178 relations: Aluminium, Ambrym, American Geophysical Union, Amphibole, Amygdule, Andes, Andesite, Antarctica, Australia, École normale supérieure de Lyon, Basalt, Boninite, Breccia, British Columbia, Calc-alkaline magma series, Calcium, Caldera, Cambridge University Press, Carbonatite, Catania, Cinder cone, Clarence Dutton, Crust (geology), Cryovolcano, Dacite, Daraga, Albay, De jure, Decade Volcanoes, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dike (geology), Earth, Effusive eruption, El Laco, Eldfell, Erta Ale, Ethiopia, Explosive eruption, Feldspar, Fissure vent, Flood basalt, Francesco Serao, Gas giant, Geothermal energy, Goma, Halemaumau Crater, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii, Hawaii (island), Hawaiian eruption, Hawaiian language, ..., Hawaiian Pidgin, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Heimaey, Herculaneum, Hiking, Igneous rock, Iron, Iron ore, Iron oxide, Italian language, Italy, Joya de Cerén, Kalapana, Hawaii, Kapoho, Hawaii, Kīlauea, Kiruna, Komatiite, Lahar, Lake Ilopango, Lapilli, Lastarria, Latin, Lava, Lava bench, Lava dome, Lava spine, Lava tube, Lax Ksiluux, Laze (geology), Magellan (spacecraft), Magma, Magnesium, Mantle (geology), Marine habitats, Matrix (geology), Mayon, Mica, Miscibility, Montserrat, Mount Erebus, Mount Etna, Mount Matavanu, Mount Nyiragongo, Mount St. Helens, Mount Tambora, Mount Vesuvius, Natrocarbonatite, Natural satellite, Nephelinite, Nisga'a, Novarupta, Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Ol Doinyo Lengai, Olivine, Parícutin, Peperite, Phanerozoic, Phenocryst, Philippines, Phreatic, Pillow lava, Piton Sainte-Rose, Pliocene, Plymouth, Montserrat, Polymer, Pompeii, Potassium, Proterozoic, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, Pumice, Pyroclastic flow, Pyroclastic rock, Pyroxene, Quartz, Queensland, Radar, Rain, Rhyolite, Saleaula, San Diego State University, San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Scoria, Shear thinning, Shield volcano, Silicate minerals, Silicon dioxide, Sill (geology), Sirius, Smithsonian Institution, Snake River Plain, Sodium, Solar System, Statue of A'a from Rurutu, Stratovolcano, Subaerial, Subglacial volcano, Submarine volcano, Sulfur, Sumbawa, Superheating, Sweden, Tanzania, Tephra, Terracotta, Terrestrial planet, Thixotropy, Trachyte, Trousers, Tseax Cone, Tuff, Types of volcanic eruptions, United States Geological Survey, Vacationland Hawaii, Valles Caldera, Vanuatu, Vesicular texture, Vestmannaeyjar, Viscosity, Vog, Volcanic ash, Volcanic block, Volcanic bomb, Volcanic crater, Volcanic gas, Volcanic plug, Volcano, Volcanology, Xenolith. Expand index (128 more) » « Shrink index
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Ambrym is a volcanic island in Malampa Province in the archipelago of Vanuatu.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
Amygdules or amygdales form when the gas bubbles or vesicles in volcanic lava (or other extrusive igneous rocks) are infilled with a secondary mineral such as calcite, quartz, chlorite or one of the zeolites.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The École normale supérieure de Lyon (also known as ENS Lyon, ENSL or Normale Sup' Lyon) is a highly selective grande école located in Lyon, France.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Boninite is a mafic extrusive rock high in both magnesium and silica, thought to be usually formed in fore-arc environments, typically during the early stages of subduction.
Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The calc-alkaline magma series is one of two main subdivisions of the subalkaline magma series, the other subalkaline magma series being the tholeiitic.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea.
A cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, cinders, volcanic ash, or scoria that has been built around a volcanic vent.
In 1875, he began work as a geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A cryovolcano (sometimes informally called an ice volcano) is a type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock.
Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock.
, officially the, (Banwaan kan Daraga; Bayan ng Daraga), is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground.
El Laco is a volcanic complex in the Antofagasta Region of Chile.
Eldfell is a volcanic cone just over high on the Icelandic island of Heimaey.
Erta Ale (or Ertale or Irta'ale) is a continuously active basaltic shield volcano in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
In volcanology, an explosive eruption is a volcanic eruption of the most violent type.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
A fissure vent, also known as a volcanic fissure or eruption fissure, is a linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity.
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava.
Francesco Serao (20 September 1702 - 5 August 1783) was an Italian physician, physicist, geologist, philosopher and scholar.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Goma is the capital city of North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Halemaumau Crater is a pit crater located within the much larger summit caldera of Kīlauea in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, established on August 1, 1916, is an American National Park located in the U.S. state of Hawaii on the island of Hawaii.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
A Hawaiian eruption is a type of volcanic eruption where lava flows from the vent in a relatively gentle, low level eruption; it is so named because it is characteristic of Hawaiian volcanoes.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Hawaiian Pidgin English (alternately Hawaiian Creole English or HCE, known locally as Pidgin) is an English-based creole language spoken in Hawaiʻi (L1: 600,000; L2: 400,000).
The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is a volcano observatory located at Uwekahuna Bluff on the rim of Kīlauea Caldera on the Island of Hawaiokinai.
Heimaey, literally Home Island, is an Icelandic island.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Joya de Cerén (Jewel of Cerén in the Spanish language) is an archaeological site in La Libertad Department, El Salvador, featuring a pre-Columbian Maya farming village.
Kalapana is a town and a region in the Puna District on the Island of Hawaiokinai in the Hawaiian Islands.
Kapoho, Hawaii, is an unincorporated community in Puna district, Hawaiokinai County, Hawaiokinai, located near the eastern tip of the island of Hawaiokinai, in the easternmost end of the graben overlying Kīlauea's east rift zone.
Kīlauea is a currently active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, and the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the island of Hawaiokinai.
Kiruna (Northern Sami: Giron, Finnish: Kiiruna) is the northernmost town in Sweden, situated in the province of Lapland.
Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock.
A lahar (from wlahar) is a violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water.
Lake Ilopango is a crater lake which fills a scenic 8 by 11 km (72 km2 or 28 sq mi) volcanic caldera in central El Salvador, on the borders of the San Salvador, La Paz, and Cuscatlán departments.
Lapilli is a size classification term for tephra, which is material that falls out of the air during a volcanic eruption or during some meteorite impacts.
Lastarria is a volcano that lies on the border between Chile and Argentina.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
A lava bench is a volcanic landform with a horizontal surface raised above the level of the surrounding area.
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.
A lava spine is a vertically growing monolith of viscous lava that is slowly forced from a volcanic vent, such as those growing on a lava dome (Bates & Jackson, 1987).
A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow.
Lax Ksiluux is the name of a former First Nations community in northwestern British Columbia, Canada.
Laze is acid rain and air pollution arising from steam explosions and large plume clouds containing extremely acidic condensate (mainly hydrochloric acid), which occur when molten lava flows enter cold oceans.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
The marine environment supplies many kinds of habitats that support marine life.
The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.
Mayon (Bulkan Mayon, Bulkang Mayon, Monte Mayón), also known as Mayon Volcano or Mount Mayon, is an active stratovolcano in the province of Albay in Bicol Region, on the large island of Luzon in the Philippines.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Montserrat is a Caribbean island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies.
Mount Erebus is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.
Mount Etna, or Etna (Etna or Mongibello; Mungibeddu or â Muntagna; Aetna), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania.
Mt Matavanu is an active volcano on the island of Savai'i in Samoa.
Mount Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano with an elevation of in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Albertine Rift.
Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
Natrocarbonatite is a rare carbonatite lava which erupts from the Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania within the East African Rift of eastern Africa.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Nephelinite is a fine-grained or aphanitic igneous rock made up almost entirely of nepheline and clinopyroxene (variety augite).
The Nisga’a, often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as Nisg̱a’a (pronounced), are an Indigenous people of Canada in British Columbia.
Novarupta (meaning "newly erupted" in Latin) is a volcano that was formed in 1912, located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about southwest of Anchorage.
Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, in the Mexican state of Michoacán, is a small village near the Parícutin volcano.
Ol Doinyo Lengai, "Mountain of God" in the Maasai language, is an active volcano located in the Gregory Rift, south of Lake Natron within the Arusha Region of Tanzania, Africa.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, also accented Paricutín) is a cinder cone volcano located in the Mexican state of Michoacán, near the city of Uruapan and about west of Mexico City.
A peperite is a sedimentary rock that contains fragments of igneous material and is formed when magma comes into contact with wet sediments.
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.
1 euro coin (diameter 2.3 cm) for scale. A phenocryst is an early forming, relatively large and usually conspicuous crystal distinctly larger than the grains of the rock groundmass of an igneous rock.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phreatic is a term used in hydrology to refer to aquifers, in speleology to refer to cave passages, and in volcanology to refer to eruption type.
Pillow lavas are lavas that contain characteristic pillow-shaped structures that are attributed to the extrusion of the lava under water, or subaqueous extrusion.
Piton Sainte-Rose is a village located on the eastern coast of the Réunion island (a French department) in the Indian Ocean.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Plymouth was the capital city of the island of Montserrat, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom located in the Leeward Island chain of the Lesser Antilles, West Indies.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
Puu Ōō (often written Puu Oo) is a volcanic cone in the eastern rift zone of the Kīlauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra) that moves away from a volcano reaching speeds of up to.
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
Sale'aula is a village on the central north coast of Savai'i island in Samoa and is the traditional center of the Gaga'emauga political district.
San Diego State University (SDSU) is a public research university in San Diego, California, and is the largest and oldest higher education institution in San Diego County.
San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (San Bastiane) is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, located on the western slopes of Mount Vesuvius.
Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).
In rheology, shear thinning is the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids whose viscosity decreases under shear strain.
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually composed almost entirely of fluid lava flows.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.
Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
gorges, such as this one near Twin Falls, Idaho The Snake River Plain is a geologic feature located primarily within the U.S. state of Idaho.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Statue of A'a from Rurutu is a famous wooden sculpture of the god A'a that was made on the Pacific island of Rurutu in the Austral archipelago.
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash.
In natural science, subaerial (literally "under the air"), has been used since 1833, in the Merriam-Webster dictionary.
A subglacial volcano, also known as a glaciovolcano, is a volcanic form produced by subglacial eruptions or eruptions beneath the surface of a glacier or ice sheet which is then melted into a lake by the rising lava.
Submarine volcanoes are underwater vents or fissures in the Earth's surface from which magma can erupt.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast.
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size, or emplacement mechanism.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Thixotropy is a time-dependent shear thinning property.
Trachyte is an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Trousers (British English) or pants (American English) are an item of clothing originating in Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending across both legs as in robes, skirts, and dresses).
The Tseax Cone, also called the Tseax River Cone or the Aiyansh Volcano, is a young cinder cone and adjacent lava flows associated with the Nass Ranges and the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Vacationland Hawaii, also called Kapoho Vacationland, was a coastal subdivision on the island of Hawai'i, the largest island in the state of Hawaii.
Valles Caldera (or Jemez Caldera) is a wide volcanic caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Vesicular texture is a volcanic rock texture characterized by a rock being pitted with many cavities (known as vesicles) at its surface and inside.
Vestmannaeyjar (sometimes anglicized as Westman Islands) is a town and archipelago off the south coast of Iceland.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vog is a form of air pollution that results when sulfur dioxide and other gases and particles emitted by an erupting volcano react with oxygen and moisture in the presence of sunlight.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
A volcanic block is a fragment of rock that measures more than in diameter and is erupted in a solid condition.
A volcanic bomb is a mass of molten rock (tephra) larger than 64 mm (2.5 inches) in diameter, formed when a volcano ejects viscous fragments of lava during an eruption.
A volcanic crater is a roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity.
Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes.
A volcanic plug, also called a volcanic neck or lava neck, is a volcanic object created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
A xenolith ("foreign rock") is a rock fragment that becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development and solidification.
'A'a, 'A'ā, 'a'a, 'a'ā, ;SA;Sa, A'a, A`a, Aa (lava flow), Aa (lava), Aa lava, Aʻa, Block lava, Crateral magma, Lava blocks, Lava flow, Lava flows, Lava fountain, Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe Lava, Pāhoehoe, Types of lava, Volcanic lava, `A`a, `a`a, ʻAʻa, ʻAʻā, ʻaʻa, ʻaʻā, ‘A‘a.