276 relations: Acid, Adenosine triphosphate, Afferent nerve fiber, Agriculture, Air-free technique, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkalide, Alkalosis, Alloy, Almond, Ammonia, Angewandte Chemie, Anhydrous, Antoine Lavoisier, Apricot, Argon, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Atomic number, Aureolin, Avocado, Baking powder, Bamboo shoot, Banana, Becquerel, Beer, Beetroot, Belarus, Beta decay, Biotite, Bleach, Boson, Bran, Bromine, Calcium carbide, Canada, Carnallite, Ceramic, Chemical element, Chloroplatinic acid, Chocolate, CHON, Chromate and dichromate, Circadian clock, Circadian rhythm, Coconut water, Composition of the human body, Cooking banana, Coordination complex, Copper, ..., Crop yield, Crust (geology), Dangerous goods, Dead Sea, Desiccant, Detonation, Devonian, Diarrhea, Dietary Reference Intake, Distal convoluted tubule, Diuretic, Dye, Electrocardiography, Electroforming, Electrolysis, Electron capture, Electronegativity, Electroplating, Elk Point Group, Ester, European Union, Evaporite, Exothermic process, Explosive material, Fat, Feldspar, Fermion, Fertilizer, Feshbach resonance, Fire extinguisher, Fireworks, Flame test, Flypaper, Georg Ernst Stahl, Germany, Gibbs–Donnan effect, Glomerulus, Gold, Gold mining, Granite, Great Britain, Guano, Gunpowder, Haber process, Half-life, Halogen, Heart arrhythmia, Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau, Hornblende, Horticulture, Humphry Davy, Hydrogen, Hydrolysis, Hydroponics, Hyperkalemia, Hyperpolarization (biology), Hypertension, Hypokalemia, Igneous rock, Ileus, Inductively coupled plasma, Inert gas, Ink, Ion, Ion selective electrode, Ion transporter, Ionization energy, Isotope, Israel, Italy, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, John Wiley & Sons, Jordan, Justus von Liebig, Kainite, Kazakhstan, K–Ar dating, Kerosene, Kilogram, Langbeinite, Laser cooling, Leather, Lepidolite, Lethal injection, Leucite, Life, Lithium, Loop diuretic, Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert, Magnetometer, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Match, Melting point, Meta-analysis, Metal, Milk, Mineral, Mineral oil, Muscovite, Na+/K+-ATPase, National Health Service, Neon-burning process, Nephron, Neuron, New Latin, Nitrile, Nitrogen, Noble gas, North Carolina State University, Nucleosynthesis, Nut (fruit), Nutrient, Nutrient cycle, Oil, Orange juice, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Orthoclase, Osmosis, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Parsley, Paul Erman, Pergamon Press, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Permian, Peroxide, Petrography, PH, Phaseolus vulgaris, Photoelectric flame photometer, Pistachio, Plant, Polyhalite, Polyuria, Positron emission, Potash, PotashCorp, Potassium bicarbonate, Potassium bisulfite, Potassium bromate, Potassium bromide, Potassium carbonate, Potassium channel, Potassium chlorate, Potassium chloride, Potassium chromate, Potassium cobaltinitrite, Potassium cyanide, Potassium fluoride, Potassium hexachloroplatinate, Potassium hydroxide, Potassium nitrate, Potassium oxide, Potassium peroxide, Potassium sodium tartrate, Potassium sulfate, Potassium superoxide, Potassium tetraphenylborate, Potassium-40, Potato, Pound (mass), Precipitation (chemistry), Prokaryote, Quantum mechanics, Quantum technology, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radionuclide, Reactive distillation, Reagent, Redox, Reducing agent, Rieke metals, Russia, S-process, Saccharin, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Saltwater soap, Saponification, Saskatchewan, Science (journal), Seabed, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Silvering, Soap, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium cobaltinitrite, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium tetraphenylborate, Sodium-potassium alloy, Soil, Solubility, Solvent, Soybean, Spoil tip, Staßfurt, Stain, Sulfuric acid, Supernova, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Superoxide, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Sylvite, Tetramer, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Thiazide, Tomato paste, Tonne, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Uranium, Vagus nerve, Valence electron, Vitreous enamel, Voltaic pile, Vomiting, Weathering, Wine, Yam (vegetable), Zechstein. Expand index (226 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Air-free techniques refer to a range of manipulations in the chemistry laboratory for the handling of compounds that are air-sensitive.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An alkalide is a chemical compound in which alkali metals are anions (that is, they bear a negative charge).
Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Aureolin (sometimes called Cobalt Yellow) is a pigment sparingly used in oil and watercolor painting.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.
Bamboo shoots or bamboo sprouts are the edible shoots (new bamboo culms that come out of the ground) of many bamboo species including Bambusa vulgaris and Phyllostachys edulis.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula of CaC2.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carnallite (also carnalite) is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O).
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chloroplatinic acid or hexachloroplatinic acid is an inorganic compound with the formula 2(H2O)x.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
CHON is a mnemonic acronym for the four most common elements in living organisms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
A circadian clock, or circadian oscillator, is a biochemical oscillator that cycles with a stable phase and is synchronized with solar time.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Coconut water is the clear liquid inside coconuts (which are fruits of the coconut palm).
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
The Elk Point Group is a stratigraphic unit of Early to Middle Devonian age in the Western Canada and Williston sedimentary basins.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
In the field of physics, a Feshbach resonance, named after Herman Feshbach, is a feature of many-body systems in which a bound state is achieved if the coupling(s) between at least one internal degree of freedom and the reaction coordinates, which lead to dissociation, vanish.
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
A flame test is an analytic procedure used in chemistry to detect the presence of certain elements, primarily metal ions, based on each element's characteristic emission spectrum.
Flypaper (also known as a fly ribbon) is a fly-killing device made of paper coated with a sweetly fragrant, but extremely sticky and sometimes poisonous substance that traps flies and other flying insects when they land upon it.
Georg Ernst Stahl (22 October 1659 – 24 May 1734) was a German chemist, physician and philosopher.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gibbs–Donnan effect (also known as the Donnan's effect, Donnan law, Donnan equilibrium, or Gibbs–Donnan equilibrium) is a name for the behaviour of charged particles near a semi-permeable membrane that sometimes fail to distribute evenly across the two sides of the membrane.
Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau (20 July 1700, Paris13 August 1782, Paris), was a French physician, naval engineer and botanist.
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) or transformer coupled plasma (TCP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential.
In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
Kainite (KMg(SO4)Cl·3H2O) is an evaporite mineral in the class of "Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O" according to the Nickel-Strunz classification.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Langbeinite is a potassium magnesium sulfate mineral with the chemical formula K2Mg2(SO4)3.
Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Lepidolite is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group of minerals with formula K(Li,Al,Rb)2(Al,Si)4O10(F,OH)2.
Lethal injection is the practice of injecting one or more drugs into a person (typically a barbiturate, paralytic, and potassium solution) for the express purpose of causing immediate death.
Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are not optically isotropic, and are therefore pseudo-cubic.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Loop diuretics are diuretics that act at the ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney.
Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert (12 August 1769 – 7 March 1824) was a German physicist and chemist, and professor of physics at the University of Leipzig.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
A match is a tool for starting a fire.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The neon-burning process (nuclear decay) is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 Solar masses).
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
North Carolina State University (also referred to as NCSU, NC State, or just State) is a public research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Orange juice is the liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Malta, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as an herb, a spice, and a vegetable.
Paul Erman (29 February 1764 – 11 October 1851) was a German physicist from Berlin, Brandenburg and a Huguenot of the fourth generation.
Pergamon Press was an Oxford-based publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean and green bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans).
A photoelectric flame photometer is a device used in inorganic chemical analysis to determine the concentration of certain metal ions, among them sodium, potassium, lithium, and calcium.
The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Polyhalite is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated sulfate of potassium, calcium and magnesium with formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4·2H2O.
Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, also known as PotashCorp, was a Canadian corporation based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is a colorless, odorless, slightly basic, salty substance.
Potassium hydrogen sulfite or potassium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KHSO3.
Potassium bromate (KBrO3), is a bromate of potassium and takes the form of white crystals or powder.
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
Potassium chromate is the inorganic compound with the formula (K2CrO4).
Potassium cobaltinitrite, IUPAC name potassium hexanitritocobaltate(III), is a salt with the formula K3.
Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.
Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF.
Potassium hexachloroplatinate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2PtCl6.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
Potassium peroxide is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula K2O2.
Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, also known as Rochelle salt, is a double salt of tartaric acid first prepared (in about 1675) by an apothecary, Pierre Seignette, of La Rochelle, France.
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water.
Potassium superoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.
Potassium tetraphenylborate is the salt with the formula KB(C6H5)4). It is a colourless salt that is a rare example of a water-insoluble salt of potassium. The salt has a low solubility in water of only 1.8×10−4 g/L. It is, however, soluble in organic solvents. The insolubility of this compound has been used to determine the concentration of potassium ions by precipitation and gravimetric analysis: The compound adopts a polymeric structure with bonds between the phenyl rings and potassium. As such it is classified as an organopotassium compound.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering, which transitions some of the properties of quantum mechanics, especially quantum entanglement, quantum superposition and quantum tunnelling, into practical applications such as quantum computing, quantum sensors, quantum cryptography, quantum simulation, quantum metrology and quantum imaging.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Reactive distillation is a process where the chemical reactor is also the still.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Rieke metals are highly reactive metal powders prepared by the methods developed by Reuben D. Rieke.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Saltwater soap, also called sailors' soap, is a potassium-based soap for use with seawater.
Saponification is a process that produces soap.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium cobaltinitrite is a coordination compound with the formula Na3Co(NO2)6.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium tetraphenylborate is the organic compound with the formula NaB(C6H5)4.
Sodium-potassium alloy, colloquially called NaK (commonly pronounced), is an alloy of two alkali metals sodium (Na, atomic number 11) and potassium (K, atomic number 19) and which is usually liquid at room temperature.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch, boney dump or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.
Staßfurt (Stassfurt) is a town in the Salzlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
A stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
Sylvite, or sylvine, is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form.
A tetramer (tetra-, "four" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer formed from four monomers or subunits.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
Thiazide is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure).
Tomato paste is a thick paste made by cooking tomatoes for several hours to reduce the water content, straining out the seeds and skins, and cooking the liquid again to reduce the base to a thick, rich concentrate.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.
The Zechstein (German either from mine stone or tough stone) is a unit of sedimentary rock layers of Middle to Late Permian (Guadalupian to Lopingian) age located in the European Permian Basin which stretches from the east coast of England to northern Poland.