80 relations: Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Alanine, Amaranthaceae, Aquatic plant, Aspartic acid, Asteraceae, Bienertia, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Biosequestration, Brassicaceae, C3 carbon fixation, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon fixation, Carboxylation, Caryophyllales, Chenopodioideae, Chloroplast, Climate change, Convergent evolution, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Cyperaceae, Decarboxylation, Dicotyledon, Drought, Eudicots, Euphorbiaceae, Evolution, Family (biology), Flowering plant, Food security, Fractionation of carbon isotopes in oxygenic photosynthesis, Government of the United Kingdom, Hugo P. Kortschak, Hydrilla, International Rice Research Institute, Leaf, Light-independent reactions, Maize, Malic acid, Marshall Hatch, Megathyrsus maximus, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Middle East, Millet, Miocene, Monocotyledon, Nitrogen, Oligocene, ..., Order (biology), Organic acid, Organic compound, Oxaloacetic acid, Oxygenase, Paulownia, PEP carboxylase, Phenotype, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Photorespiration, Poaceae, Pyrophosphate, Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, Pyruvic acid, Redox, Rice, RuBisCO, Sorghum, Starch, Suaeda aralocaspica, Suberin, Sugar, Sugarcane, Temperature, Vascular bundle, Vein, Water-use efficiency, Wreath, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).
Bienertia is a flowering plant genus that currently is classified in the family Amaranthaceae, although it was previously considered to belong to the family Chenopodiaceae.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.
Biosequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes.
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.
carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.
Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide.
Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants.
The Chenopodioideae are a subfamily of the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae in the APG III system, which is largely based on molecular phylogeny, but were included - together with other subfamilies - in family Chenopodiaceae in the Cronquist system.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.
The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.
The Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide to carbohydrates via several chemical pathways that provide energy to an organism and preferentially react with certain stable isotopes of carbon.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Hugo Peter Kortschak (or Kortschack; 4 September 1911, in Chicago, Illinois – 20 August 1983) was an American biologist who discovered the C4 pathway in 1957.
Hydrilla (Waterthyme or hydrilla) is a genus of aquatic plant, usually treated as containing just one species, Hydrilla verticillata, though some botanists divide it into several species.
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
Marshall (Hal) Davidson Hatch AM (born 24 December 1932) was an Australian biochemist and plant physiologist.
Megathyrsus maximus, known as Guinea grass and green panic grass in English, is a large perennial bunch grass that is native to Africa, Palestine, and Yemen.
Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it.
Paulownia is a genus of six to 17 species (depending on taxonomic authority) of flowering plants in the family Paulowniaceae, related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae.
PEP carboxylase may refer to.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (also known as PEP carboxylase, PEPCase, or PEPC;, PDB ID: 3ZGE) is an enzyme in the family of carboxy-lyases found in plants and some bacteria that catalyzes the addition of bicarbonate (HCO3−) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate: This reaction is used for carbon fixation in CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) and C4 organisms, as well as to regulate flux through the citric acid cycle (also known as Krebs or TCA cycle) in bacteria and plants.
Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) as the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate.
Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) refers to a process in plant metabolism where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, causing some of the energy produced by photosynthesis to be wasted.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase is an enzyme in the family of transferases that catalyzes the chemical reaction This enzyme has been studied primarily in plants, but it has been studied in some bacteria as well.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Suaeda aralocaspica is a species of plant in the family Amaranthaceae that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia.
Suberin, cutin and lignins are complex, higher plant epidermis and periderm cell-wall macromolecules, forming a protective barrier.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Water-use efficiency (WUE) refers to the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration.
A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
C 4 Photosynthesis, C-4 Photosynthesis, C-4 cycle, C-4 pathway, C4 Photosynthesis, C4 Rice Project, C4 carbon cycle, C4 crop, C4 crops, C4 cycle, C4 pathway, C4 photosynthesis, C4 plant, C4 plants, C₄ carbon fixation, Hatch-Slack pathway, Kranz Anatomy, Kranz anatomy.