427 relations: Ablation, Acamarachi, Aconcagua, Acotango, Alpaca, Alpamayo, Altiplano, Amazon basin, Amazonian Craton, Ambato, Ecuador, American Cordillera, Americas, Amphibian, Ancohuma, Andén, Andean cock-of-the-rock, Andean Community, Andean condor, Andean flicker, Andean foreland basins, Andean Geology, Andean goose, Andean orogeny, Andesite line, Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Plate, Antisana, Antisuyu, Antpitta, Apu (god), Aqueduct (water supply), Arequipa, Argentina, Artesonraju, Aruba, Asia, Asia-Pacific, Asphalt, Atacama Desert, Aymara language, Azufral, Back-arc basin, Bariloche, Barquisimeto, Biodiversity hotspot, Bogotá, Bolivia, Bonaire, Bucaramanga, Cañari, ..., Cabaray, Cajamarca, Calama, Chile, Calc-alkaline magma series, Cali, Camel, Cape Horn, Caracas, Caribbean, Caribbean Sea, Carrot, Cayambe (volcano), Cúcuta, Cenozoic, Cerro Bayo Complex, Cerro Bonete, Cerro Castillo Dynevor, Cerro de Pasco, Cerro del Nacimiento, Cerro Escorial, Cerro Macá, Cerro Negro de Mayasquer, Cerro Rico, Chacaltaya, Chachani, Chachapoya culture, Chaco War, Chicha, Chile, Chilean Army, Chilean Navy, Chimborazo, Chinchilla, Chumpe (Cusco), Chuquicamata, Cinchona pubescens, Civil engineering, Cloud forest, Coca, Cocaine, Cochabamba, Coffee, Colombia, Continental crust, Continental fragment, Copper, Corazón (volcano), Cordón del Azufre, Cordillera Central (Luzon), Cordillera Oriental (Colombia), Cordillera Paine, Coropuna, Cotopaxi, Cotton, Cougar, Craton, Cretaceous, Crypsis, Cuenca, Ecuador, Cumbal Volcano, Curaçao, Cusco, Darwin's rhea, Deciduous, Deforestation, Depression (geology), Deserts and xeric shrublands, Diademed sandpiper-plover, Diuca, Doña Juana, Domestication, Donkey, Drake Passage, Dry Andes, Dry lake, Earth's rotation, Earthquake, Ecuador, El Altar, El Alto, Endangered species, Endemism, Equatorial bulge, Erosion, Escondida, Estate (land), Extensional tectonics, Falso Azufre, Fault (geology), Fitz Roy, Flamingo, Fold (geology), Fold and thrust belt, Four-wheel drive, Francisco Pizarro, Galán, Galeras, Geology (journal), Geositta, Giant coot, Glacier ice accumulation, Gondwana, Gran Chaco, Guanaco, Herbal tea, Highway, Hillstar, Hippocamelus, History of the Incas, Huanca people, Huancayo, Huandoy, Huaraz, Huascarán, Huaso, Huayna Picchu, Huayna Potosí, Huaytapallana, Huánuco, Hummingbird, Hydrocarbon, Hydrothermal circulation, Hypersaline lake, Ibagué, Ibarra, Ecuador, Illampu, Illimani, Illiniza, Imbabura Volcano, Immunity (medical), Imperialism, Inca Empire, Incahuasi, Interandean Valles, Irrigation, Irruputuncu, Jirishanca, Joseph Barclay Pentland, Journal of Geophysical Research, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Juliaca, Jurassic, La Paz, Lake Titicaca, Landlocked country, Laram Q'awa (Charaña), Las Heras Department, Lastarria, Latitude, Leeward Antilles, Licancabur, Lima, List of longest mountain chains on Earth, Lithium, Llama, Llao Llao Hotel, Llullaillaco, Loja, Ecuador, Machu Picchu, Madre de Dios River, Magallanes Basin, Magma, Maipo (volcano), Maize, Malaria, Mammal, Manizales, Maracay, Marmolejo, Maule River, Mérida, Mérida, Meat, Medellín, Mendoza Province, Mendoza, Argentina, Mercedario, Mesozoic, Metamorphic rock, Meteoric water, Michincha, Mid-ocean ridge, Militarism, Mineralization (geology), Mining, Misti, Mixed-species foraging flock, Modern history, Monte Pissis, Monte San Valentin, Motor vehicle, Mount Darwin (Andes), Mount Hudson, Mount Tarn, Mountain range, Mountain tapir, Mountain toucan, Mule, Natural region, Nazca Plate, Neogene, Nevado Anallajsi, Nevado del Huila, Nevado del Quindío, Nevado del Ruiz, Nevado del Tolima, Nevado Sajama, Nevado Tres Cruces, Nitratine, Nothoprocta, Oceanic crust, Ojos del Salado, Olca, Onion, Ore, Orinoco, Orocline, Orogeny, Oruro, Bolivia, Ovenbird (family), Pacific Ocean, Pack animal, Paleozoic, Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Pampean orogeny, Pangaea, Paquni, Paraguay, Parinacota (volcano), Paruma, Paso Internacional Los Libertadores, Pasto, Colombia, Pasture, Patagonia, Patilla Pata, Pereira, Colombia, Peru, Peru–Chile Trench, Philippines, Phrygilus, Pichincha Volcano, Pico Bolívar, Pico Bonpland, Pico El Águila, Pico El León, Pico El Toro, Pico Humboldt, Pico La Concha, Pico Mucuñuque, Pico Pan de Azúcar, Pico Piedras Blancas, Plate tectonics, Plateau, Pluton, Polylepis, Pomerape, Popayán, Porphyry copper deposit, Port, Potato, Potosí, Precambrian Research, Price revolution, Proterozoic, Pumasillo, Puno, Puracé, Quechuan languages, Quetzal, Quilotoa, Quinine, Quito, Rail transport, Rainforest, Rancagua, Rasac, Río de la Plata, Reptile, Reventador, Rift, Ring of Fire, Riobamba, Ritacuba Blanco, Road, Rock glacier, Rocky Mountains, Rodent, Rondoy, Royal cinclodes, Salar de Atacama, Salar de Uyuni, Salcantay, Salt, Salta, San Cristóbal, Táchira, San Juan, Argentina, San Miguel de Tucumán, Sangay, Santa Isabel (volcano), Santiago, Sarapo, Scientific journal, Scotia Plate, Seamount, Sedimentary basin, Sedimentary rock, Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, Sierras de Córdoba, Silver, Siula Grande, Snow line, Socompa, Solar irradiance, South America, South American fox, South American Plate, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Species richness, Spectacled bear, Subduction, Sucre, Summit, Sunsás orogeny, Tanager, Tapaculo, Tarija, Tata Sabaya, Tectonic uplift, Tectonophysics (journal), Telmatobius culeus, Terrane, Tertiary, Threatened species, Thrust fault, Thrust tectonics, Tibetan Plateau, Tierra del Fuego, Tin, Tinamou, Titicaca grebe, Tobacco, Toquepala mine, Torres del Paine National Park, Transform fault, Triassic, Tronador, Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, Tropical Andes, Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena, Tungurahua, Tunja, Tupungato, Types of volcanic eruptions, Uruguay, Valencia, Carabobo, Valera, Vascular plant, Venezuela, Venezuelan Coastal Range, Vicuña, Villavicencio, Volcano, War of the Pacific, Western Hemisphere, Wet Andes, White-browed tit-spinetail, Woodbine Parish, Wool, Wren, Yanacocha, Yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Yerupaja Chico, Yerupajá, Yungas, 18th parallel south, 20th parallel south. 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Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Acamarachi (also known as Pili) is a high volcano in northern Chile.
Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside Asia, at, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.
Acotango is the central and highest of a group of stratovolcanoes straddling the border of Bolivia and Chile.
The Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a species of South American camelid, similar to, and often confused with the llama.
Alpamayo (possibly from Quechua allpa earth, mayu river, "earth river") or Shuyturaju (possibly from Ancash Quechua huytu, shuytu oblong, slim and long, Quechua rahu snow, ice, mountain with snow) is one of the most conspicuous peaks in the Cordillera Blanca of the Peruvian Andes.
The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Collao (Quechua and Aymara: Qullaw, meaning "place of the Qulla"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazonian Craton is a geologic province located in South America.
Ambato (full form, San Juan de Ambato) is a city located in the central Andean valley of Ecuador.
The American Cordillera is a chain of mountain ranges (cordilleras) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, South America and Antarctica.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Ancohuma or Janq'u Uma (Aymara janq'u white, uma water, "white water", also spelled Janq'uma, other spellings, Jankho Uma, Jankhouma) is the third highest mountain in Bolivia (after Sajama and Illimani).
An andén (plural andenes), Spanish for "platform", is a stair-step like terrace dug into the slope of a hillside for agricultural purposes.
The Andean cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruvianus), also known as tunki (Quechua), is a large passerine bird of the cotinga family native to Andean cloud forests in South America.
The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is a South American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae and is the only member of the genus Vultur.
The Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola) is a South American species of woodpecker.
The Andean foreland basins or Sub-Andean basins are a group of foreland basins located in the western half of South America immediately east of the Andes mountains.
Andean Geology (formerly Revista Geológica de Chile) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published three times per year by the National Geology and Mining Service, Chile's geology and mining agency.
The Andean goose (Neochen melanoptera) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae.
The Andean orogeny (Orogenia andina) is an ongoing process of orogeny that began in the Early Jurassic and is responsible for the rise of the Andes mountains.
The andesite line is the most significant regional geologic distinction in the Pacific Ocean basin.
The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.
The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans.
Antisana is a stratovolcano of the northern Andes, in Ecuador.
Antisuyu (Quechua anti east, suyu region, part of a territory, each of the four regions which formed the Inca Empire, "eastern region") was the eastern part of the Inca Empire which bordered on the modern-day Upper Amazon region which the Anti (people) inhabited.
Grallariidae is a family of smallish passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America known as antpittas.
In the religion and mythology of Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, apus are the spirits of the mountains - and sometimes solitary rocks and caves, that protect the local people in the highlands.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Artesonraju is a mountain peak located near the city of Caraz in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range in the Peruvian Andes.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
Azufral is a stratovolcano located in the department of Nariño in southern Colombia, west of the town of Túquerres.
Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arcs and subduction zones.
San Carlos de Bariloche, usually known as Bariloche, is a city in the province of Río Negro, Argentina, situated in the foothills of the Andes on the southern shores of Nahuel Huapi Lake.
Barquisimeto is a city in Venezuela.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.
Bucaramanga is the capital and largest city of the department of Santander, Colombia.
The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar in Ecuador.
Cabaraya is a stratovolcano in Bolivia.
Cajamarca is the capital and largest city of the Cajamarca Region as well as an important cultural and commercial center in the northern Andes.
Calama is a city and commune in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile.
The calc-alkaline magma series is one of two main subdivisions of the subalkaline magma series, the other subalkaline magma series being the tholeiitic.
Santiago de Cali, usually known by its short name "Cali", is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, and the most populous city in southwest Colombia, with an estimated 2,319,655 residents according to 2005-2020/DANE population projections.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Cape Horn (Cabo de Hornos) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cayambe or Volcán Cayambe is a volcano in Ecuador, in the Cordillera Central, a range of the Ecuadorian Andes.
Cúcuta, officially San José de Cúcuta, is a Colombian city, capital of Norte de Santander department.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Cerro Bayo is a complex volcano on the northern part border between Argentina and Chile.
Cerro Bonete is a mountain in the north of the province of La Rioja, Argentina, near the provincial border with Catamarca.
Cerro Castillo Dynevor, also known as Castillo Dynevor is located on the northwest coast of Skyring Sound, in Magallanes Region, Chile.
Cerro de Pasco (population 70,000) is a city in central Peru, located at the top of the Andean mountains.
Cerro del Nacimiento is an Andean volcano of the Cordillera de la Ramada range, in the Catamarca Province of Argentina.
Cerro Escorial is a stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.
Cerro Macá is a stratovolcano located to the north of the Aisén Fjord and to the east of the Moraleda Channel, in the Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region of Chile.
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is a volcano on the border of Colombia and Ecuador.
Cerro Rico (Spanish for "rich mountain"), Cerro Potosí ("Potosí mountain") or Sumaq Urqu (Quechua sumaq beautiful, good, pleasant, urqu mountain, "beautiful (good or pleasant) mountain") is a mountain in the Andes near the Bolivian city of Potosí.
Chacaltaya (Mollo language for "bridge of winds" or "winds meeting point", Aymara for "cold road") is a mountain in the Cordillera Real, one of the mountain ranges of the Cordillera Oriental, itself a range of the Bolivian Andes.
Chachani is the highest of the mountains near the city of Arequipa in southern Peru.
The Chachapoyas, also called the "Warriors of the Clouds", was a culture of Andes living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas Region of present-day Peru.
The Chaco War (1932–1935; Guerra del Chaco, Cháko Ñorairõ. Secretaría Nacional de Cultura de Paraguay) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region (known in Spanish as Chaco Boreal) of South America, which was thought to be rich in oil.
In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chilean Army (Ejército de Chile) is the land arm of the Military of Chile.
The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile.
Chimborazo is a currently inactive stratovolcano in the Cordillera Occidental range of the Andes.
Chinchillas are either of two species of crepuscular rodents of the parvorder Caviomorpha.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chumpe (possibly from Quechua chumpi: belt), Jatunriti, Ñanaloma or Yanaloma is a mountain in the Vilcanota mountain range in the Andes of Peru with of elevation.
Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known, is by excavated volume the largest open pit copper mine in the world, located in the north of Chile, just outside Calama at above sea level, northeast of Antofagasta and north of the capital, Santiago.
Cinchona pubescens, also known as red cinchona and quina (Quechua) (Cascarilla, cinchona; quina-do-amazonas, quineira), is native to Central and South America.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
A cloud forest, also called a water forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cochabamba (Quchapampa, Quchapanpa) is a city & municipality in central Bolivia, in a valley in the Andes mountain range.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
Continental crustal fragments, partially synonymous with microcontinents, are fragments of continents that have been broken off from main continental masses forming distinct islands, often several hundred kilometers from their place of origin.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corazón (Spanish: "heart") is an inactive eroded stratovolcano of Ecuador, situated about 30 km southwest of Quito in the western slopes of the Andes.
Cordón del Azufre is a small, inactive complex volcano located in the Central Andes, at the border of Argentina and Chile.
The Cordillera Central is a massive mountain range situated in the northern central part of the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.
The Cordillera Oriental (Eastern Ranges) is the widest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.
The Cordillera Paine is a small sophia mendoza mountain group in Torres del Paine National Park in Chilean Patagonia.
Coropuna is a dormant volcano in the southern Peruvian Andes and belonging to the Central Volcanic Zone; its summit reaches an altitude of above sea level.
Cotopaxi is an active stratovolcano in the Andes Mountains, located in the Latacunga canton of Cotopaxi Province, about south of Quito, and northeast of the city of Latacunga, Ecuador, in South America.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.
The city of Cuenca — in full, Santa Ana de los Cuatro Ríos de Cuenca — is the capital of the Azuay Province.
Cumbal is a stratovolcano located in Nariño, Colombia.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
The Darwin's rhea (Rhea pennata), also known as the lesser rhea, is a large flightless bird, but the smaller of the two extant species of rheas.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
The diademed sandpiper-plover or diademed plover (Phegornis mitchellii) is a species of bird in the plover family Charadriidae.
Diuca is a small genus of Andean seed-eating tanagers.
Doña Juana (Volcán Doña Juana) is a stratovolcano, located within the Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex National Natural Park (Parque Nacional Natural Complejo Volcánico Doña Juana-Cascabel) in Nariño, Colombia.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.
The Dry Andes (Andes áridos) is a climatic and glaciological subregion of the Andes.
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.
Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
El Altar or Kapak Urku (Kichwa kapak principal, great, important / magnificence, urku mountain, "sublime mountain", hispanicized Capac Urcu, Cápac Urcu) is an extinct volcano on the western side of Sangay National Park in Ecuador, 170 km south of Quito.
El Alto (Spanish for "The Heights") is a municipality and the second-largest city in Bolivia, located adjacent to La Paz in Pedro Domingo Murillo Province on the Altiplano highlands.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Escondida is a copper mine in the Atacama Desert in Antofagasta Region, Chile.
Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion.
Extensional tectonics is concerned with the structures formed, and the tectonic processes associated with, the stretching of a planetary body's crust or lithosphere.
Falso Azufre is a complex volcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Monte Fitz Roy (also known as Cerro Chaltén, Cerro Fitz Roy, or simply Mount Fitz Roy) is a mountain in Patagonia, on the border between Argentina and Chile.
Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes.
A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.
A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics.
Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.
Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
Cerro Galán is a caldera in Catamarca Province, Argentina, one of the largest exposed calderas in the world.
Galeras (Urcunina among the 16th-century indigenous people) is an Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the departmental capital Pasto.
Geology is a peer-reviewed publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA).
Geositta is a genus of passerine birds in the ovenbird family, Furnariidae.
The giant coot (Fulica gigantea) is a species of coot from South America.
Glacier ice accumulation occurs through accumulation of snow and other frozen precipitation, as well as through other means including rime ice (freezing of water vapor on the glacier surface), avalanching from hanging glaciers on cliffs and mountainsides above, and re-freezing of glacier meltwater as superimposed ice.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region.
The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a camelid native to South America.
Herbal teas — less commonly called tisanes (UK and US, US also) — are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, or other plant material in hot water.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
The hillstars are hummingbirds of the genus Oreotrochilus.
Hippocamelus is a genus of Cervidae, the deer family.
The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cusco before 1438.
The Huancas, Wancas, or Wankas are a Quechua people living in the Junín Region of central Peru, in and around the Mantaro Valley.
Huancayo (in Wanka Quechua: Wankayuq, '(place) with a (sacred) rock') is the capital of Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.
Huandoy (probably from Quechua wantuy, to transfer, to transpose, to carry, to carry a heavy load) or Tullparaju (possibly from Quechua tullpa rustic cooking-fire, stove, rahu snow, ice, mountain with snow) is a mountain located inside Huascarán National Park in Ancash, Peru.
Huaraz founded as San Sebastian de Huaraz, is a city in Peru.
Huascarán is a mountain in the Peruvian province of Yungay (Ancash Region), situated in the Cordillera Blanca range of the western Andes.
A huaso is a Chilean countryman and skilled horseman, similar to the American cowboy or Mexican charro, the gaucho of Argentina, Uruguay and Rio Grande Do Sul and the Australian stockman.
Huayna Picchu, Wayna Pikchu, is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends.
Huayna Potosí is a mountain in Bolivia, located near El Alto and about 25 km north of La Paz in the Cordillera Real.
Huaytapallana (possibly from in the Quechua spelling Waytapallana; wayta wild flower, a little bunch of flowers, pallay to collect, pallana an instrument to collect fruit / collectable, Waytapallana "a place where you collect wild flowers") or Lasuntay is the highest peak in the Huaytapallana mountain range in the Andes of Peru.
Huánuco is a city in central Peru.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.
A hypersaline lake is a landlocked body of water that contains significant concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts, with saline levels surpassing that of ocean water (3.5%, i.e.). Specific microbial and crustacean species thrive in these high salinity environments that are inhospitable to most lifeforms.
Ibagué is the capital of Tolima, one of the 32 departments that make up the Republic of Colombia.
Ibarra (full name San Miguel de Ibarra) is a city in northern Ecuador and the capital of the Imbabura Province.
Illampu is the fourth highest mountain in Bolivia.
Illimani (Aymara) is the highest mountain in the Cordillera Real (part of the Cordillera Oriental, a subrange of the Andes) of western Bolivia.
The Illinizas are a pair of volcanic mountains that are located to the south of Quito, Ecuador.
Imbabura is an inactive stratovolcano in northern Ecuador.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Incahuasi (possibly from Quechua: inka Inca, wasi house) is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America.
Dry valleys in the central Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, known as "valles", are marked by a rain shadow effect of the surrounding mountains, and thus rainfall is limited, and mostly falls in a brief rainy season.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Irruputuncu is a volcano in the commune of Pica, Tamarugal Province, Tarapacá Region, Chile, as well as San Pedro de Quemes Municipality, Nor Lípez Province, Potosí Department, Bolivia.
Joseph Barclay Pentland (17 January 1797; 12 July 1873) was an Irish geographer, natural scientist, and traveller.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
The Journal of South American Earth Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Juliaca (Spanish: Juliaca, Quechua: Hullaqa, Aymara: Hullaqa) is the capital of San Roman Province in the Puno Region of southeastern Peru.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
Lake Titicaca (Lago Titicaca, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Laram Q'awa (Aymara larama blue, q'awa little river, ditch, crevice, fissure, gap in the earth, "blue brook" or "blue ravine", Hispanicized spellings Laram Khaua, Larancagua) is a mountain in the Andes.
Las Heras is a department located in the north west of Mendoza Province in Argentina.
Lastarria is a volcano that lies on the border between Chile and Argentina.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The Leeward Antilles (Dutch: Benedenwindse Eilanden) are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the Antilles and the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland.
Licancabur is a stratovolcano on the border between Bolivia and Chile, south of the Sairecabur volcano and west of Juriques.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
The world's longest above-water mountain range is the Andes, about long.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
The Llao Llao Hotel is located in the tourist resort of San Carlos de Bariloche within the.
Llullaillaco is a dormant stratovolcano at the border of Argentina (Salta Province) and Chile (Antofagasta Region).
Loja, formerly Loxa and fully City of the Immaculate Conception of Loja (Ciudad de la Inmaculada Concepción de Loja), is the capital of Ecuador's Loja Province.
Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.
The Madre de Dios River, homonymous to the Peruvian region it runs through, flows into the Beni River in Bolivia, which then turns northward into Brazil, where it joins with the Mamore River to become the Madeira River.
The Magallanes Basin or Austral Basin is a major sedimentary basin in southern Patagonia.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Maipo is a stratovolcano in the Andes, lying on the border between Argentina and Chile.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manizales is a city and municipality in central Colombia.
Maracay is a city in north-central Venezuela, near the Caribbean coast, and is the capital and most important city of the state of Aragua.
Volcán Marmolejo is a high Pleistocene stratovolcano in the Andes on the border between Argentina and Chile.
The Maule river or Río Maule (Mapudungun: rainy) is one of the most important rivers of Chile.
Mérida, officially known as Santiago de los Caballeros de Mérida, is the capital of the municipality of Libertador and the state of Mérida, and is one of the principal cities of the Venezuelan Andes.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín (Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia.
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region.
Mendoza is the capital of the province of Mendoza in Argentina.
Cerro Mercedario is the highest peak of the Cordillera de la Ramada range and the eighth-highest mountain of the Andes.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Meteoric water is the water derived from precipitation (snow and rain).
Michincha is a stratovolcano on the border of Bolivia and Chile.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
In geology, mineralization is the deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or "lodes" by various process.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Misti, also known as Putina or Guagua Putina is a stratovolcano of andesite, dacite and rhyolite located in southern Peru near the city of Arequipa.
A mixed-species feeding flock, also termed a mixed-species foraging flock, mixed hunting party or informally bird wave, is a flock of usually insectivorous birds of different species that join each other and move together while foraging.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Monte Pissis is an extinct volcano on the border of La Rioja and Catamarca provinces, Argentina, from the Chilean border.
Monte San Valentin, also known as Monte San Clemente, is the highest mountain in Chilean Patagonia and the highest mountain south of 37°S outside Antarctica.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Mount Darwin is a peak in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego forming part of the Cordillera Darwin, the southernmost range of the Andes, just to the north of the Beagle Channel.
Mount Hudson (locally known as Volcán Hudson) is a stratovolcano in southern Chile, and the site of one of the largest eruptions in the twentieth century.
Mount Tarn is a small mountain located on the southernmost part of the Strait of Magellan, in Brunswick Peninsula, about 70 km south of Punta Arenas, Chile.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
The mountain tapir or woolly tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) is the second-smallest of the five species of tapir, only the recently described Tapirus kabomani being smaller, and is the only one to live outside of tropical rainforests in the wild.
Andigena, the mountain toucans, is a genus of birds in the family Ramphastidae.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).
A natural region is a basic geographic unit.
The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
Nevado Anallajsi is a stratovolcano in Bolivia.
Nevado del Huila at, is the highest volcano in Colombia, located at the tripoint of the departments of Huila, Tolima and Cauca.
The Nevado del Quindío is an inactive volcano located in the Central Cordillera of the Andes in central Colombia.
The Nevado del Ruiz, also known as La Mesa de Herveo (Mesa of Herveo, the name of the nearby town), or Kumanday in the language of the local pre-Columbian indigenous people, is a stratovolcano located on the border of the departments of Caldas and Tolima in Colombia, about west of the capital city Bogotá.
Nevado del Tolima is a stratovolcano located in Tolima, Colombia, south of Nevado del Ruiz volcano.
Nevado Sajama is an extinct stratovolcano and the highest peak in Bolivia.
Nevado Tres Cruces is a massif of volcanic origin in the Andes Mountains on the border of Argentina and Chile.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nitratine or nitratite, also known as cubic niter (UK: nitre), soda niter or Chile saltpeter (UK: Chile saltpetre), is a mineral, the naturally occurring form of sodium nitrate, NaNO3.
Nothoprocta is a genus of birds belonging to the tinamou family Tinamidae.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
Nevado Ojos del Salado is a stratovolcano in the Andes on the Argentina–Chile border and the highest active volcano in the world at.
Olca is a stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
An orocline — from the Greek words for "mountain" and "to bend" — is a bend or curvature of an orogenic (mountain building) belt imposed after it was formed.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Oruro (Hispanicized spelling) or Uru Uru is a city in Bolivia with a population of 264,683 (2012 calculation), about halfway between La Paz and Sucre in the Altiplano, approximately above sea level.
Ovenbirds or furnariids are a large family of small suboscine passerine birds found from Mexico and Central to southern South America.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A pack animal or beast of burden is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Palmira (pronounced pälmē'rä) is a city and municipality in southwestern Colombia in the Valle del Cauca Department, located about east from Cali, the department's capital and main city in the South of Colombia.
The Pampean orogeny (orogenia pampeana) was an orogeny active in the Cambrian in the western margin of the ancient landmass of Gondwana.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Paquni (Aymara paqu a kind of edible herb, -ni a suffix, "the one with the paqu herbs", hispanicized spelling Pacuni) is a mountain in the Potosí Department of Bolivia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Parinacota (in Hispanicized spelling), Parina Quta or Parinaquta is a dormant stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia.
Paruma is a stratovolcano that lies on the border of Bolivia and Chile.
The Paso Internacional Los Libertadores, also called Cristo Redentor, is a mountain pass in the Andes between Argentina and Chile.
Pasto, officially San Juan de Pasto, is the capital of the department of Nariño, in southern Colombia.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Patilla Pata is a stratovolcano in the Oruro Department in Bolivia.
Pereira is the capital city of the Colombian department of Risaralda.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Peru–Chile Trench, also known as the Atacama Trench, is an oceanic trench in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 160 kilometres (100 mi) off the coast of Peru and Chile.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phrygilus is a genus of mainly Andean seed-eating tanagers commonly known as sierra finches.
Pichincha is an active stratovolcano in the country of Ecuador, whose capital Quito wraps around its eastern slopes.
Pico Bolívar is the highest mountain in Venezuela, at 4,978 metres (16,332 ft).
Pico Bonpland is Venezuela's third highest peak, at 4,883 metres above sea level.
Pico El Águila is a mountain in the Cordillera de Mérida of Venezuela.
Pico El León is a mountain in the Andes of Venezuela.
Pico El Toro is a mountain in the Andes of Venezuela.
Pico Humboldt is Venezuela's second highest peak, at 4,940 metres above sea level.
Pico La Concha is a mountain in the Andes of Venezuela.
Pico Mucuñuque is a mountain in the Andes of Venezuela.
The Pico Pan de Azúcar, at 4680 meters above sea level, is the ninth highest mountain of Venezuela, and the third highest of the Sierra de la Culata range in the Mérida State.
The Pico Piedras Blancas (also known as Misamán), at, is the highest mountain of the Sierra de la Culata range in the Mérida State, and the fifth-highest mountain in Venezuela.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
Polylepis (pronounced pah-lee-LEE-piss or pah-lee-LEH-piss) is a genus comprising twenty eight recognised shrub and tree species, that are endemic to the mid- and high-elevation regions of the tropical Andes.
Pomerape is a stratovolcano lying on the border of northern Chile and Bolivia (Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Curahuara de Carangas Municipality).
Popayán is the capital of the Colombian department of Cauca.
Porphyry copper deposits are copper orebodies that are formed from hydrothermal fluids that originate from a voluminous magma chamber several kilometers below the deposit itself.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Potosí is a capital city and a municipality of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.
Precambrian Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the geology of the Earth and its planetary neighbors.
The price revolution, sometimes known as the Spanish Price Revolution, was a series of economic events that occurred between the second half of the 15th century and the first half of the 17th century, and most specifically to the high rate of inflation that occurred during this period across Western Europe.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
Pumasillo (possibly from Quechua puma cougar, puma, sillu claw, "puma claw") is a mountain in the Vilcabamba mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about 5,991 m (19,656 ft) high.
Puno is a city in southeastern Peru, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca.
Puracé is an andesitic stratovolcano located in the Puracé National Natural Park in the Cauca Department, Colombia.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Quetzal are strikingly colored birds in the trogon family.
Quilotoa is a water-filled caldera and the most western volcano in the Ecuadorian Andes.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Rancagua is a city and commune in central Chile and part of the Rancagua conurbation.
Rasac (possibly Quechua for toad) is a mountain in the Huayhuash mountain range in west central Peru, part of the Andes.
The Río de la Plata ("river of silver") — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Reventador is an active stratovolcano which lies in the eastern Andes of Ecuador.
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Riobamba (full name San Pedro de Riobamba) is the capital of the Chimborazo Province in central Ecuador, which is located at the Chambo River Valley of the Andes.
Ritacuba Blanco is the highest peak of Cordillera Oriental, in the Andes Mountains of Colombia.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Rock glaciers are distinctive geomorphological landforms, consisting either of angular rock debris frozen in interstitial ice, former "true" glaciers overlain by a layer of talus, or something in between.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
Rondoy (possibly from Quechua runtuy: "to hail" or "to lay an egg") is a mountain in the north of the Huayhuash mountain range in the Andes of Peru.
The royal cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae) is a passerine bird which breeds in the Andes of south-east Peru and adjacent Bolivia.
Salar de Atacama is the largest salt flat in Chile.
Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10 582 square kilometers (4 086 sq mi).
Salcantay, Salkantay or Sallqantay (in Quechua) is the highest peak in the Vilcabamba mountain range, part of the Peruvian Andes.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Salta is a city located in the Lerma Valley, at 1,152 metres (3780 feet) above sea level in the northwest part of Argentina.
San Cristóbal is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Táchira.
San Juan is the capital city of the Argentine province of San Juan in the Cuyo region, located in the Tulúm Valley, west of the San Juan River, at above mean sea level, with a population of around 112,000 as per the (over 500,000 in the metropolitan area).
San Miguel de Tucumán; usually called simply Tucumán) is the capital of the Tucumán Province, located in northern Argentina from Buenos Aires. It is the fifth-largest city of Argentina after Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario and Mendoza and the most important of the northern region. The Spanish Conquistador founded the city in 1565 in the course of an expedition from present-day Peru. Tucumán moved to its present site in 1685.
Sangay (also known as Macas, Sanagay, or Sangai) is an active stratovolcano in central Ecuador.
Santa Isabel (Nevado de Santa Isabel) is a shield volcano located in Tolima, Colombia, southwest of Nevado del Ruiz volcano.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Sarapo is a mountain in the Huayhuash mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about high.
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.
The Scotia Plate is a tectonic plate on the edge of the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean.
A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock.
Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Sierra Nevada, also known as Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas, is a major ignimbrite-lava dome complex which lies in both Chile and Argentina in one of the most remote parts of the Central Andes.
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range separated from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia.
The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy Chita o Guican National Natural Park (or Sierra Nevada de Chita or Sierra Nevada de Güicán, Parque Natural Sierra Nevada del Cocuy Chita o Guican is a national park and a set of highlands within the Cordillera Oriental mountain range in the Andes Mountains of Colombia.
The Sierras de Córdoba is a mountain range in central Argentina, located between the Pampas to the east and south, the Chaco to the north and the foothills of the Andes to the west.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Siula Grande is a mountain in the Huayhuash mountain range in the Peruvian Andes.
The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface.
Socompa is a large stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South American fox (Lycalopex), commonly called raposa in Portuguese, or zorro in Spanish, are a genus of the family Canidae from South America.
The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.
The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae).
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.
The Sunsás orogeny was an ancient orogeny active during the Late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic and currently preserved as the Sunsás orogen in the Amazonian Craton in South America.
The tanagers (singular) comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes.
The tapaculos (pronounced /tæpəˈku:ləʊ/) are a family, Rhinocryptidae, of small suboscine passerine birds, found mainly in South America and with the highest diversity in the Andean regions.
Tarija or San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarixa is a city in southern Bolivia.
Tata Sabaya is a high volcano in Bolivia.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
Tectonophysics, The International Journal of Geotectonics and the Geology and Physics of the Interior of the Earth is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Telmatobius culeus, commonly known as the Titicaca water frog, is a very large and critically endangered species of frog in the family Telmatobiidae.
A terrane in geology, in full a tectonostratigraphic terrane, is a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or "sutured" to crust lying on another plate.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
A thrust fault is a break in the Earth's crust, across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks.
Thrust tectonics or contractional tectonics is concerned with the structures formed, and the tectonic processes associated with, the shortening and thickening of the crust or lithosphere.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tinamous form an order of birds (Tinamiformes), comprising a single family (Tinamidae) with two distinct subfamilies, containing 47 species found in Mexico, Central America, and South America.
The Titicaca grebe (Rollandia microptera), also known as the Titicaca flightless grebe or short-winged grebe, is a grebe found on the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Toquepala mine is a large porphyry copper mine in the Tacna Province, Tacna Department, Peru.
Torres del Paine National Park (Parque Nacional Torres del Paine) is a national park encompassing mountains, glaciers, lakes, and rivers in southern Chilean Patagonia.
A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Tronador (in Spanish Cerro Tronador) is an extinct stratovolcano in the southern Andes, located along the border between Argentina and Chile, near the Argentine city of Bariloche.
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, monsoon forest, vine thicket, vine scrub and dry rainforest is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.
The Tropical Andes are the northern of the three climate-delineated parts of the Andes, the others being the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes.
Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena is a biodiversity hotspot, which includes the tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests of the Pacific coast of South America and the Galapagos Islands.
Tungurahua, (from Quichua tunguri (throat), rahua (fire): "Throat of Fire" or from Panzaleo) is an active stratovolcano located in the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador.
Tunja is a city on the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, in the region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, 130 km northeast of Bogotá.
Tupungato, one of the highest mountains in the Americas, is a massive Andean stratovolcano dating to Pleistocene times.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Valencia is the capital city of Carabobo State, and the third largest city in Venezuela.
Valera is a city in Trujillo State in Venezuela, situated between the rivers Momboy and Motatán.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Venezuelan Coastal Range (Cordillera de la Costa or Serranía de la Costa), also known as Venezuelan Caribbean Mountain System (Sistema Montañoso Caribe) is a mountain range system and one of the eight natural regions of Venezuela, that runs along the central and eastern portions of Venezuela's northern coast.
The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicuna (both, very rarely spelled vicugna) is one of the two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco.
Villavicencio is a city and municipality in Colombia.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
The Wet Andes (Andes húmedos) is a climatic and glaciological subregion of the Andes.
The white-browed tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family.
Sir Woodbine Parish KCH (14 September 1796, London – 16 August 1882, St. Leonards, Sussex) was a British diplomat, traveller and scientist.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
The wrens are mostly small, brownish passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae.
Yanacocha (Cajamarca Quechua: yana.
The yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Oreonax flavicauda) is a New World monkey endemic to Peru.
Yerupaja Chico is a mountain in Peru.
Yerupajá is a mountain of the Huayhuash mountain range in west central Peru, part of the Andes.
The Yungas (Aymara yunka warm or temperate Andes or earth, Quechua yunka warm area on the slopes of the Andes) is a narrow band of forest along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains from Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina.
The 18th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 18 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 20th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Andean, Andean Mountain System, Andean Mountains, Andean highland, Andean mountains, Andes Mountain, Andes Mountains, Andes Range, Andes mountain range, Andes mountains, Andes of Peru, Andes range, Cordillera de los Andes, Geology of the Andes, High Andes, Mining in the Andes, Northern Andes, South American Andes, South american andes, The Andes Mountain, The Andes Mountains, The andes.