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The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world. [1]

361 relations: Ablation, Aconcagua, Acotango, Alpaca, Alpamayo, Altiplano, Amazon basin, Amphibian, Andean cock-of-the-rock, Andean condor, Andean flicker, Andean Geology, Andean goose, Andesite line, Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Plate, Antisana, Antisuyu, Antpitta, Apu (god), Aqueduct (water supply), Arequipa, Argentina, Artesonraju, Aruba, Asia, Asia-Pacific, Asphalt, Atacama Desert, Aymara language, Azufral, Biodiversity hotspot, Bogotá, Bolivia, Bonaire, Cañari, Cabaray, Calc-alkaline magma series, Cali, Camel, Cape Horn, Caribbean, Caribbean Sea, Cayambe (volcano), Cerro Bayo Complex, Cerro Bonete, Cerro Castillo Dynevor, Cerro de Pasco, Cerro del Nacimiento, Cerro Escorial, ..., Cerro Macá, Cerro Negro de Mayasquer, Cerro Rico, Chacaltaya, Chachani, Chachapoya culture, Chicha, Chile, Chilean Army, Chilean Navy, Chimborazo, Chinchilla, Chumpi (Cusco), Chuquicamata, Cinchona pubescens, City, Civil engineering, Cloud forest, Coca, Cocaine, Coffee, Colombia, Continental crust, 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Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.

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Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside of Asia, at, and by extension the highest point in both the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.

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Acotango is the central and highest of a group of stratovolcanoes straddling the border of Bolivia and Chile.

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An alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American camelid.

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Alpamayo (in hispanicized spelling), Allpamayu (Quechua allpa earth, mayu river, "earth river") or Shuyturahu (Ancash Quechua huytu, shuytu oblong, slim and long, Quechua rahu snow, ice, mountain with snow, "slim and long snow-covered mountain") is one of the most conspicuous peaks in the Cordillera Blanca of the Peruvian Andes.

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The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, where the Andes are at their widest, is the most extensive area of high plateau on Earth outside of Tibet.

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The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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The Andean cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruvianus) is a medium-sized passerine bird of the Cotinga family native to Andean cloud forests in South America.

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The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is a South American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae and is the only member of the genus Vultur.

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The Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola) is a South American species of woodpecker.

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Andean Geology (formerly Revista Geológica de Chile) is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the National Geology and Mining Service, Chile's geology and mining agency.

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The Andean goose (Neochen melanoptera) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae.

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The andesite line is the most significant regional geologic distinction in the Pacific Ocean basin.

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The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.

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The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans.

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Antisana is a stratovolcano of the northern Andes, in Ecuador.

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Antisuyu (Quechua anti east, suyu region, part of a territory, each of the four regions which formed the Inca Empire, "eastern region") was the eastern part of the Inca Empire which bordered with modern-day Upper Amazon region where the Anti inhabited.

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Grallariidae is a family of smallish passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America known as antpittas.

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In the religion and mythology of Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, apus are the spirits of the mountains - and sometimes solitary rocks and caves, that protect the local people in the highlands.

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An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.

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Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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Artesonraju, also referred to simply as "Arteson", is a distinctly pyramidal mountain peak located in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range, a part of the Peruvian Andes, about north of the town of Huaraz.

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Aruba is an island country in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.

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Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as Asia-Pac, AsPac, APAC, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.

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Asphalt (or, occasionally), also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America, covering a strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.

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Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

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Azufral is a volcano located in the department of Nariño in southern Colombia, west of the town of Túquerres.

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A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.

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Bogotá is the capital of Colombia and Cundinamarca Department, with a population of 8,854,722 in 2015.

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Bolivia (Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Bonaire (Bonaire, Papiamentu: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.

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The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar in Ecuador.

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Cabaraya is a stratovolcano in Bolivia.

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The calc-alkaline magma series is one of two main subdivisions of the subalkaline magma series, the other subalkaline magma series being the tholeiitic.

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Santiago de Cali, usually known by its short name "Cali", is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, and the most populous city in Southwestern Colombia, with an estimated 2,319,655 residents according to 2005-2020/DANE population projections.

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A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Cape Horn (Dutch:, Cabo de Hornos), named after the city of Hoorn in the Netherlands, is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island.

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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.

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The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

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Cayambe (or Volcán Cayambe) is the name of a volcano located in the Cordillera Central, a range of the Ecuadorian Andes.

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Cerro Bayo is a complex volcano on the northern part border between Argentina and Chile.

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Cerro Bonete is a mountain in the north of the province of La Rioja, Argentina, near the provincial border with Catamarca.

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Cerro Castillo Dynevor, also known as Castillo Dynevor is located on the Northwest coast of Skyring Sound, in Magallanes Region, Chile.

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Cerro de Pasco (population 200,000) is a city in central Peru, located at the top of the Andean mountains.

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Cerro del Nacimiento is an Andean volcano of the Cordillera de la Ramada range, in the Catamarca Province of Argentina.

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Cerro Escorial is a stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.

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Cerro Macá is a stratovolcano located to the north of the Aisén Fjord and to the east of the Moraleda Channel, in the Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region of Chile.

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Cerro Negro de Mayasquer is a volcano on the border of Colombia and Ecuador.

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Cerro Rico (also called Cerro de Potosí, Quechua Sumaq Urqu) is a mountain in the Andes near the Bolivian city of Potosí.

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Chacaltaya (Aymara for "cold road") is a mountain in the Cordillera Real, one of the mountain ranges of the Cordillera Oriental, itself a range of the Bolivian Andes.

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Chachani is the highest of the mountains near the city of Arequipa in southern Peru.

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The Chachapoyas, also called the Warriors of the Clouds, was a culture of Andean people living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas Region of present-day Peru.

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In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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The Chilean Army (Ejército de Chile) is the land arm of the Military of Chile.

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The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile.

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Chimborazo is a currently inactive stratovolcano in the Cordillera Occidental range of the Andes.

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Chinchillas are crepuscular (most active around dawn and dusk) rodents, slightly larger and more robust than ground squirrels.

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Chumpi (Quechua chumpi belt, Hatunrit'i, Ñañaluma, Yanaluma or Wisk'achani (hispanicized spellings Chumpe, Jatunriti, Nañaloma, Ñanaloma, Yanaloma, Huiscachani) is a mountain in the Willkanuta mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about 6,106 m (17,388 ft) high. It is located in the Cusco Region, Canchis Province, Pitumarca District as well as in the Quispicanchi Province, Ocongate District. Chumpi lies north of the lake Siwinaqucha.

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Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known, is by excavated volume the biggest open pit copper mine in the world, located in the north of Chile, just outside of Calama at 9,350 feet (2,850m) above sea level, 215 km northeast of Antofagasta and 1,240 km north of the capital, Santiago.

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Cinchona pubescens, also known as Red cinchona and quina (Cascarilla, cinchona; Quina-do-Amazonas, quineira), is native to Central and South America.

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A city is a large and permanent human settlement.

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Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.

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A cloud forest, also called a fog forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level.

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Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.

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Cocaine, also known as benzoylmethylecgonine or coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.

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The continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks which forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.

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Continental crustal fragments, partially synonymous with microcontinents, are fragments of continents that have been broken off from main continental masses forming distinct islands, often several hundred kilometers from their place of origin.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corazón (Spanish: "heart") is an inactive eroded stratovolcano of Ecuador, situated about 30 km southwest of Quito in the western slopes of the Andes.

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Cordón del Azufre is a small, inactive complex volcano located on the Central Andes, at the border of Argentina and Chile.

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The Cordillera Central is a massive mountain range situated in the northern central part of the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.

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The Cordillera Oriental (East Andes) is the widest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.

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The Cordillera Paine is a small mountain group in Torres del Paine National Park in Chilean Patagonia.

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Cotopaxi is an active stratovolcano in the Andes Mountains, located in the Latacunga canton of Cotopaxi Province, about south of Quito, and northeast of the city of Latacunga, Ecuador, in South America.

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.

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The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.

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A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere.

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The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.

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In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an organism to avoid observation or detection by other organisms.

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Cumbal is a stratovolcano located in Nariño Department, Colombia.

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Curaçao (or; Curaçao; Papiamentu: Kòrsou) is an island country in the southern Caribbean Sea, approximately north of the Venezuelan coast, that is a constituent country (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.

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Darwin's rhea (Rhea pennata), also known as the lesser rhea, is a large flightless bird, but the smaller of the two extant species of rheas.

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Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and it is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally (most commonly during autumn) and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe.

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Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.

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Deserts and xeric shrublands also called xerófila are a biome characterized by, relating to, or requiring only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.

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The diademed plover or diademed sandpiper-plover (Phegornis mitchellii) is a species of bird in the Charadriidae family.

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Diuca is a small genus of Andean seed-eating tanagers.

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Doña Juana volcano (Volcán Doña Juana) is a stratovolcano located within the Doña Juana-Cascabel Volcanic Complex National Natural Park ('''Parque Nacional Natural Complejo Volcánico Doña Juana-Cascabel'''.) in Nariño Department, Colombia.

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Domestication (from the Latin domesticus: "of the home") is the cultivating or taming of a population of organisms in order to accentuate traits that are desirable to the cultivator or tamer.

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The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus), is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

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The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.

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The Dry Andes (Andes áridos) is a climatic and glaciological subregion of the Andes.

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A dry lake is an ephemeral lakebed, or a remnant of an endorheic lake.

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Earth's rotation is the rotation of the planet Earth around its own axis.

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An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the perceptible shaking of the surface of the Earth, which can be violent enough to destroy major buildings and kill thousands of people.

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Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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El Altar or Kapak Urku (Kichwa kapak principal, great, important / magnificence, urku mountain, "sublime mountain", hispanicized Capac Urcu, Cápac Urcu) is an extinct volcano on the western side of Sangay National Park in Ecuador, 170 km south of Quito.

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An Endangered (EN) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List as likely to become extinct.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the centrifugal force of its rotation.

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In geomorphology and geology, erosion is the action of exogenicprocesses (such as water flow or wind) which remove soil and rock from one location on the Earth's crust, then transport it to another location where it is deposited.

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Escondida is a copper mine in the Atacama Desert in Antofagasta Region, Chile.

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An estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion.

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Falso Azufre is a complex volcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.

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In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock mass movement.

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Monte Fitz Roy (also known as Cerro Chaltén, Cerro Fitz Roy, or simply Mount Fitz Roy) is a mountain located near El Chaltén village, in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field in Patagonia, on the border between Argentina and Chile.

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Flamingos (or flamingoes) are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae. There are four flamingo species in the Americas and two species in Afro-Eurasia. Often, they are pink in colour.

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A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.

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A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics.

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Four-wheel drive, 4×4 ("four by four"), 4WD, and AWD is a form of drivetrain most commonly capable of providing power to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously.

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Francisco Pizarro González (circa 1471 or 1476 – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire.

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Cerro Galán is a caldera in Catamarca Province, Argentina, considered to be the best exposed large caldera in the world.

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Galeras (Urcunina among the 16th-century indigenous people) is an Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the departmental capital Pasto.

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Geositta is a genus of passerine birds in the ovenbird family, Furnariidae.

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The giant coot (Fulica gigantea) is a species of coot from South America.

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Glacier ice accumulation occurs through accumulation of snow and other frozen precipitation, as well as through other means including rime ice (freezing of water vapor on the glacier surface), avalanching from hanging glaciers on cliffs and mountainsides above, and re-freezing of glacier meltwater as superimposed ice.

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In paleogeography, Gondwana, also Gondwanaland, is the name given to the more southerly of two supercontinents (the other being Laurasia) that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent that existed from approximately 300 to 180 million years ago (Mya).

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The Gran Chaco (Quechua: chaku, "hunting land") is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region.

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The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a camelid native to South America that stands between at the shoulder and weighs about 90 kg (200 lb).

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Herbal tea, or tisane (UK, US), is any beverage made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, or other plant material in hot water, and usually does not contain caffeine.

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A highway is any public road or other public way on land.

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The hillstars are hummingbirds of the genus Oreotrochilus.

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Hippocamelus is a genus of Cervidae, the deer family.

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The Huancas, Wancas, or Wankas are a Quechua people living in the Junín Region of central Peru, in and around the Mantaro Valley.

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Huandoy (in hispanicized spelling), Wantuy (Quechua for to transfer, to transpose, to carry, to carry a heavy load) or Tullparahu (Quechua tullpa rustic cooking-fire, stove, rahu snow, ice, mountain with snow, hispanicized Tullparaju) is a mountain located in the Ancash Region of Peru.

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Huascarán or Nevado Huascarán is a mountain in the Peruvian province of Yungay (Ancash Departament), situated in the Cordillera Blanca range of the western Andes.

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A huaso is a Chilean countryman and skilled horseman, similar to the American cowboy or Mexican charro, the gaucho of Argentina, Uruguay and Rio Grande Do Sul and the Australian stockman.

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Huayna Picchu, Wayna Picchu (hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Pikchu (Quechua wayna young, young man, pikchu pyramid, mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks, "young peak") is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends.

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Huayna Potosí is a mountain in Bolivia, located near El Alto and about 25 km north of La Paz in the Cordillera Real.

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The Hummingbirds are New World birds that constitute the family Trochilidae.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.

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A hypersaline lake is a landlocked body of water that contains significant concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts, with saline levels surpassing that of ocean water (3.5%, i.e.). Specific microbial and crustacean species thrive in these high salinity environments that are otherwise inhospitable to most lifeforms.

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Illampu is the fourth highest mountain in Bolivia.

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Illimani (Aymara) is the highest mountain in the Cordillera Real (part of the Cordillera Oriental, a subrange of the Andes) of western Bolivia.

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The Illinizas are a pair of volcanic mountains that are located to the south of Quito, Ecuador.

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Imbabura is an inactive stratovolcano in northern Ecuador.

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In biology, immunity is the balanced state of having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

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Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.

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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

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The Inca society was the society of the Inca civilization in South America.

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Incahuasi (Quechua Inkawasi or Inka Wasi, inka Inca, wasi house, "Inca house") is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America.

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Dry valleys in the central Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, known as "valles", are marked by a rain shadow effect of the surrounding mountains, and thus rainfall is limited, and mostly falls in a brief rainy season.

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Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil.

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Iru Phutunqu (Aymara iru spiny Peruvian feather grass, phutunqu a small vessel or a hole, pit, crater, hispanicized spellings Iru Putuncu, Irruputuncu, Iruputuncu) is a stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia.

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Janq'u Uma (Aymara janq'u white, uma water, "white water", also spelled Janq'uma, other spellings Ancohuma, Jankho Uma, Jankhouma) is the third highest mountain in Bolivia (after Sajama and Illimani).

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Jirishanca or Hirishanca (in hispanicized spellings) is a mountain of the Waywash mountain range in west central Peru, part of the Andes.

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Joseph Barclay Pentland (17 January 1797; 12 July 1873) was an Irish geographer, natural scientist, and traveller.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) is a geologic period and system that extends from 201.3± 0.6 Ma (million years ago) to 145± 4 Ma; from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous.

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Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace; Chuquiago Marka or Chuqiyapu), commonly known as La Paz, is Bolivia's third-most populous city (after Santa Cruz and El Alto), the seat of the country's government, and the capital of La Paz Department.

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Titicaca (in the hispanicized spelling) or Titiqaqa (Quechua) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Peru and Bolivia.

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A landlocked state or country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.

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Laram Q'awa (Aymara larama blue, q'awa little river, ditch, crevice, fissure, gap in the earth, "blue brook" or "blue ravine", hispanicized spellings Laram Khaua, Larancagua) is a high mountain in the Andes.

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Las Heras is a department located in the north west of Mendoza Province in Argentina.

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Lastarria, also known as Azufre, is a stratovolcano along the border of Argentina (border of the Catamarca and Salta provinces) and Chile (Antofagasta region).

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In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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The Leeward Antilles (Dutch: Benedenwindse Eilanden) are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the Antilles and the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland.

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Licancabur is a highly symmetrical stratovolcano on the southernmost part of the border between Chile and Bolivia.

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Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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The world's longest above-ground mountain chain is the Andes, about 4,350 miles (7,000 km) long.

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Lithium (from λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since pre-Hispanic times.

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Llullaillaco is a potentially active stratovolcano at the border of Argentina (Salta Province) and Chile.

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Machu Picchu (in hispanicized spelling) or Machu Pikchu (Quechua machu old, old person, pikchu peak; mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks, "old peak", pronunciation) is a 15th-century Inca site located above sea level.

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Macizo de Pacuni is a stratovolcano in Bolivia.

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The Madre de Dios River, homonymous to the Peruvian region it runs through, flows into the Beni River in Bolivia, which then turns northward into Brazil, where it joins with the Mamore River to become the Madeira River.

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Magma (from Greek μάγμα, "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets.

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Maipo is a stratovolcano in the Andes, lying on the border between Argentina and Chile.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Volcán Marmolejo is a high Pleistocene stratovolcano in the Andes on the border between Argentina and Chile.

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The Maule river or Río Maule (Mapudungun: rainy) is one of the most important rivers of Chile.

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Mérida, officially known as Santiago de los Caballeros de Mérida, is the capital of the municipality of Libertador and the state of Mérida, and is one of the principal cities of the Venezuelan Andes.

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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín (Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia.

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The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region.

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Cerro Mercedario is the highest peak of the Cordillera de la Ramada range and the eighth-highest mountain of the Andes.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Meteoric water is the water derived from precipitation (snow and rain).

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Michincha is a stratovolcano on the border of Bolivia and Chile.

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A mid-ocean ridge is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.

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Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.

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In geology, mineralization is the deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or "lodes" by various process.

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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.

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Misti, also known as Putina or Wawa Putina (Guagua Putina) is a stratovolcano located in southern Peru near the city of Arequipa.

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A mixed-species feeding flock, also termed a mixed-species foraging flock, mixed hunting party or informally bird wave, is a flock of usually insectivorous birds of different species, that join each other and move together while foraging.

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Modern history, also referred to as the modern period or the modern era, is the historiographical approach to the timeframe after the post-classical era (known as the Middle Ages).

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Monte Pissis is an extinct volcano in La Rioja Province, Argentina.

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Monte San Valentin, also known as Monte San Clemente, is the highest mountain in Chilean Patagonia and the highest mountain south of 37°S outside Antarctica.

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A motor vehicle is a self-propelled road vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams.

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Mount Darwin is a peak in Tierra del Fuego forming part of the Cordillera Darwin, the southernmost range of the Andes, just to the north of the Beagle Channel.

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Mount Hudson (locally known as Volcán Hudson) is a stratovolcano in southern Chile, and the site of one of the largest eruptions in the twentieth century.

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Mount Tarn is a small mountain located at on the southernmost part of the Strait of Magellan, in Brunswick Peninsula, about 70 km south of Punta Arenas, Chile.

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A mountain range (also mountain barrier/belt/chain/system) is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains.

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The mountain tapir or woolly tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) is the second smallest of the five species of tapir, only the recently described Tapirus kabomani being smaller, and is the only one to live outside of tropical rainforests in the wild.

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Andigena, the mountain toucans, is a genus of birds in the Ramphastidae family.

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A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).

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A natural region is a basic geographic unit.

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The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America.

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The Neogene is a geologic period and system in the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) Geologic Timescale starting 23.03 million years ago and ending 2.58 million years ago.

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Nevado Anallajsi is a stratovolcano in Bolivia.

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Nevado del Huila at, is the highest volcano in Colombia located in Huila Department, Tolima and Cauca Departments.

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The Nevado del Quindío is an inactive volcano located in the Central Cordillera of the Andes in central Colombia.

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The Nevado del Ruiz, also known as La Mesa de Herveo (Mesa of Herveo (the nearby town)), or Kumanday in the language of the local pre-Columbian indigenous people, is a volcano located on the border of the departments of Caldas and Tolima in Colombia, about west of the capital city Bogotá.

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Nevado del Tolima is a stratovolcano located in Tolima Department, Colombia, south of Nevado del Ruiz volcano.

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Nevado Sajama is an extinct stratovolcano and the highest peak in Bolivia.

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Nevado Tres Cruces is a massif of volcanic origin in the Andes Mountains.

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Nothoprocta is a genus of birds belonging to the tinamou family Tinamidae.

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Oceanic crust is the part of Earth's lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins.

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Nevado Ojos del Salado is a massive stratovolcano in the Andes on the Argentina–Chile border and the highest active volcano in the world at.

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Olca is a stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia.

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An ore is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock.

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The Orinoco is one of the longest rivers in South America at.

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An orocline — from the Greek words for "mountain" and "to bend" — is a bend or curvature of an orogeneic (mountain building) belt imposed after it was formed.

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Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between tectonic plates.

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Ovenbirds or furnariids are a large family of small suboscine passerine birds found in Mexico, and Central and South America.

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The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.

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A pack animal or beast of burden is a working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back; the term may be applied to either an individual animal or a species so employed.

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (or; from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, spanning from roughly (ICS, 2004).

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Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay, Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Parinacota (in hispanicized spelling), Parina Quta or Parinaquta (Aymara parina flamingo, quta lake, "flamingo lake") is a massive dormant stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia.

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Paruma is a stratovolcano that lies on the border of Bolivia and Chile.

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The Paso Internacional Los Libertadores, also called Cristo Redentor, is a mountain pass in the Andes between Argentina and Chile.

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Pasto (Colombia), officially San Juan de Pasto, is the capital of the department of Nariño, located in southern Colombia.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patilla Pata is a stratovolcano in the Oruro Department in Bolivia.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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The Peru–Chile Trench, also known as the Atacama Trench, is an oceanic trench in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 160 kilometres (100 mi) off the coast of Peru and Chile.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Phrygilus is a genus of mainly Andean seed-eating tanagers commonly known as sierra finches.

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Pichincha is an active stratovolcano in the country of Ecuador, whose capital Quito wraps around its eastern slopes.

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Pico Bolívar is the highest mountain in Venezuela, at 4,978 metres.

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Pico Bonpland is Venezuela's third highest peak, at 4,883 metres above sea level.

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Pico Cristóbal Colón is the highest mountain in Colombia, with an estimated height of.

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Pico El Águila is a mountain in the Cordillera de Mérida of Venezuela.

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Pico El León is a mountain in the Andes of Venezuela.

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Pico El Toro is a mountain in the Andes of Venezuela.

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Pico Humboldt is Venezuela's second highest peak, at 4,940 metres above sea level.

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Pico La Concha is a mountain in the Andes of Venezuela.

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The Pico Piedras Blancas (also known as Misamán), at, is the highest mountain of the Sierra de la Culata range in the Mérida State, and the fifth highest mountain in Venezuela.

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Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere.

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In geology and earth science, a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux), also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.

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In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.

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Polylepis (pronounced pah-lee-LEE-piss or pah-lee-LEH-piss) is a genus comprising twenty eight recognised shrub and tree species, that are endemic to the mid- and high-elevation regions of the tropical Andes.

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Pomerape is a stratovolcano lying on the border of northern Chile and Bolivia (Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Curahuara de Carangas Municipality).

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Porphyry copper deposits are copper orebodies that are formed from hydrothermal fluids that originate from a voluminous magma chamber several kilometers below the deposit itself.

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A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum L. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber.

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Potosí is a city and the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.

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Price revolution is a term used to describe a series of economic events from the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th century.

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The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.

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Pumasillu (Quechua puma cougar, puma, sillu claw, "puma claw", hispanicized spelling Pumasillo) is a mountain in the Willkapampa mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about 5,991 m (19,656 ft) high.

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Puracé is a stratovolcano located in the Puracé National Natural Park in the Cauca Department, Colombia.

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Quechuan, also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native American language family spoken primarily in the Andes region of South America, derived from a common ancestral language.

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Quetzals are strikingly colored birds in the trogon family.

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Quilotoa is a water-filled caldera and the most western volcano in the Ecuadorian Andes.

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Quinine is a white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste.

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Quito, formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the highest official capital city in the world.

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Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods, by way of wheeled vehicles running on rails.

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Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between.

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Rasac (hispanicized spelling) or Rasaq (Quechua for toad) is a mountain of the Waywash mountain range in west central Peru, part of the Andes.

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The Río de la Plata (River of Silver) — rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River (occasionally Plata River) in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay and the Paraná rivers.

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Reptiles are a group (Reptilia) of tetrapod animals comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Reventador is an active stratovolcano which lies in the eastern Andes of Ecuador.

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In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the Earth's crust and lithosphere are being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.

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The Ring of Fire is an area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.

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Riobamba (full name San Pedro de Riobamba) is the capital of the Chimborazo Province in central Ecuador, which is located at the Chambo River Valley of the Andes.

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Ritacuba Blanco is the highest peak of Cordillera Oriental, in the Andes Mountains of Colombia.

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A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by some conveyance, including a horse, cart, bicycle, or motor vehicle.

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Rock glaciers are distinctive geomorphological landforms, consisting either of angular rock debris frozen in interstitial ice, or true glaciers overlain by a layer of talus.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of unremittingly growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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The royal cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae) is a passerine bird which breeds in the Andes of south-east Peru and adjacent Bolivia.

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Runtuy (Quechua runtuy to hail / to lay an egg hispanicized spelling Rondoy) is a mountain in the north of the Waywash mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about high.

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Salar de Atacama is the largest salt flat in Chile.

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Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at.

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Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Sangay (also known as Macas, Sanagay, or Sangai) is an active stratovolcano in central Ecuador.

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Santa Isabel is a shield volcano located in Tolima Department, Colombia, southwest of Nevado del Ruiz volcano.

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Santiago, also Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile.

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Sarapu (hispanicized spelling Sarapo) is a mountain in the Waywash mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about high.

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In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.

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The Scotia Plate is a tectonic plate on the edge of the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean.

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Sea level is generally used to refer to mean sea level (MSL), an average level for the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island.

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Sedimentary basins are regions of the earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.

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Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Sierra Nevada, also known as Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas, is a volcanic complex which lies in both Chile and Argentina.

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The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range separated from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia.

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The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy Chita o Guican National Natural Park (or Sierra Nevada de Chita or Sierra Nevada de Güicán, Parque Natural Sierra Nevada del Cocuy Chita o Guican is a national park and a set of highlands within the Cordillera Oriental mountain range in the Andes Mountains of Colombia.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (άργυρος árguros, argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47.

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Siula Grande is a mountain in the Waywash mountain range in the Peruvian Andes.

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The climatic snow line is the point above which snow and ice cover the ground throughout the year.

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Socompa is a large complex stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.

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Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

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Solar irradiance (also Insolation, from Latin insolare, to expose to the sun) is the power per unit area produced by the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

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South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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The South American foxes (Lycalopex), commonly called "raposas", in Portuguese, or "zorros", in Spanish, are a genus of the dog family from South America.

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The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

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Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries.

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Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.

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The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae) and its closest relatives are the extinct Florida spectacled bear, and the giant short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene age.

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In geology, subduction is the process that takes place at convergent boundaries by which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge.

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Sucre, also known historically as Charcas, La Plata and Chuquisaca (population 247,300 in 2006), is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department, and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.

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A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.

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The tanagers (singular) comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes.

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The tapaculos (pronounced ta-pa-COO-lo) are a group of small suboscine passeriform birds with numerous species, found mainly in South America and with the highest diversity in the Andean regions.

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Tata Sabaya is a stratovolcano in Bolivia.

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Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.

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Telmatobius culeus, commonly known as the Titicaca water frog, is a very large and critically endangered species of frog in the Telmatobiidae family.

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In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.

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A terrane in geology is a shorthand term for a "tectonostratigraphic terrane", which is a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or "sutured" to crust lying on another plate.

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Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 66 million to 2.58 million years ago, a time span that lies between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.

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Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.

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The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qingzang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia or East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir state of India.

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Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.

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Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (for stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Tinamous form an order (Tinamiformes) comprising a single family, with two distinct subfamilies, containing 47 species of birds found in Mexico, Central America, and South America.

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The Titicaca grebe (Rollandia microptera), also known as the Titicaca flightless grebe or short-winged grebe, is a grebe found on the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia.

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Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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The Toquepala mine is a large porphyry copper mine in the Tacna Province, Tacna Department, Peru.

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Torres del Paine National Park (Parque Nacional Torres del Paine) is a national park encompassing mountains, glaciers, lakes, and rivers in southern Chilean Patagonia.

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A transform fault or transform boundary, also known as conservative plate boundary since these faults neither create nor destroy lithosphere, is a type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal in either sinistral or dextral direction.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from roughly 250 to 200 Mya (to million years ago), an interval of 51.04 million years.

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Tronador is an extinct stratovolcano in the southern Andes, located along the border between Argentina and Chile, near the Argentine city of Bariloche.

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The Tropical Andes is a subregion of the Andes spanning all of the Andes except the southern mediterranean and temperate zones.

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Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena is a biodiversity hotspot, which includes the tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests of the Pacific coast of South America and the Galapagos Islands.

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Tungurahua, (from Quichua tunguri (throat), rahua (fire): "Throat of Fire" or from Panzaleo) is an active stratovolcano located in the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador.

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Tupungato, one of the highest mountains in the Americas, is a massive Andean stratovolcano dating to Pleistocene times.

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Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.

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Uruguay, officially the Eastern Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America.

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Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.

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The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicugna is one of two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco.

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A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico) (1879–1883) was fought in western South America, between Chile and allied Bolivia and Peru in a variety of terrain, including the Pacific Ocean, Atacama Desert and Peru's deserts and mountainous regions in the Andes.

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Waytapallana (Quechua wayta wild flower, a little bunch of flowers, pallay to collect, pallana an instrument to collect fruit / collectable, Waytapallana "a place where you collect wild flowers", hispanicized spelling Huaytapallana) or Lasuntay is the highest peak in the Waytapallana mountain range in the Andes of Peru.

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The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies west of the Prime Meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the Antimeridian, the other half being called the Eastern Hemisphere.

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The Wet Andes (Andes húmedos) is a climatic and glaciological subregion of the Andes.

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The white-browed tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family.

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Sir Woodbine Parish KCH (14 September 1796, London – 16 August 1882, St. Leonards, Sussex) was a British diplomat, traveller and scientist.

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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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The wrens are mostly small, brownish passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae.

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Yanacocha (Cajamarca Quechua: yana.

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The yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Oreonax flavicauda) is a New World monkey endemic to Peru.

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Yerupaja Chico is a mountain in Peru.

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Yerupajá is a mountain of the Waywash mountain range in west central Peru, part of the Andes.

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The Yungas (Aymara yunka warm or temperate Andes or earth, Quechua yunka warm area on the slopes of the Andes) is a stretch of forest along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains from Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina.

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The 18th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 18 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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The 20th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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Redirects here:

Andean, Andean Mountain System, Andean highland, Andean mountains, Andean orogeny, Andes Mountain, Andes Mountains, Andes Range, Andes mountains, Andes of Peru, Andes range, Geology of the Andes, High Andes, Northern Andes, South American Andes, South american andes, The Andes Mountain, The Andes Mountains, The andes.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andes

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