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C4 carbon fixation

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C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants. [1]

80 relations: Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Alanine, Amaranthaceae, Aquatic plant, Aspartic acid, Asteraceae, Bienertia, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Biosequestration, Brassicaceae, C3 carbon fixation, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon fixation, Carboxylation, Caryophyllales, Chenopodioideae, Chloroplast, Climate change, Convergent evolution, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Cyperaceae, Decarboxylation, Dicotyledon, Drought, Eudicots, Euphorbiaceae, Evolution, Family (biology), Flowering plant, Food security, Fractionation of carbon isotopes in oxygenic photosynthesis, Government of the United Kingdom, Hugo P. Kortschak, Hydrilla, International Rice Research Institute, Leaf, Light-independent reactions, Maize, Malic acid, Marshall Hatch, Megathyrsus maximus, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Middle East, Millet, Miocene, Monocotyledon, Nitrogen, Oligocene, ..., Order (biology), Organic acid, Organic compound, Oxaloacetic acid, Oxygenase, Paulownia, PEP carboxylase, Phenotype, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Photorespiration, Poaceae, Pyrophosphate, Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, Pyruvic acid, Redox, Rice, RuBisCO, Sorghum, Starch, Suaeda aralocaspica, Suberin, Sugar, Sugarcane, Temperature, Vascular bundle, Vein, Water-use efficiency, Wreath, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (30 more) »

Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Alanine

Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Amaranthaceae

Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.

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Aquatic plant

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).

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Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Asteraceae

Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).

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Bienertia

Bienertia is a flowering plant genus that currently is classified in the family Amaranthaceae, although it was previously considered to belong to the family Chenopodiaceae.

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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.

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Biosequestration

Biosequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes.

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Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.

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C3 carbon fixation

carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon fixation

Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.

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Carboxylation

Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide.

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Caryophyllales

Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants.

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Chenopodioideae

The Chenopodioideae are a subfamily of the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae in the APG III system, which is largely based on molecular phylogeny, but were included - together with other subfamilies - in family Chenopodiaceae in the Cronquist system.

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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Crassulacean acid metabolism

Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.

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Cyperaceae

The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.

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Decarboxylation

Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Dicotyledon

The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.

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Drought

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Eudicots

The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.

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Euphorbiaceae

The Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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Fractionation of carbon isotopes in oxygenic photosynthesis

Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide to carbohydrates via several chemical pathways that provide energy to an organism and preferentially react with certain stable isotopes of carbon.

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Government of the United Kingdom

The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Hugo P. Kortschak

Hugo Peter Kortschak (or Kortschack; 4 September 1911, in Chicago, Illinois – 20 August 1983) was an American biologist who discovered the C4 pathway in 1957.

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Hydrilla

Hydrilla (Waterthyme or hydrilla) is a genus of aquatic plant, usually treated as containing just one species, Hydrilla verticillata, though some botanists divide it into several species.

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International Rice Research Institute

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.

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Leaf

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Light-independent reactions

The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malic acid

Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.

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Marshall Hatch

Marshall (Hal) Davidson Hatch AM (born 24 December 1932) was an Australian biochemist and plant physiologist.

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Megathyrsus maximus

Megathyrsus maximus, known as Guinea grass and green panic grass in English, is a large perennial bunch grass that is native to Africa, Palestine, and Yemen.

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Michaelis–Menten kinetics

Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Miocene

The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Monocotyledon

Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Oligocene

The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Organic acid

An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Oxaloacetic acid

Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.

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Oxygenase

An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it.

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Paulownia

Paulownia is a genus of six to 17 species (depending on taxonomic authority) of flowering plants in the family Paulowniaceae, related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae.

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PEP carboxylase

PEP carboxylase may refer to.

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Phenotype

A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (also known as PEP carboxylase, PEPCase, or PEPC;, PDB ID: 3ZGE) is an enzyme in the family of carboxy-lyases found in plants and some bacteria that catalyzes the addition of bicarbonate (HCO3−) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate: This reaction is used for carbon fixation in CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) and C4 organisms, as well as to regulate flux through the citric acid cycle (also known as Krebs or TCA cycle) in bacteria and plants.

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Phosphoenolpyruvic acid

Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) as the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate.

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Photorespiration

Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) refers to a process in plant metabolism where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, causing some of the energy produced by photosynthesis to be wasted.

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Poaceae

Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Pyrophosphate

In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.

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Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase

Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase is an enzyme in the family of transferases that catalyzes the chemical reaction This enzyme has been studied primarily in plants, but it has been studied in some bacteria as well.

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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RuBisCO

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

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Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Starch

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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Suaeda aralocaspica

Suaeda aralocaspica is a species of plant in the family Amaranthaceae that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia.

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Suberin

Suberin, cutin and lignins are complex, higher plant epidermis and periderm cell-wall macromolecules, forming a protective barrier.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Vascular bundle

A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.

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Vein

Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Water-use efficiency

Water-use efficiency (WUE) refers to the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration.

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Wreath

A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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3-Phosphoglyceric acid

3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).

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C 4 Photosynthesis, C-4 Photosynthesis, C-4 cycle, C-4 pathway, C4 Photosynthesis, C4 Rice Project, C4 carbon cycle, C4 crop, C4 crops, C4 cycle, C4 pathway, C4 photosynthesis, C4 plant, C4 plants, C₄ carbon fixation, Hatch-Slack pathway, Kranz Anatomy, Kranz anatomy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C4_carbon_fixation

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