391 relations: ABC News (Australia), Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Accounts of Chemical Research, Acetylene, Acid dissociation constant, Adenosine triphosphate, Airbag, Alchemy, Ale, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allotropy, Alpha particle, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium fluoride, Ammonium nitrate, Amphetamine, Analytical chemistry, Angewandte Chemie, Antibiotic, Antimony, Antoine Lavoisier, Aqua regia, Argon, Aromaticity, Arsenic, Arsenic pentafluoride, Asphyxiant gas, Assimilation (biology), Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric pressure, Atomic number, Azide, Azo compound, Barium azide, Beer, Beer head, Benzene, Beverage can, Biosphere, Bismuth, Block (periodic table), Blood, Blood pressure, ..., Boiling point, Boiling water reactor, Borazine, Boron, Boron group, Bottle, Breathing gas, Bridging ligand, Bromine azide, Bubble (physics), Cadaverine, Caffeine, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbonate, Carbon–nitrogen bond, Carbonyl group, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carotid body, Case-hardening, Catalysis, Catenation, Cell signaling, Celsius, Central processing unit, Ceramic, Chalcogen, ChemComm, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical substance, Chemistry World, Chloramine, Chlorine, Chlorine azide, Close-packing of equal spheres, CNO cycle, Cold trap, Combustion, Composition of the human body, Condensation, Coordination complex, Copper, Covalent bond, Covalent radius, Cream, Cryogenics, Cryopreservation, Cryotherapy, Cubic crystal system, Cyanate, Cyanide, Cyanoacrylate, Cyanogen, Cyclotron, Daniel Rutherford, Dead zone (ecology), Decompression sickness, Denitrification, Deuterium, Diagonal relationship, Diamagnetism, Diamond, Diamond anvil cell, Diatomic molecule, Diazo, Diazotroph, Dimethylamine, Dimethylphenylphosphine, Dinitrogen difluoride, Dinitrogen pentoxide, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Dinitrogen trioxide, Disulfur dinitride, DNA, Dry ice, E number, Egg cell, Electronegativity, Elsevier, European Union, Eutrophication, Evaporation, Even and odd atomic nuclei, Excretion, Expansion ratio, Explosive material, Fertilizer, Fluoride, Fluorine, Fluorine azide, Food industry, Fractional distillation, Frank–Caro process, Freezing, French language, Frostbite, Functional group, Gallium, Gamma ray, Gas, Gaseous fire suppression, Geochemistry, Germanium nitride, Geyser, Gold, Greek language, Group 11 element, Gunpowder, Gyromagnetic ratio, Haber process, Half-life, Hapticity, Helium, Henry Cavendish, Herodotus, Heterocyclic compound, Hydrazine, Hydrazinium, Hydrazoic acid, Hydride, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen halide, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrology, Hydroxylamine, Hygroscopy, Hypergolic propellant, Hypervalent molecule, Hyponitrite, Hyponitrous acid, Imide, Imine, Incandescent light bulb, Industrial gas, Inert gas, Inert gas asphyxiation, Inerting system, Infrared detector, Inorganic anhydride, Interstitial compound, Iridium, Isocyanate, Isocyanide, Isotope, Jean-Antoine Chaptal, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Joseph Priestley, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kelvin, Kevlar, Kjeldahl method, Lead, Leidenfrost effect, Liquid, Liquid air, Liquid nitrogen, Liquid oxygen, Lithium, Livestock branding, Lone pair, Lysine, Melting point, Mercury (element), Mercury nitride, Metabolism, Milky Way, Mobile Launcher Platform, Modified atmosphere, Molecular autoionization, Monatomic gas, Morphine, NASA, Neon, Neurotransmitter, Niobium, Niter, Nitrate, Nitratine, Nitric acid, Nitric oxide, Nitride, Nitriding, Nitrification, Nitrile, Nitrite, Nitro compound, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen narcosis, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrogen tribromide, Nitrogen trichloride, Nitrogen trifluoride, Nitrogen triiodide, Nitrogen-13, Nitrogenase, Nitroglycerin, Nitronium ion, Nitroso, Nitrosonium, Nitrosyl bromide, Nitrosyl chloride, Nitrosyl fluoride, Nitrosylazide, Nitrous acid, Nitrous oxide, Nitryl fluoride, Noble gas, Nuclear drip line, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nuclear reactor, Nucleic acid, Nucleophile, Oklahoma, Oligomer, Orbital hybridisation, Organic chemistry, Ornithine, Orthonitrate, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Ostwald process, Overclocking, Oxide, Oxime, Oxyacid, Oxygen, Oxygen sensor, Ozone, Ozone layer, Paintball marker, Paleoceanography, Paleoclimatology, Partial pressure, Parts-per notation, Pentazenium, Pentazole, Periodic Videos, Permanganate, Phlogiston theory, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus, Phosphorus pentoxide, Physical Review, Pierre Louis Dulong, Platinum, Pluto, Pnictogen, Pollutant, Positron emission tomography, Potassium dichromate, Potassium nitrate, Pressure swing adsorption, Pressurized water reactor, Prodrug, Product (chemistry), Propellant, Protein, Putrescine, Pyridine, Pyrrole, Quadrupole, Quaternary ammonium cation, Radical (chemistry), Radionuclide, Rancidification, Raw material, Reactive nitrogen species, Redox, Refrigerant, Relative permittivity, Rhodium, RNA, Rocket propellant, Russian language, Scuba diving, Semiconductor, Silicon carbide, Silicon nitride, Silver, Sodium azide, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hypochlorite, Sodium nitrate, Sodium nitrite, Sodium nitroprusside, Solar System, Solid nitrogen, Soviet Union, Sperm, Spin (physics), Springer Science+Business Media, Stainless steel, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Star, Sublimation (phase transition), Substrate (chemistry), Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Tetrafluorohydrazine, Tetrafluoromethane, Tetrahedrane, Tetrasulfur tetranitride, Texas A&M University, Thiocyanate, Three-center four-electron bond, Time (magazine), Tin, Tire, Titration, Transition metal, Transition metal dinitrogen complex, Trimethylamine N-oxide, Trinitramide, Triphosphorus pentanitride, Triple bond, Triton (moon), Turkish language, United States, Universe, Urea, Uric acid, Vacuum flask, Valence electron, Van der Waals force, Water, Widget (beer), World war, X-ray detector, (n-p) reaction, 13th century. 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ABC News is a national news service in Australia produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Accounts of Chemical Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An airbag is a type of vehicle safety device and is an occupant restraint system.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4F.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arsenic pentafluoride is a chemical compound of arsenic and fluorine.
An asphyxiant gas is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the normal oxygen concentration in breathing air.
Biological assimilation, or bio-assimilation, is the combination of two processes to supply cells with nutrients.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).
Azo compounds are compounds bearing the functional group R−N.
Barium azide is an inorganic azide with the formula Ba(N3)2.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Beer head (also head or collar), is the frothy foam on top of beer which is produced by bubbles of gas, typically carbon dioxide, rising to the surface.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
A beverage can is a metal container designed to hold a fixed portion of liquid such as carbonated soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, fruit juices, teas, herbal teas, energy drinks, etc.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
The boiling water reactor (BWR) is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power.
Borazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (BH)3(NH)3.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
A bottle is a narrow-necked container as compared with a jar.
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.
In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.
Bromine azide is an explosive inorganic compound with the formula BrN3.
A bubble is a globule of one substance in another, usually gas in a liquid.
Cadaverine is a foul-smelling diamine compound produced by the putrefaction of animal tissue.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A carbon–nitrogen bond is a covalent bond between carbon and nitrogen and is one of the most abundant bonds in organic chemistry and biochemistry.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).
Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
ChemComm (or Chemical Communications), formerly known as Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications (1969–1971), Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (1972–1995), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.
In vacuum applications, a cold trap is a device that condenses all vapors except the permanent gases into a liquid or solid.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of an atom that forms part of one covalent bond.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Cryo-preservation or cryo-conservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extracellular matrix, organs or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures (typically −80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or −196 °C using liquid nitrogen).
Cryotherapy, sometimes known as cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
The cyanate ion is an anion with the chemical formula written as − or −. In aqueous solution it acts as a base, forming isocyanic acid, HNCO.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyanoacrylates are a family of strong fast-acting adhesives with industrial, medical, and household uses.
Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Daniel Rutherford (3 November 1749 – 15 December 1819) was a Scottish physician, chemist and botanist who is most famous for the isolation of nitrogen in 1772.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
A diagonal relationship is said to exist between certain pairs of diagonally adjacent elements in the second and third periods of the periodic table.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a high-pressure device used in scientific experiments.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Diazo refers to a type of organic compound called diazo compound that has two linked nitrogen atoms (azo) as a terminal functional group.
Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.
Dimethylamine is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NH.
Dimethylphenylphosphine is an organophosphorus compound with a formula P(C6H5)(CH3)2.
Dinitrogen difluoride is a chemical compound with the formula N2F2.
Dinitrogen pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O5.
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
Dinitrogen trioxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O3.
Disulfur dinitride is the chemical compound S2N2 with a cyclic square planar structure.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
In nuclear physics, properties of a nucleus depend on evenness or oddness of its atomic number Z, neutron number N and, consequently, of their sum, the mass number A. Most notably, oddness of both Z and N tends to lower the nuclear binding energy, making odd nuclei, generally, less stable.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
The expansion ratio of a liquefied and cryogenic substance is the volume of a given amount of that substance in liquid form compared to the volume of the same amount of substance in gaseous form, at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fluorine azide or triazadienyl fluoride (FN3) is a yellow green gas composed of nitrogen and fluorine with formula FN3.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
The Frank–Caro process, also called cyanamide process, is the nitrogen fixation reaction of calcium carbide with nitrogen gas in a reactor vessel at about 1,000°C.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gaseous fire suppression is a term to describe the use of inert gases and chemical agents to extinguish a fire.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Germanium(IV) nitride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ge3N4.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
In physics, the gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its magnetic moment to its angular momentum, and it is often denoted by the symbol γ, gamma.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hapticity is the coordination of a ligand to a metal center via an uninterrupted and contiguous series of atoms.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrazinium is the cation with the formula.
Hydrazoic acid, also known as hydrogen azide or azoimide, This also contains a detailed description of the contemporaneous production process.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
A hypervalent molecule (the phenomenon is sometimes colloquially known as expanded octet) is a molecule that contains one or more main group elements apparently bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells.
In chemistry, hyponitrite may refer to the anion (2−), or to any ionic compound that contains it.
Hyponitrous acid is a chemical compound with formula or HON.
In organic chemistry, an imide is a functional group consisting of two acyl groups bound to nitrogen.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
Inert gas asphyxiation is a form of asphyxiation which results from breathing a physiologically inert gas in the absence of oxygen, or a low amount of oxygen, rather than atmospheric air (which is largely composed of nitrogen and oxygen).
An inerting system decreases the probability of combustion of flammable materials stored in a confined space, especially a fuel tank, by maintaining a chemically non-reactive or "inert" gas, such as nitrogen, in such a space.
An infrared detector is a detector that reacts to infrared (IR) radiation.
An inorganic anhydride is a chemical compound that is related to another by the loss of the elements of water, H2O.
An interstitial compound, or interstitial alloy, is a compound that is formed when an atom with a small enough radius sits in an interstitial “hole” in a metal lattice.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R–N.
An isocyanide (also called isonitrile or carbylamine) is an organic compound with the functional group -N≡C.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jean-Antoine Chaptal, comte de Chanteloup (5 June 1756 – 30 July 1832) was a distinguished French chemist, physician, agronomist, industrialist, statesman, educator and philanthropist.
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.
The Kjeldahl method or Kjeldahl digestion in analytical chemistry is a method for the quantitative determination of nitrogen contained in organic substances plus the nitrogen contained in the inorganic compounds ammonia and ammonium (NH3/NH4+).
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Leidenfrost effect is a physical phenomenon in which a liquid, in near contact with a mass significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point, produces an insulating vapor layer keeping that liquid from boiling rapidly.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquid air is air that has been cooled to very low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures), so that it has condensed into a pale blue mobile liquid.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Livestock branding is a technique for marking livestock so as to identify the owner.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mercury nitride describes chemical compounds that contain mercury cations and nitrido anions.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
The Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) is one of three two-story structures used by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center to support the Space Shuttle stack throughout the build-up and launch process: during assembly at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), while being transported to Launch Pads 39A and B, and as the vehicle's launch platform.
Modified atmosphere is the practice of modifying the composition of the internal atmosphere of a package (commonly food packages, drugs, etc.) in order to improve the shelf life.
Molecular autoionization (or self-ionization) is a reaction between molecules of the same substance to produce ions.
In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitratine or nitratite, also known as cubic niter (UK: nitre), soda niter or Chile saltpeter (UK: Chile saltpetre), is a mineral, the naturally occurring form of sodium nitrate, NaNO3.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−2).
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Narcosis while diving (also known as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas narcosis, raptures of the deep, Martini effect) is a reversible alteration in consciousness that occurs while diving at depth.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitrogen tribromide is a chemical compound with the formula NBr3.
Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3.
Nitrogen trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NF3.
Nitrogen triiodide is the inorganic compound with the formula NI3.
Nitrogen-13 is a radioisotope of nitrogen used in positron emission tomography (PET).
Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
The nitronium ion,, is a cation.
Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the NO group attached to an organic moiety.
The nitrosonium ion is NO+, in which the nitrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom with a bond order of 3, and the overall diatomic species bears a positive charge.
Nitrosyl bromide, is the chemical compound with the chemical formula NOBr.
Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl.
Nitrosyl fluoride, NOF, is a covalently bonded nitrosyl compound.
Nitrosylazide is a highly unstable nitrogen oxide, chemical formula N4O, which can be synthesized via the following reaction of sodium azide and nitrosyl chloride at low temperatures: Below −50 °C, nitrosylazide exists as a pale yellow solid.
Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Nitryl fluoride, NO2F, is a colourless gas and strong oxidizing agent, which is used as a fluorinating agent and has been proposed as an oxidiser in rocket propellants (though never flown).
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
The nuclear drip line is the boundary delimiting the zone beyond which atomic nuclei decay by the emission of a proton or neutron.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
Orthonitrate is a tetrahedral oxoanion of nitrogen with the formula.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
The Ostwald process is a chemical process for making nitric acid (HNO3).
Overclocking is configuration of computer hardware components to operate faster than certified by the original manufacturer, with "faster" specified as clock frequency in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.
An oxyacid, or oxoacid, is an acid that contains oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analysed.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
A paintball marker, also known as a paintball gun, paint gun, or marker, is the main piece of paintball equipment in the sport of paintball.
Paleoceanography is the study of the history of the oceans in the geologic past with regard to circulation, chemistry, biology, geology and patterns of sedimentation and biological productivity.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pentazenium cation (also known as pentanitrogen) is a positively charged polynitrogen ion of the chemical formula.
Pentazole is an aromatic chemical molecule consisting of a five-membered ring with all nitrogen atoms, one of which is bonded to a hydrogen atom.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Pierre Louis Dulong FRS FRSE (12 February 1785 – 19 July 1838) was a French physicist and chemist.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidizing agent in various laboratory and industrial applications. As with all hexavalent chromium compounds, it is acutely and chronically harmful to health. It is a crystalline ionic solid with a very bright, red-orange color. The salt is popular in the laboratory because it is not deliquescent, in contrast to the more industrially relevant salt sodium dichromate.Gerd Anger, Jost Halstenberg, Klaus Hochgeschwender, Christoph Scherhag, Ulrich Korallus, Herbert Knopf, Peter Schmidt, Manfred Ohlinger, "Chromium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases under pressure according to the species' molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Putrescine, or tetramethylenediamine, is a foul-smelling organic chemical compound NH2(CH2)4NH2 (1,4-diaminobutane or butanediamine) that is related to cadaverine; both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH.
A quadrupole or quadrapole is one of a sequence of configurations of things like electric charge or current, or gravitational mass that can exist in ideal form, but it is usually just part of a multipole expansion of a more complex structure reflecting various orders of complexity.
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Rancidity is the complete or incomplete oxidation or hydrolysis of fats and oils when exposed to air, light, moisture or by bacterial action, resulting in unpleasant taste and odor, which may be described as rancidity.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are a family of antimicrobial molecules derived from nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide (O2•−) produced via the enzymatic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and NADPH oxidase respectively.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sodium azide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sold under the brand name Nitropress among others, is a medication used to lower blood pressure.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solid nitrogen is the solid form of the element nitrogen.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Tetrafluorohydrazine or dinitrogen tetrafluoride,, is a colourless, reactive inorganic gas.
Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride, is the simplest fluorocarbon (CF4).
Tetrahedrane is a platonic hydrocarbon with chemical formula and a tetrahedral structure.
Tetrasulfur tetranitride is an inorganic compound with the formula S4N4.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
The 3-center 4-electron (3c–4e−) bond is a model used to explain bonding in certain hypervalent molecules such as tetratomic and hexatomic interhalogen compounds, sulfur tetrafluoride, the xenon fluorides, and the bifluoride ion.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Metal dinitrogen complexes are coordination compounds that contain the dinitrogen molecule (N2) as a ligand.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NO.
Trinitramide is a compound of nitrogen and oxygen with the molecular formula N(NO2)3.
Triphosphorus pentanitride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula P3N5.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A widget is a device placed in a container of beer to manage the characteristics of the beer's head.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
X-ray detectors are devices used to measure the flux, spatial distribution, spectrum, and/or other properties of X-rays.
The (n-p) reaction is an example of a nuclear reaction.
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
ATC code V03AN04, ATCvet code QV03AN04, Atmospheric nitrogen, Atomic number 7, Azote, Azotic air, Biological role of nitrogen, Burnt air, Diatomic Nitrogen, Dinitrogen, Dinitrogen (n2), E941, Element 7, Industrial nitrogen, Mephitic, Mephitic air, Molecular nitrogen, N (element), Nitrogen atom, Nitrogen compounds, Nitrogen gas, Nitrogen gases, Nitrogenation, Nitrogenous, Nitrogenous compound, Nitrogens, Nitrum, Noxious air, N₂, N≡N, Organic nitrogen, Phlogisticated air, S2 2S2 2P3.