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C4 carbon fixation

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C4 carbon fixation is one of three biochemical mechanisms, along with c3 and CAM photosynthesis, used in carbon fixation. [1]

75 relations: Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Alanine, Amaranthaceae, Aspartic acid, Asteraceae, Bienertia, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Biosequestration, Brassicaceae, C3 carbon fixation, Carbon fixation, Carboxylation, Caryophyllales, Chenopodiaceae, Chenopodioideae, Chloroplast, Climate change, Convergent evolution, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Cyperaceae, Decarboxylation, Dicotyledon, Drought, Eudicots, Euphorbiaceae, Evolution, Family (biology), Flowering plant, Food security, Government of the United Kingdom, Hugo P. Kortschak, Hydrilla, International Rice Research Institute, Leaf, Light-independent reactions, Macrophyte, Maize, Malic acid, Marshall Hatch, Megathyrsus maximus, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Middle East, Millet, Miocene, Monocotyledon, Nitrogen, Oligocene, Order (biology), Organic acid, ..., Organic compound, Oxaloacetic acid, Oxygenase, Phenotype, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Photorespiration, Poaceae, Pyrophosphate, Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, Pyruvic acid, Redox, Rice, RuBisCO, Sorghum, Starch, Suaeda aralocaspica, Suberin, Sugarcane, Temperature, Vascular bundle, Vein, Water-use efficiency, Wreath, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (25 more) »

Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

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Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A) is a non-polar α-amino acid, with the formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH.

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The Amaranthaceae, the Amaranth family, represent the most species-rich lineage within the flowering plant order of Caryophyllales.

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Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D).

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The Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) are an exceedingly large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).

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Bienertia is a flowering plant that currently is classified in the family Amaranthaceae, although it was previously considered to belong to the family Chenopodiaceae.

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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF or the Gates Foundation) is the largest private foundation in the world, founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.

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Biosequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes.

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Brassicaceae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants (Angiosperms), informally known as the mustards, mustard flowers, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.

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C3 carbon fixation

carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.

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Carbon fixation

Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.

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Carboxylation in chemistry is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is introduced in a substrate.

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Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, carnations, amaranths, ice plants, beets, and many carnivorous plants.

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The Chenopodiaceae are a family of flowering plants, also called the goosefoot family.

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The Chenopodioideae are a subfamily of the flowering plant family Amaranthaceae in the APG III system, which is largely based on molecular phylogeny, but were included - together with other subfamilies - in family Chenopodiaceae in the Cronquist system.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Crassulacean acid metabolism

Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.

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The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses or rushes.

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Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), were one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.

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A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water.

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The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.

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Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, in common English sometimes called "euphorbias", which is also the name of a genus in the family, is a large family of flowering plants with about 300 genera and 7,500 species.

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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals' access to it.

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Government of the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Government (HMG), commonly referred to as the British government, Welsh: Llywodraeth Ei Mawrhydi, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Hugo P. Kortschak

Hugo P. Kortschak (1911–1983) (or Kortschack) was a biologist who discovered the C4 pathway in 1957.

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Hydrilla (Esthwaite Waterweed, waterthyme or hydrilla) is a genus of aquatic plant, usually treated as containing just one species, Hydrilla verticillata, though some botanists divide it into several species.

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International Rice Research Institute

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Light-independent reactions

The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.

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A macrophyte is an aquatic plant that grows in or near water and is either emergent, submergent, or floating.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.

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Malic acid

Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.

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Marshall Hatch

Marshall Davidson Hatch AM (b. 24 December 1932) was an Australian biochemist and plant physiologist.

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Megathyrsus maximus

Megathyrsus maximus, known as Guinea grass and green panic grass in English, is a large perennial bunch grass that is native to Africa, Palestine, and Yemen.

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Michaelis–Menten kinetics

Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.

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Middle East

The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.

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Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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The Miocene (symbol MI) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Monocotyledons, also known as monocots, are plants whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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The Oligocene (symbol O&thinsp) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Organic acid

An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.

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Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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Oxaloacetic acid

Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.

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An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (also known as PEP carboxylase, PEPCase, or PEPC;, PDB ID: 3ZGE) is an enzyme in the family of carboxy-lyases found in plants and some bacteria that catalyzes the addition of bicarbonate (HCO3−) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form the four-carbon compound oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate: This reaction is used for carbon fixation in CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) and C4 organisms, as well as to regulate flux through the citric acid cycle (also known as Krebs or TCA cycle) in bacteria and plants.

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Phosphoenolpyruvic acid

Phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP), or phosphoenolpyruvate as the anion, is an important chemical compound in biochemistry.

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Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) is a process in plant metabolism which attempts to reduce the consequences of a wasteful oxygenation reaction by the enzyme RuBisCO.

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The Poaceae (English pronunciation) (also called Gramineae or true grasses) are a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants.

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In chemistry, pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.

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Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase

Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase is an enzyme in the family of transferases that catalyzes the chemical reaction This enzyme has been studied primarily in plants, but it has been studied in some bacteria as well.

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviation RuBisCO, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

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Sorghum is a genus of plants in the grass family.

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Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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Suaeda aralocaspica

Suaeda aralocaspica is a species of plant in the family Amaranthaceae, that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia.

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Suberin is a waterproofing waxy substance found in higher plants.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, is one of the several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold.

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Vascular bundle

A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.

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In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Water-use efficiency

Water-use efficiency (WUE) refers to the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration.

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A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.

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3-Phosphoglyceric acid

3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG), or glycerate 3-phosphate (GP), is a biochemically significant 3-carbon molecule that is a metabolic intermediate in both glycolysis and the Calvin cycle.

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C 4 Photosynthesis, C-4 Photosynthesis, C-4 cycle, C-4 pathway, C4 Photosynthesis, C4 carbon cycle, C4 crop, C4 crops, C4 cycle, C4 pathway, C4 photosynthesis, C4 plant, C4 plants, C₄ carbon fixation, Hatch-Slack pathway, Kranz Anatomy, Kranz anatomy.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C4_carbon_fixation

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