galaxy, Spitzer Space Telescope, Star chart, Star cluster, Star formation, Starburst galaxy, Stellar classification, Students for the Exploration and Development of Space, Supernova, Surface brightness fluctuation, Sussex, Swift, Telescope, The Astronomical Journal, The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, The Astrophysical Journal, Tidal force, Tip of the red-giant branch, Tod R. Lauer, Triangulum Galaxy, Trigonometry, Universe, Universe Today, University of California, Santa Cruz, Uppsala General Catalogue, Velocity dispersion, Very Long Baseline Array, Vesto Slipher, W. M. Keck Observatory, Walter Baade, Wavelength, Wide Field and Planetary Camera, William Herschel, William Huggins, X-ray binary, XMM-Newton, Yale University Press, 2MASS. Expand index (125 more) »

Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi

'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (عبدالرحمن صوفی) (December 9, 903 in Rey, Iran – May 25, 986 in Shiraz, Iran) was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi, or 'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, 'Abdul Rahman Sufi, 'Abdurrahman Sufi and known in the west as Azophi.

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Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude is the measure of intrinsic brightness of a celestial object.

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American Institute of Physics

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.

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Andromeda (constellation)

Andromeda is one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy and remains one of the 88 modern constellations.

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Andromeda (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Andromeda is the daughter of the Aethiopian king Cepheus and his wife Cassiopeia.

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Andromeda–Milky Way collision

The Andromeda–Milky Way collision is a galactic collision predicted to occur in about 4 billion years between the two largest galaxies in the Local Group—the Milky Way (which contains the Solar System and Earth) and the Andromeda Galaxy although the stars involved are sufficiently far apart that it is improbable that any of them will individually collide.

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Angular diameter

The angular diameter or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.

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Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics

The Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.

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Apparent magnitude

The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.

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The apsis (Greek ἁψίς), plural apsides (Greek: ἁψίδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit.

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Astronomy (magazine)

Astronomy is a monthly American magazine about astronomy.

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Astronomy Picture of the Day

Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) is a website provided by NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU).

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Astrophysics (journal)

Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics published by Springer.

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Astrophysics and Space Science

Astrophysics and Space Science is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering astronomy, astrophysics, and space science and astrophysical aspects of astrobiology.

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Barred spiral galaxy

A barred spiral galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of stars.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Binary star

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common center of mass.

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Binoculars, field glasses or binocular telescopes are a pair of identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.

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Black hole

A black hole is a geometrically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—including particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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A blueshift is any decrease in wavelength, with a corresponding increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave; the opposite effect is referred to as redshift.

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Book of Fixed Stars

The Book of Fixed Stars (كتاب صور الكواكب) is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian independent film-maker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and for his YouTube channels, such as Numberphile and Periodic Videos.

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Bulge (astronomy)

In astronomy, a bulge is a tightly packed group of stars within a larger formation.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology or CaltechThe university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Catalonia (Catalunya; Catalonha; Cataluña) is an autonomous community of Spain and designated a "historical nationality" by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Cavendish Astrophysics Group

The Cavendish Astrophysics Group (formerly the Radio Astronomy Group) is based at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge.

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Celestial coordinate system

In astronomy, a celestial coordinate system is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on.

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Cepheid variable

A Cepheid variable is a star that pulsates radially, varying in both temperature and diameter to produce brightness changes with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.

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Chandra X-ray Observatory

The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.

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Charles Messier

Charles Messier (26 June 1730 – 12 April 1817) was a French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects".

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Color index

In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature.

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Cosmic dust

Cosmic dust is dust which exists in space.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a hypothetical kind of matter that cannot be seen with telescopes but would account for most of the matter in the universe.

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In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.

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Degree (angle)

A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of plane angle, representing of a full rotation.

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Disc (galaxy)

A disc is a component of disc galaxies, such as spiral galaxies, or lenticular galaxies.

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Disc galaxy

Disc galaxies are galaxies characterized by a disc, a flattened circular volume of stars.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.

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Dwarf galaxy

A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of up to several billion stars, a small number compared to our own Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars.

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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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Edwin Hubble

Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extragalactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologists of the 20th century.

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Elliptical galaxy

An elliptical galaxy is a type of galaxy having an approximately ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile.

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Ernst Öpik

Ernst Julius Öpik (– 10 September 1985) was an Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist who spent the second half of his career (1948–1981) at the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.

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Flocculent spiral galaxy

A flocculent spiral galaxy is a type of spiral galaxy, that is the functional opposite of the grand design spiral galaxy.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.

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Full moon

A full moon is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is completely illuminated as seen from the Earth.

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Galactic halo

The galactic halo is an extended, roughly spherical component of a galaxy which extends beyond the main, visible component.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.

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Galaxy color–magnitude diagram

The galaxy color–magnitude diagram shows the relationship between absolute magnitude (a measure of luminosity) and mass of galaxies.

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Galaxy group

A galaxy group or group of galaxies (GrG) is an aggregation of galaxies comprising about 50 or fewer gravitationally bound members, each at least as luminous as the Milky Way (about 1010 times the luminosity of the Sun); collections of galaxies larger than groups that are first-order clustering are called galaxy clusters.

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Galaxy merger

Galaxy mergers can occur when two (or more) galaxies collide.

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Galaxy rotation curve

The rotation curve of a disc galaxy (also called a velocity curve) is a plot of the measured magnitude of the orbital velocities (i.e., the speeds) of visible stars or gas in that galaxy versus their radial distance from that galaxy's centre and typically rendered graphically as a plot.

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Globular cluster

A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite.

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Gravitational microlensing

Gravitational microlensing is an astronomical phenomenon due to the gravitational lens effect.

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Great Debate (astronomy)

In astronomy, the Great Debate, also called the Shapley–Curtis Debate, was an influential debate between the astronomers Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis which concerned the nature of so-called spiral nebulae and the size of the universe.

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Grote Reber

Grote Reber (December 22, 1911 – December 20, 2002) was a pioneer of radio astronomy, which combined his interests in amateur radio and amateur astronomy.

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H I region

An H I region is a cloud in the interstellar medium composed of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I), in addition to the local abundance of helium and other elements.

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H II region

An H II region is a large, low-density cloud of partially ionized gas in which star formation has recently taken place.

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Harlow Shapley

Harlow Shapley (November 2, 1885 – October 20, 1972) was an American astronomer.

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Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is one of the largest and most diverse astrophysical institutions in the world, where scientists carry out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.

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Heber Doust Curtis

Heber Doust Curtis (June 27, 1872 – January 9, 1942) was an American astronomer.

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Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram or HRD, is a scatter graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral classifications or effective temperatures.

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Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen line

The hydrogen line, 21 centimetre line or HI line refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms.

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Infrared Processing and Analysis Center

The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) is the NASA science center responsible for the data processing, analysis, and archiving of NASA's infrared astronomy and astrophysics missions.

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Infrared Space Observatory

The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was a space telescope for infrared light designed and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), in cooperation with ISAS (part of JAXA as of 2003) and NASA.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is a collection of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Isaac Roberts

Isaac Roberts (27 January 1829 – 17 July 1904) was a Welsh engineer and business man best known for his work as an amateur astronomer, pioneering the field of astrophotography of nebulae.

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Jan Oort

Jan Hendrik Oort (or; 28 April 1900 – 5 November 1992) was a Dutch astronomer who made significant contributions to the understanding of the Milky Way and who was a pioneer in the field of radio astronomy.

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Jodrell Bank Observatory

The Jodrell Bank Observatory (originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966 to 1999) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester.

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John E. Baldwin

John Evan Baldwin FRS (–) worked at the Cavendish Astrophysics Group (formerly Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory) from 1954.

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Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array

The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a radio astronomy observatory located on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, some 50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro, New Mexico.

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Light pollution

Light pollution, also known as photopollution or luminous pollution, is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light.

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A light-year (abbreviation: ly), sometimes written light year, is a unit of length used informally to express astronomical distances.

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In common usage, linearity refers to a mathematical relationship or function that can be graphically represented as a straight line, as in two quantities that are directly proportional to each other, such as voltage and current in an RLC circuit, or the mass and weight of an object.

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List of galaxies

The following is a list of notable galaxies.

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List of Messier objects

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his "Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles" ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

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List of nearest galaxies

This is a list of known galaxies within 3.59 megaparsecs (11.7 million light-years) of our Solar System, in ascending order of distance.

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Local Group

The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way.

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Lowell Observatory

Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States.

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In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time.

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Luminous infrared galaxy

Luminous Infrared Galaxies or (LIRG's) are galaxies with luminosities, the measurement of brightness, above.

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Magnitude (astronomy)

In astronomy, magnitude is the logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object, measured in a specific wavelength or passband, usually in the visible or near-infrared spectrum.

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Mayall II

Mayall II (M31 G1) also known as NGC-224-G1, SKHB 1, GSC 2788:2139, HBK 0-1, M31GC J003247+393440 or Andromeda's Cluster is a globular cluster orbiting M31, the Andromeda Galaxy.

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Mega is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one million (106 or 000).

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Messier 110

Messier 110 (also known as 'The Edward Young Star' and NGC 205) is a dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy.

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Messier 32

Messier 32 (also known as NGC 221 and Le Gentil) is a dwarf elliptical galaxy about 2.65 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda.

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Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of over 100 astronomical objects first listed by French astronomer Charles Messier in 1771.

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In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc (MOA), arcminute (arcmin) or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to one-sixtieth of one degree.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Mount Wilson Observatory

The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California, United States.

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Naked eye

Naked eye (also called bare eye) is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical device, such as a telescope or microscope.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is a type of compact star that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star after a supernova.

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New General Catalogue

The New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (abbreviated as NGC) is a well-known catalogue of deep-sky objects in astronomy compiled by John Louis Emil Dreyer in 1888, as a new version of John Herschel's Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars.

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New Scientist

New Scientist is a UK-based weekly non-peer-reviewed English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956.

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NGC 206

NGC 206 is a bright star cloud in the Andromeda Galaxy.

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Nik Szymanek

Nicholas Szymanek, better known as Nik Szymanek, is a British amateur astronomer and prolific astrophotographer, based in Essex, England.

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A nova (plural novae or novas) is a cataclysmic nuclear explosion on a white dwarf, which causes a sudden brightening of the star.

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Omega Centauri

Omega Centauri (ω Cen), or NGC 5139, is a globular cluster in the constellation of Centaurus that was first identified as a non-stellar object by Edmond Halley in 1677.

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Orbital inclination

Orbital inclination is the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of an object in orbit around another object.

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Orders of magnitude (numbers)

This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.

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A parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure the astronomically large distances to objects outside the Solar System.

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Persian people

The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions later Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Phil. Trans.) is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Principal Galaxies Catalogue

The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC) is an astronomical catalog published in 1989 that lists B1950 and J2000 equatorial coordinates and cross-identifications for 73,197 galaxies.

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In physical cosmology, a protogalaxy, which could also be called a "primeval galaxy", is a cloud of gas which is forming into a galaxy.

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Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is a monthly scientific journal which publishes astronomy research and review papers, instrumentation papers and dissertation summaries.

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Radio astronomy

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.

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Red clump

The red clump is a feature in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of stars.

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Red giant

A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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Right ascension

Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol α) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question.

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Ring galaxy

A ring galaxy is a galaxy with a circle-like appearance.

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Robert Hanbury Brown

Robert Hanbury Brown, AC FRS (31 August 1916 – 16 January 2002) was a British astronomer and physicist born in Aruvankadu, India.

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Satellite galaxy

A satellite galaxy is a galaxy that orbits a larger galaxy due to gravitational attraction.

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Scott Tremaine

Scott Duncan Tremaine (born 1950) is a Canadian-born astrophysicist.

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Second Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources

The Second Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (2C) was published in 1955 by John R Shakeshaft and colleagues.

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SIMBAD (the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) is an astronomical database of objects beyond the Solar System.

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Simon Marius

Simon Marius (Latinized from German Simon Mayr; January 20, 1573 – January 5, 1625) was a German astronomer.

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Sirius is the brightest star (in fact, a star system) in the Earth's night sky.

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SN 1885A

|- style.

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Solar mass

The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy that is used to indicate the masses of other stars, as well as clusters, nebulae and galaxies.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Sombrero Galaxy

The Sombrero Galaxy (also known as Messier Object 104, M104 or NGC 4594) is an unbarred spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo located 28 million light-years (8.6 Mpc) from Earth.

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Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.

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Spanish National Research Council

The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum.

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Spiral galaxy

A spiral galaxy is a certain kind of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae(pp. 124–151) and, as such, forms part of the Hubble sequence.

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Spitzer Space Telescope

The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space observatory launched in 2003.

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Star chart

A star chart or star map is a map of the night sky.

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Star cluster

Star clusters or star clouds are groups of stars.

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Star formation

Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse to form stars.

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Starburst galaxy

A starburst galaxy is a galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation, as compared to the long-term average rate of star formation in the galaxy or the star formation rate observed in most other galaxies.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Students for the Exploration and Development of Space

Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) is an international student organization whose purpose is to promote space exploration and development through educational and engineering projects.

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A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months.

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Surface brightness fluctuation

Surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) is a secondary distance indicator used to estimate distances to galaxies.

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Sussex (abbreviated Sx), from the Old English Sūþsēaxe ('South Saxons'), is an historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.

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The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds.

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A telescope is an instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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The Astronomical Journal

The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.

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The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review

The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published quarterly by Springer Science+Business Media.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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Tidal force

The tidal force is a secondary effect of the force of gravity and is responsible for the tides.

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Tip of the red-giant branch

Tip of the red-giant branch (TRGB) is a primary distance indicator used in astronomy.

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Tod R. Lauer

Tod R. Lauer is an American astronomer on the research staff of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

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Triangulum Galaxy

The Triangulum Galaxy is a spiral galaxy approximately 3 million light-years (ly) from Earth in the constellation Triangulum.

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Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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The Universe is all of time and space and its contents.

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Universe Today

Universe Today (UT) is a moderately popular North American based non-commercial space and astronomy news site.

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University of California, Santa Cruz

The University of California, Santa Cruz (also known as UC Santa Cruz or UCSC), is a public, collegiate university and one of 10 campuses in the University of California system.

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Uppsala General Catalogue

The Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies (UGC) is a catalogue of 12921 galaxies visible from the northern hemisphere.

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Velocity dispersion

In astronomy, the velocity dispersion (σ) is the statistical dispersion of velocities about the mean velocity for a group of objects, such as an open cluster, globular cluster, galaxy, galaxy cluster, or supercluster.

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Very Long Baseline Array

The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is a system of ten radio telescopes which are operated remotely from their Array Operations Center located in Socorro, New Mexico, as a part of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO).

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Vesto Slipher

Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer who performed the first measurements of radial velocities for galaxies, providing the empirical basis for the expansion of the universe.

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W. M. Keck Observatory

The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.

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Walter Baade

Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 – June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who worked in the USA from 1931 to 1959.

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In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and the inverse of the spatial frequency.

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Wide Field and Planetary Camera

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) (pronounced as wiffpick) was a camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope until December 1993.

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William Herschel

Frederick William Herschel, KH, FRS (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer, and brother of Caroline Herschel.

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William Huggins

Sir William Huggins, OM, KCB, FRS (7 February 1824 – 12 May 1910) was an English astronomer best known for his pioneering work in astronomical spectroscopy together with his wife Margaret Lindsay Huggins.

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X-ray binary

X-ray binaries are a class of binary stars that are luminous in X-rays.

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The XMM-Newton, also known as the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission and the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission, is an orbiting X-ray observatory launched by ESA in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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The Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) was a survey of the whole sky in three infrared wavebands around 2 micrometres (μm): J (1.25 μm), H (1.65 μm), and Ks (2.17 μm).

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Redirects here:

2C 56, 2MASX J00424433+4116074, 33 Andromedae, Andromeda (astronomy), Andromeda (galaxy), Andromeda galaxy, Andromedea, Andromenda, DA 21, GIN 801, Galaxy M31, Great Andromeda Nebula, Great Andromeda Spiral Galaxy, IRAS 00400+4059, IRC +40013, K79 1C, LEDA 2557, MCG+07-02-016, Messier 31, Messier Object 31, NGC 224, NGC224, PGC 2557, RAFGL 104, The Andromeda Galaxy, UGC 454, XSS J00425+4102, Z 0040.0+4100, Z 535-17.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andromeda_Galaxy

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