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Philippines

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. [1]

901 relations: ABS-CBN, ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs, Abstract art, Abu Sayyaf, Acapulco, Accipitridae, Administrative divisions of the Philippines, Aeta people, Agence France-Presse, Agriculture in the Philippines, Aklanon language, Allies of World War II, Amado V. Hernandez, American Experience, American football, Americas, Ancient Greek architecture, Andrés Bonifacio, Anime, Anno Domini, Antonio Carpio, Antonio J. 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financial crisis, 2GO. 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ABS-CBN

ABS-CBN Corporation, commonly known as ABS-CBN, is a Filipino media and entertainment group based in Quezon City. It is the Philippines' largest entertainment and media conglomerate in terms of revenue, operating income, net income, assets, equity, market capitalization, and number of employees. ABS-CBN was formed by the merger of Alto Broadcasting System and Chronicle Broadcasting Network. ABS was founded in 1946 by American electronics engineer James Lindenberg as Bolinao Electronics Corporation (BEC). In 1952, BEC was renamed Alto Broadcasting System (ABS), after Judge Antonio Quirino, brother of President Elpidio Quirino, purchased the company. The company that would later be merged with ABS was founded in 1956 as Chronicle Broadcasting Network (CBN) by newspaper mogul Eugenio Lopez, Sr. and his brother Fernando Lopez (then Vice President of the Philippines). The two companies were merged and incorporated as ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation on 1 February 1967, and renamed ABS-CBN Corporation in 2010 to reflect the company's diversification. The common shares of ABS-CBN were first traded on the Philippine Stock Exchange in July 1992 under the ticker symbol ABS. The group owns and operates the ABS-CBN and ABS-CBN Sports+Action national television networks as well as the Radyo Patrol and My Only Radio regional radio networks. The ABS-CBN television network, in particular, is the largest contributor to the group's revenue, generating about 50 to 60 percent of the group's total annual revenue mainly from selling airtime to advertisers. The remaining revenue is generated from consumer sales, mainly from ABS-CBN Global Ltd. which distributes international television channels such as The Filipino Channel and Myx TV and from pay TV and broadband internet provider Sky. Other companies under the ABS-CBN group are motion picture company Star Cinema, music recording label Star Music, publishing firm ABS-CBN Publishing, pay TV content provider and distributor Creative Programs, and talent agency Star Magic. Among the pay TV networks and channels under the ABS-CBN group are ABS-CBN HD, ABS-CBN News Channel, ABS-CBN Sports+Action HD, Cinema One, Jeepney TV, Metro Channel, Liga, and Myx. In recent years, ABS-CBN has ventured and diversified in other businesses such as cellular telephony provider ABS-CBN Mobile, video on demand platform I Want TV, digital terrestrial television service ABS-CBN TV Plus, family entertainment center Kidzania Manila, and home shopping network O Shopping. ABS-CBN is also the principal owner of ABS-CBN Philharmonic Orchestra.

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ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs

ABS-CBN News (formerly ABS-CBN News and Public Affairs and ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs) is the news division of Philippine media conglomerate ABS-CBN.

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Abstract art

Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.

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Abu Sayyaf

Abu Sayyaf (جماعة أبو سياف;, ASG; Grupong Abu Sayyaf), unofficially known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Philippines Province, is a Jihadist militant and pirate group that follows the Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam based in and around Jolo and Basilan islands in the southwestern part of the Philippines, where for more than four decades, Moro groups have been engaged in an insurgency for an independent province in the country.

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Acapulco

Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.

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Accipitridae

The Accipitridae, one of the four families within the order Accipitriformes (the others being Cathartidae, Pandionidae and Sagittariidae), are a family of small to large birds with strongly hooked bills and variable morphology based on diet.

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Administrative divisions of the Philippines

The Philippines has four main classes of elected administrative divisions, often lumped together as local government units (LGUs).

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Aeta people

The Aeta (Ayta), or Agta, are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the island of Luzon, the Philippines.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Agriculture in the Philippines

Agriculture in the Philippines employs 27.7% of the Filipino workforce as of 2017, according to the World Bank.

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Aklanon language

Aklanon (Akeanon), also known as Aklan, is a regional Visayan language spoken in the province of Aklan on the island of Panay in the Philippines.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Amado V. Hernandez

Amado Vera Hernandez, commonly known as Amado V. Hernandez (September 13, 1903 – March 24, 1970), was a Filipino writer and labor leader who was known for his criticism of social injustices in the Philippines and was later imprisoned for his involvement in the communist movement.

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American Experience

American Experience is a television program airing on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television stations in the United States.

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American football

American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Ancient Greek architecture

The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.

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Andrés Bonifacio

Andrés Bonifacio (November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897) was a Filipino revolutionary leader and the president of the Tagalog Republic.

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Anime

Anime is a style of hand-drawn and computer animation originating in, and commonly associated with, Japan.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Antonio Carpio

Antonio Tirol Carpio (born October 26, 1949) is an incumbent Senior Associate Justice and acting Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, following Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno's ouster by quo warranto that voided her appointment as illegal and declared her term of office as de facto tenure.

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Antonio J. Ramos

Brigadier General Antonio J. Ramos (born 1946) was an officer of the United States Air Force.

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Antonio Luna

General Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta (29 October 1866 – 5 June 1899), was a Filipino army general who fought in the Philippine–American War.

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Antonio Pigafetta

Antonio Pigafetta (c. 1491 – c. 1531) was an Italian scholar and explorer from the Republic of Venice.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archipelagic state

An archipelagic state is a designation used for certain island countries that consist of an archipelago.

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Archipelago

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Armed Forces of the Philippines

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) (Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas, Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines.

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Arnis

Arnis, also known as Kali or Eskrima, is the national sport and martial art of the Philippines.

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Arsenio Cruz Herrera

Arsenio Cruz Herrera (December 14, 1863 – April 8, 1917) was considered the first Filipino mayor of Manila.

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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ASEAN Summit

The ASEAN Summit is a semiannual meeting held by the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in relation to economic, political, security and socio-cultural development of Southeast Asian countries.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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Asian cuisine

Asian cuisine includes several major regional cuisines: East Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian, Central Asian, and Middle Eastern/Western Asian.

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Asian Development Bank

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.

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Asian palm civet

The Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) is a small viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia.

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr.

The assassination of Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., former Philippine Senator, took place on Sunday, August 21, 1983 at Manila International Airport (renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his honor).

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Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines is one of 15 members of the Philippine Supreme Court, the highest court in the Philippines.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.

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Aswang

An Aswang (or Asuwang), based on the Sanskrit language Hindu concept of Asura, is a shapeshifting monster in Filipino folklore usually possessing a combination of the traits of either a vampire, a ghoul, a warlock/witch, or different species of werebeast, or even all of them together.

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Ati people

The Ati are a Negrito ethnic group in the Visayas, the central portion of the Philippine archipelago.

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Ati-Atihan festival

The Ati-Atihan Festival is a feast held annually in January in honor of the Santo Niño (Infant Jesus), concluding on the third Sunday, in the town of Kalibo, Aklan in the island of Panay, Philippines.

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.

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Austronesian hypothesis

The Austronesian hypothesis investigates the widespread radiation of Austronesian languages and speakers out of Asia.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Austronesian peoples

The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.

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Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Awtonomong Rehiyon sa Muslim Mindanao, الحكم الذاتي الاقليمي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.

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Badminton

Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.

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Baguio

, officially the (Ibaloi: Ciudad ne Bagiw; Siudad ti Baguio; Lungsod ng Baguio) and popularly referred to as Baguio City, is a mountain resort city located in Northern Luzon, Philippines.

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Bahá'í Faith in the Philippines

The Bahá'í Faith in the Philippines is a community of Filipinos, who like their fellow Bahá'ís living in other parts of the world, view the world's major religions as a part of a single, progressive process through which God reveals His will to humanity.

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Banana ketchup

Banana ketchup or banana sauce is a popular Philippine fruit ketchup condiment made from mashed banana, sugar, vinegar, and spices.

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Banaue Rice Terraces

The Banaue Rice Terraces (Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe) are terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the indigenous people.

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Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas

The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (commonly abbreviated as BSP in both Filipino and English) is the central bank of the Philippines.

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Bangsamoro (political entity)

The Bangsamoro Autonomous Region (Rehiyong Awtonomo ng Bangsamoro منطقة بانجسامورو ذاتية الحكم. Munṭiqah banjisāmūrū dhātiyyah al-ḥukm) is a proposed autonomous region within the Philippines.

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Bangsamoro Basic Law

The Bangsamoro Basic Law, often referred to by the acronym "BBL" (Batayang Batas para sa Rehiyong Awtonomo ng Bangsamoro), refers to a number of similar legislative bills to establish a proposed new autonomous political entity known as the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region, replacing the current Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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Barangay

A barangay ((abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In metropolitan areas, the term often refers to an inner city neighbourhood, a suburb or a suburban neighborhood. The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines. Municipalities and cities in the Philippines are subdivided into barangays, with the exception of the municipalities of Adams in Ilocos Norte and Kalayaan, Palawan which each contain only one barangay. The barangay itself is sometimes informally subdivided into smaller areas called purok (English: "zone"), barangay zones consisting of a cluster of houses, and sitios, which are territorial enclaves—usually rural—far from the barangay center., there were 42,029 barangays throughout the Philippines.

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Barangay state

In early Philippine history, the Barangay was a complex sociopolitical unit which scholars have historically considered the dominant organizational pattern among the various peoples of the Philippine archipelago.

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Barasoain Church

Barasoain Church (also known as the Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Parish) is a Roman Catholic church built in 1888 in Malolos, Bulacan.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Basketball in the Philippines

Basketball is the most popular sport in the Philippines, played on both the amateur and professional levels.

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Bataan Death March

The Bataan Death March (Filipino: Martsa ng Kamatayan sa Bataan; Japanese: バターン死の行進, Hepburn: Batān Shi no Kōshin) was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000–80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war from Saysain Point, Bagac, Bataan and Mariveles to Camp O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, via San Fernando, Pampanga, where the prisoners were loaded onto trains.

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Batanes

Batanes (Ivatan: Probinsya nu Batanes; Lalawigan ng Batanes) is an archipelago province in the Philippines situated in the Cagayan Valley region.

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Batangas International Port

The Batangas International Port or locally known as the Batangas Pier, is a seaport in Barangay Santa Clara, Batangas City primarily serving the Calabarzon region of the Philippines.

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Battle of Leyte Gulf

The Battle of Leyte Gulf (Filipino: Labanan sa Golpo ng Leyte) is generally considered to have been the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history.

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Battle of Mactan

The Battle of Mactan (Gubat sa Mactan; Labanan sa Mactan; Spanish: Batalla de Mactán) was fought in the Philippines on 27 April 1521, prior to Spanish colonization.

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Battle of Manila (1945)

The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila) was a major battle of the Philippine campaign of 1944-45, during the Second World War.

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Bay, Laguna

, (pronounced as Ba-eh), officially the, (name), is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company

The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company is the oldest dance company in the Philippines.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Benham Rise

The Philippine Rise, formerly called the Benham Rise, is a seismically active undersea region and extinct volcanic ridge located in the Philippine Sea approximately east of the northern coastline of Dinapigue, Isabela.

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Benigno Aquino III

Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Cojuangco Aquino IIIQuezon, Manuel L..

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Benigno Aquino Jr.

Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. (November 27, 1932 – August 21, 1983) was the husband of former Philippine President Corazon Aquino and father of former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III.

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Biag ni Lam-ang

Biag ni Lam-ang is an epic poem of the Ilocano people from the Ilocos region of the Philippines.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bicol Region

The Bicol Region, also known simply as Bicol and historically known as Ibalon prior to Spanish colonization, (Rehiyon nin Bikol/Kabikolan; Rinconada Bicol: Rehiyon ka Bikol; Kabikulan; Bicolandia) is a region of the Philippines, designated as Region V. Bicol comprises six provinces, four on the Bicol Peninsula mainland (the southeastern end of Luzon) – Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, and Sorsogon – and the offshore island provinces of Catanduanes and Masbate.

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Bicolano people

The Bicolanos are the fifth-largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.

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Bikol languages

The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the island of Burias of Masbate.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Bohol

Bohol is a prefix.

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Bolkiah

Sultan Bolkiah was the 5th Sultan of Brunei.

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Boracay

Boracay is a small island in the Philippines located approximately south of Manila and off the northwest tip of Panay Island in Western Visayas region of the Philippines.

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Borneo

Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Boxing Writers Association of America

The Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA) was originally formed in 1926 as the Boxing Writers Association of Greater New York.

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British occupation of Manila

The British occupation of Manila was an episode in Philippine colonial history when the British Empire occupied the Spanish colonial capital of Manila and the nearby principal port of Cavite for twenty months between 1762 and 1764.

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British people

The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.

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BRP Gregorio del Pilar (FF-15)

BRP Gregorio del Pilar (FF-15) is a frigate of the Philippine Navy and the lead ship of her class.

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Brunei

Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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Bruneian Empire

The Bruneian Empire or Empire of Brunei, also known as Sultanate of Brunei or Negara Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei on the northern coast of Borneo island in Southeast Asia.

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Buddhism in the Philippines

Buddhism is a minor religion in the Philippines. Loanwords with Buddhist context appear in languages of the Philippines.

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Bulacan

Bulacan (Lalawigan ng Bulakan; Lalawigan ning Bulacan) (PSGC:; '''ISO''': PH-BUL) is a province in the Philippines, located in the Central Luzon Region (Region III) in the island of Luzon, north of Manila (the nation's capital), and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region.

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Bulul

A Bulul, also known as tinagtaggu, is a carved wooden figure used to guard the rice crop by the Ifugao (and their sub-tribe Kalanguya) peoples of northern Luzon.

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Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) is a bureau within the United States Department of State.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.

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Business process outsourcing

Business process outsourcing (BPO) is defined as a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider.

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BusinessWorld

BusinessWorld is a business newspaper in the Philippines with a nationwide circulation of more than 117,000 (as of March 2014).

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Butuan

(pronounced), officially the (Butuanon: Dakbayan hong; name; name), or simply known as City, is a highly urbanized city and regional center of the Caraga Region,.

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Cabinet (government)

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.

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Caboloan

Caboloan (also spelled Kaboloan; Luyag na Caboloan), referred to Chinese records as Feng-chia-hsi-lan, was a sovereign pre-colonial Philippine polity located in the fertile Agno River basin and delta, with Binalatongan as the capital.

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Cagayan River

The Cagayan River, also known as the Rio Grande de Cagayan, is the longest river in the Philippines and the largest river by discharge volume of water (followed by Rio Grande de Mindanao).

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Calabarzon

Calabarzon, formally known as Southern Tagalog Mainland and designated as Region IV-A, is an administrative region in the Philippines.

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Calamondin

Calamondin (Citrus microcarpa, × Citrofortunella microcarpa or × Citrofortunella mitis) is an important citrofortunella, meaning that it is an intergeneric hybrid between a member of the genus Citrus (in this case probably the mandarin orange) and the kumquat, formerly considered as belonging to a separate genus Fortunella.

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Callao Man

Callao man (Ilocano: Tao ti Callao; Filipino: Taong Callao) refers to fossilized remains discovered in Callao Cave, Peñablanca, Cagayan, Philippines in 2007 by Armand Salvador Mijares.

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Calle Real, Iloilo

Calle Real (Royal Street in Spanish), officially named as J.M. Basa Street, is a historic street located in the old downtown district Iloilo City Proper of Iloilo City, Iloilo, Philippines.The street often referred to as the "Escolta of Iloilo".

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Card game

A card game is any game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cariñosa

Cariñosa (meaning the loving or affectionate one) is a Philippine dance of colonial era origin from the Maria Clara suite of Philippine folk dances, where the fan or handkerchief plays an instrumental role as it places the couple in romance scenario.

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Carlos P. Garcia

Carlos Polestico Garcia, commonly known as Carlos P. Garcia, (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist, organized guerrilla and Commonwealth military leader, who was the eighth President of the Philippines.

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Carlos P. Romulo

Carlos Peña Romulo, QSC PLH (14 January 1898 – 15 December 1985) was a Filipino diplomat, statesman, soldier, journalist and author.

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Castilian War

The Spanish Expedition to Borneo, also known locally as the Castilian War (Malay: Perang Kastila; Jawi: ڤراڠ كستيلا; Spanish: Expedición española a Borneo; Filipino: Digmaang Kastila), was a military conflict between Brunei and Spain in 1578.

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Catálogo alfabético de apellidos

The Catálogo alfabético de apellidos (Alphabetical Catalogue of Surnames; Alpabetikong Katalogo ng mga apelyedo) is a book of surnames in the Philippines and other islands of Spanish East Indies published in the mid-19th century.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in the Philippines

The Catholic Church in the Philippines (Simbahang Katólika, Simbahang Katóliko; Iglesia Católica) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual direction of the Roman Pontiff.

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Catholic University of America

The Catholic University of America (CUA) is a private, non-profit Catholic university located in Washington, D.C., in the United States.

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Cavite

Cavite (Lalawigan ng Kabite;, or; Chabacano: Provincia de Cavite) is a province in the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the Calabarzon region on Luzon island.

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Cebu

Cebu (Lalawigan sa Sugbu; Lalawigan ng Cebu) is a province of the Philippines located in the region, and consisting of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets.

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Cebu Pacific

Cebu Air, Inc., operating as Cebu Pacific and informally known as Cebu Pac, is a Philippine low-cost airline based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA Terminal 3), Pasay City, Metro Manila, in the Philippines.

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Cebuano language

The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.

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Celebes Sea

The Celebes Sea (Laut Sulawesi, Dagat Selebes) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi's Minahassa Peninsula, and on the west by Kalimantan in Indonesia.

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Census in the Philippines

The Philippine census of population and housing is a regularly occurring and official inventory of the human population as well as housing units in the Philippines.

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Central Luzon

Central Luzon (Kalibudtarang Luzon, Pegley na Luzon, Gitnang Luzon, designated as Region III, is an administrative region in the Philippines, primarily serving to organize the 7 provinces of the vast central plains of the island of Luzon (the largest island), for administrative convenience. The region contains the largest plain in the country and produces most of the country's rice supply, earning itself the nickname "Rice Granary of the Philippines". Its provinces are: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales.

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Central Visayas

Central Visayas (Tunga-tungang Kabisay-an; Gitnang Kabisayaan) is a region of the Philippines, numerically designated as Region VII.

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Champa

Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.

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Chavacano

Chavacano or Chabacano refers to a number of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines.

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

The Chief Justice of the Philippines (Punong Mahistrado ng Pilipinas) presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the Philippines.

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Chili pepper

The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.

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Chinese Filipino

Chinese Filipinos (Filipino: Pilipinong Tsino, Tsinoy or Intsik) are Filipinos of Chinese descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.

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Chocolate

Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.

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Chocolate Hills

The Chocolate Hills (Mga Bungtod sa Tsokolate; Mga Tsokolateng Burol) are a geological formation in the Bohol province of the Philippines.

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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Asia

Christianity in Asia has its roots in the very inception of Christianity, which originated from the life and teachings of Jesus in 1st century Roman Palestine.

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Christianity in the Philippines

The Philippines is the 5th largest Christian country on Earth,Most Christians reside in the United States with 246.8 million, followed by Brazil with 175.8 million, Mexico with 107.8 million, and Russia with 105.2 million.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Cinema of Asia

Asian cinema refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Asia, and is also sometimes known as Eastern cinema.

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Cinema of Europe

Cinema of Europe refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Europe.

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Cinema of the Philippines

The cinema of the Philippines (Filipino: Pelikulang Pilipino or Sine Pilipino) began with the introduction of the first moving pictures to the country on January 1, 1897 at the Salón de Pertierra in Manila.

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Cinema of the United States

The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.

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Cities of the Philippines

A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines.

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Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines

The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP; Pangasiwaan ng Abyasyon Sibil ng Pilipinas) is the national aviation authority of the Philippines and is responsible for implementing policies on civil aviation to assure safe, economic and efficient air travel.

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Clark Air Base

Clark Air Base is a Philippine Air Force base on Luzon Island in the Philippines, located west of Angeles, about northwest of Metro Manila.

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Clark International Airport

Clark International Airport (CIAC) (Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark, Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark), is an airport that is an international gateway to the Philippines within Clark Freeport Zone in Angeles City and Mabalacat City located northwest of Manila.

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Climate

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Cloud rat

The cloud rats or cloudrunners are a group of arboreal and folivorous nocturnal rodents native to the forests of the Philippines.

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CNN Philippines

CNN Philippines (abbreviated CNN PH) is a commercial broadcast cable and satelilite television network in the Philippines.

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Cobra

Cobra is the common name of various elapid snakes, most of which belonging to the genus Naja.

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Cocido

Cocido (Peninsular, Latin American) or cozido (European, Brazilian) is a traditional stew eaten as a main dish in Spain, Portugal, Brazil and other Hispanophone and Lusophone countries.

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Cockfight

A cockfight is a blood sport between two cocks, or gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.

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Coconut oil

Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colombo Plan

The Colombo Plan is a regional organisation that embodies the concept of collective intergovernmental effort to strengthen economic and social development of member countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

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Comfort women

Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Commission on Higher Education (Philippines)

The Commission on Higher Education (Komisyon sa Lalong Mataas na Edukasyon) of the Philippines, abbreviated as CHED, is a government agency attached to the Office of the President of the Philippines for administrative purposes.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Commonwealth of the Philippines

The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.

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Confederation of sultanates in Lanao

The Sultanates of Lanao in Mindanao, Philippines were founded in the 16th century through the influence of Shariff Kabungsuan, who was enthroned as first Sultan of Maguindanao in 1520.

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Congkak

Congkak (Jawi: چوڠكق) or Congklak is a mancala game of Malay origin played in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and Southern Thailand.

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Congress of the Philippines

The Congress of the Philippines (Kongreso ng Pilipinas), is the national legislature of the Philippines.

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Conservation biology

Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.

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Conservation International

Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitution of the Philippines

The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino: Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas or Konstitusyon ng Pilipinas) is the constitution or supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines.

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Cooking banana

Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Coral Triangle

The Coral Triangle is a geographical term so named as it refers to a roughly triangular area of the tropical marine waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste that contain at least 500 species of reef-building corals in each ecoregion.

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Corazon Aquino

Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office.

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CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion

The CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion refers to the ongoing conflict between the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and the communist coalition of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), the New People's Army (NPA), and the National Democratic Front (NDF).

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Criollo people

The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.

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Crispy pata

Crispy pata is a Filipino dish consisting of deep fried pig trotters or knuckles served with a soy-vinegar dip.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cue sports

Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as.

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Cuisine of the United States

The cuisine of the United States reflects its history.

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Culture of Spain

The cultures of Spain are European cultures based on a variety of historical influences, primarily based on pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture.

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Culture of the Philippines

The culture of the Philippines is a combination of cultures of the East and West.

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Culture of the United States

The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.

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Currency

A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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Cuyonon language

Cuyonon is a regional Visayan language spoken on the coast of Palawan, and the Cuyo Islands in the Philippines.

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Cycling

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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Cyclone

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.

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Cygnus (spacecraft)

The Cygnus spacecraft is an American automated cargo spacecraft developed by Orbital ATK as part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) developmental program.

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Dalagang Bukid

Dalagang Bukid (English: Country Maiden) is a 1919 Filipino silent film directed by José Nepomuceno.

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Damián Domingo

Damián Domingo y Gabor (February 12, 1796 – July 26, 1834) was the father of Philippine painting.

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Daniel Burnham

Daniel Hudson Burnham, (September 4, 1846 – June 1, 1912) was an American architect and urban designer.

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Datu

Datu is a title which denotes the rulers (variously described in historical accounts as chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchsFor more information about the social system of the Indigenous Philippine society before the Spanish colonization see Barangay in Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europea-Americana, Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, S. A., 1991, Vol. VII, p.624: Los nobles de un barangay eran los más ricos ó los más fuertes, formándose por este sistema los dattos ó maguinoos, principes á quienes heredaban los hijos mayores, las hijas á falta de éstos, ó los parientes más próximos si no tenían descendencia directa; pero siempre teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de fuerza ó de dinero.) of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago.

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Davao City

, officially the (Dakbayan sa Dabaw, Lungsod ng Dabaw), is a highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao,.

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Davao Gulf

Davao Gulf is a gulf situated in the southeastern portion of Mindanao in the Philippines.

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Davao Region

Davao Region, formerly called Southern Mindanao (Habagatang Mindanao; Timog Mindanao), is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI.

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Debt-to-GDP ratio

In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).

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Deforestation

Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Deforestation in the Philippines

Along with other Southeast Asian countries deforestation in the Philippines is a major environmental issue.

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Dentsu

Dentsu Inc. (株式会社電通 Kabushiki-gaisha Dentsū or 電通 Dentsū for short) is a Japanese international advertising, public relations, stockholding company HQ in Tokyo.

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Department of Education (Philippines)

The Department of Education (abbreviated as DepEd; Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education.

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Department of Finance (Philippines)

The Philippines' Department of Finance (DOF) (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Pananalapi) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the formulation, institutionalization and administration of fiscal policies, management of the financial resources of the government, supervision of the revenue operations of all local government units, the review, approval and management of all public sector debt, and the rationalization, privatization and public accountability of corporations and assets owned, controlled or acquired by the government.

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Department of Science and Technology (Philippines)

The Philippines' Department of Science and Technology (abbreviated as DOST; Kagawaran ng Agham at Teknolohiya), is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for the coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines and to formulate policies and projects in the fields of science and technology in support of national development.

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Department of the Interior and Local Government

The Philippine Department of the Interior and Local Government (Kagawaran ng Interyor at Pamahalaang Lokal), abbreviated as DILG, is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for promoting peace and order, ensuring public safety and strengthening local government capability aimed towards the effective delivery of basic services to the citizenry.

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Department of Tourism (Philippines)

The Department of Tourism (Kagawaran ng Turismo, DOT) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the regulation of the Philippine tourism industry and the promotion of the Philippines as a tourist destination.

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Diaspora

A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.

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Dioscorea alata

Dioscorea alata, known as purple yam, ube or many other names, is a species of yam, a tuberous root vegetable.

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Diosdado Macapagal

Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice-President, serving from 1957 to 1961.

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Diwata

In Philippine mythology, a diwata (derived from Sanskrit devata देवता; encantada in Spanish) is a type of deity or spirit.

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Diwata-1

Diwata-1 also known as PHL-Microsat-1 is a Philippine microsatellite launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in March 23, 2016, and was deployed into orbit from the ISS in April 27, 2016.

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Dolores Paterno

Dolores Paterno y Ignacio (March 10, 1854 – July 3, 1881) was a Filipina composer known for the song "La Flor de Manila" (also known as "Sampaguita").

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Domestic violence

Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.

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Dugong

The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.

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Eagle

Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.

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Earthquake

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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Earthquake Baroque

Earthquake Baroque is a style of Baroque architecture found in the Philippines, which suffered destructive earthquakes during the 17th century and 18th century, where large public buildings, such as churches, were rebuilt in a Baroque style during the Spanish Colonial period in the country.

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East Asia Summit

The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian and South Asian regions.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Eastern Samar

Eastern Samar (Waray-Waray: Sinirangan Samar; Sidlakang Samar; Silangang Samar) is a province in the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region.

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Eastern world

The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.

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Eat Bulaga!

Eat Bulaga! is a Philippine television variety show broadcast by GMA Network.

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Economic liberalization

Economic liberalization (or economic liberalisation) is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism.

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Economy of the Philippines

The economy of the Philippines is the world's 34th largest economy by nominal GDP according to the 2017 estimate of the International Monetary Fund's statistics, it is the 13th largest economy in Asia, and the 3rd largest economy in the ASEAN after Indonesia and Thailand.

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El filibusterismo

El filibusterismo (lit. Spanish for "filibustering"; The Subversive or Subversion, as in the Locsín English translation, are also possible translations), also known by its English alternative title The Reign of Greed, is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal.

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Elpidio Quirino

Elpidio Rivera Quirino (born Elpidío Quiríno y Rivera; November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician of ethnic Ilocano descent who served as the sixth President of the Philippines from 1948 to 1953.

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Emerging markets

An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.

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Emilio Aguinaldo

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia.

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Emma Helen Blair

Emma Helen Blair (September 12, 1851 – September 25, 1911) was a United States historian, journalist and editor, whose most notable work was a monumental documentary history of the Philippines.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Engkanto

Engkanto are mythical environmental spirits that are said to have the ability to appear in human form.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement

The Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) is an agreement between the United States and the Philippines intended to bolster the U.S.–Philippine alliance.

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Ethnic groups in the Philippines

The Philippines is inhabited by more than 175 ethnolinguistic nations, the majority of whose languages are Malay in origin, then Han Chinese, then European (mostly Spanish).

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Ethnologue

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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F. Landa Jocano

Felipe Landa Jocano (February 5, 1930 – October 27, 2013) was a Filipino anthropologist, educator, and author known for his significant body of work within the field of Philippine Anthropology, and in particular for documenting and translating the Hinilawod, a Western Visayan folk epic.

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F. Sionil José

Francisco Sionil José (born 3 December 1924) is one of the most widely read Filipino writers in the English language. His novels and short stories depict the social underpinnings of class struggles and colonialism in Filipino society. José's works—written in English—have been translated into 28 languages, including Korean, Indonesian, Czech, Russian, Latvian, Ukrainian and Dutch.

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Fantaserye and telefantasya

Fantaserye or telefantasya is a genre of Philippine television programming which mixes soap opera, telenovela, fantasy, myth, magic and enchantment.

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Fast food

Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.

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Félix Hidalgo

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo y Padilla (February 21, 1855 – March 13, 1913) was a Filipino artist.

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Fe del Mundo

Fe Villanueva del Mundo, OLD ONS OGH, (born Fé Primitiva del Mundo y Villanueva; November 27, 1911 – August 6, 2011) was a Filipino pediatrician.

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Federal Research Division

The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.

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Federation

A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.

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Felipe Calderón (Filipino politician)

Felipe Gonzáles Calderón y Roca, also known as Felipe G. Calderon (April 4, 1868 – June 6, 1908) was a Filipino lawyer, politician, and intellectual, known as the "Father of the Malolos Constitution".

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Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.

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Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

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Fernando Amorsolo

Fernando Amorsolo y Cueto (May 30, 1892 – April 24, 1972) was one of the most important artists in the history of painting in the Philippines.

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Fernando Zóbel de Ayala y Montojo

Fernando Zóbel de Ayala y Montojo de Torróntegui (August 27, 1924 – June 2, 1984), also known as Fernando M. Zóbel, was a Spanish Filipino painter, businessman, art collector and museum founder.

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Fidel Ramos

Gen.

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Filipino Americans

Filipino Americans (Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent.

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Filipino First policy

The Filipino First (Pilipino Muna) refers to a policy first introduced and implemented by the administration of then Philippine President Carlos P. Garcia.

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Filipino language

Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.

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Filipino martial arts

Filipino martial arts (FMA) (Sining panlaban ng Pilipinas) refer to ancient Indianized and newer fighting methods devised in the Philippines.

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Filipino mestizo

In the Philippines, Filipino mestizo, or colloquially tisoy, are people of mixed Filipino and any foreign ancestry.

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Filipinos

Filipinos (Mga Pilipino) are the people who are native to, or identified with the country of the Philippines.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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First Philippine Republic

The Philippine Republic (República Filipina; Repúbliká ng̃ Pilipinas), more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines.

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Fiscal conservatism

Fiscal conservatism (also economic conservatism or conservative economics) is a political-economic philosophy regarding fiscal policy and fiscal responsibility advocating low taxes, reduced government spending and minimal government debt.

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Fish sauce

Fish sauce is a condiment made from fish coated in salt and fermented from weeks to up to two years.

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Florante at Laura

Florante at Laura (full title: Pinagdaanang Buhay nina Florante at Laura sa Kahariang Albanya: Kinuha sa madlang "cuadro histórico" o pinturang nagsasabi sa mga nangyayari nang unang panahon sa Imperyo ng Gresya, at tinula ng isang matuwain sa bersong Tagalog; English: "The History of Florante and Laura in the Kingdom of Albania: Adapted from some 'historical pictures' or paintings that tell of what happened in early times in the Greek Empire, and were set to rhyme by one delighting in Tagalog verse") by Francisco Balagtas is considered as one of the masterpieces of Philippine literature.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro

The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro is a preliminary peace agreement signed in the Malacañan Palace in Manila, Philippines on 15 October 2012.

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Francisco Arcellana

Francisco "Franz" Arcellana (September 6, 1916 – August 1, 2002) was a Filipino writer, poet, essayist, critic, journalist and teacher.

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Francisco Balagtas

Francisco Balagtas (born Francisco Baltazar y de la Cruz; April 2, 1788 – February 20, 1862), also known as Francisco Baltazar, was a prominent Filipino poet, and is widely considered one of the greatest Filipino literary laureates for his impact on Filipino literature.

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Freight transport

Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fujian

Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Functional illiteracy

Functional illiteracy is reading and writing skills that are inadequate "to manage daily living and employment tasks that require reading skills beyond a basic level".

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Gaming law

Gaming law is the set of rules and regulations that apply to the gaming or gambling industry.

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Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino professor and politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010, as the 10th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, as the deputy speaker of the 17th Congress and a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga since 2010.

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GMA Network

GMA Network (Global Media Arts or simply GMA) is a major national commercial broadcast television and radio network in the Philippines.

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GMA News and Public Affairs

GMA News and Public Affairs (formerly known as RBS News Department, GMA Radio-Television News and GMA Rainbow Satellite News; and commonly GMA News) is the news and public affairs programming division of GMA Network Inc. The division produces news, public affairs, infotainment, and lately, entertainment programs for GMA Network and GMA News TV owned and affiliated television and radio stations in the Philippines, and internationally through GMA Pinoy TV, GMA Life TV and GMA News TV International.

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Goldilocks Bakeshop

Goldilocks Bakeshop is a bakeshop chain based in the Philippines, which produces and distributes Philippine cakes and pastries.

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Goldman Sachs

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.

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Gomburza

Gomburza or GOMBURZA refers to three Filipino Catholic priests (Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora), who were executed on February 17 1872 at Bagumbayan, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny.

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Goods

In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.

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Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.

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Greater India

The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.

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Greater Manila Area

The Greater Manila Area generally refers to the contiguous urbanization surrounding Metro Manila, and ambiguously there are several terms.

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Gregorio S. Araneta

Don Gregorio Soriano Araneta (born Gregorio Araneta y Soriano; April 16, 1869 – May 9, 1930) was a Filipino lawyer, businessman, nationalist and patriot, during the Spanish and American colonial periods.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gross regional product

Gross regional product (GRP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a region or subdivision of a country in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Group of 24

The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.

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Group of 77

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.

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Guam

Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Guerrero

Guerrero (Spanish for "warrior"), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Gujarati alphabet

The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.

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Gulf News

Gulf News is a daily English language newspaper published from Dubai.

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Halo-halo

Haluhalo or Halo-halo ("mixed together") is a popular Filipino dessert with a mixture of shaved ice and evaporated milk to which various ingredients are added, including boiled sweet beans, coconut, sago, gulaman (agar jelly), tubers, fruits, and yam ice cream.

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Harana (serenade)

The Harana is serenade tradition in rural areas of the Philippines in which young men may formally meet single lady visitors.

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Hawaii

Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hello Garci scandal

The Hello Garci scandal (or just Hello Garci), also known as Gloriagate, was a political scandal and electoral crisis in the Philippines.

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Helm Identification Guides

The Helm Identification Guides are a series of books that identify groups of birds.

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Higher education in the Philippines

The higher education in the Philippines is offered through various degree programs (commonly known as courses in the Philippines) by a wide selection of colleges and universities—also known as higher education institutions (HEIs).

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Hiligaynon language

The Hiligaynon language, also colloquially referred often by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas and SOCCSKSARGEN, most of whom belong to the Visayan ethnic group, mainly the Hiligaynons.

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Himala

Himala ("Miracle") is a 1982 Filipino drama film directed by Ishmael Bernal and produced by the Experimental Cinema of the Philippines.

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Hinduism in the Philippines

Hinduism has a long historical influence in the Philippines, but recent archaeological and other evidence suggests Hinduism has had some cultural, economic, political and religious influence in the archipelago.

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Hispanic

The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.

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Hispanicization

Hispanicisation or hispanisation, also known as castilianization or castilianisation (Spanish: castellanización) refers to the process by which a place or person becomes influenced by Hispanic culture or a process of cultural and/or linguistic change in which something non-Hispanic becomes Hispanic.

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History of Song

The History of Song or Song Shi (Sòng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China that records the history of the Song dynasty (960–1279).

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History of the Jews in the Philippines

Recorded Jewish history in the Philippines started during the Spanish period.

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History of the Philippines (1898–1946)

The history of the Philippines from 1898 to 1946 covers the period of American rule in the Philippines and began with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April 1898, when the Philippines was still part of the Spanish East Indies, and concluded when the United States formally recognised the independence of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946.

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History of the Philippines (900–1521)

The recorded History of the Philippines begins with the creation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI) in 900, the first written document found in an ancient Philippine language.

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HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hominini

The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homonhon

Homonhon Island is an island in the province of Eastern Samar, Philippines, on the east side of Leyte Gulf.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hospital

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.

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House of Representatives of the Philippines

The House of Representatives of the Philippines (Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas), is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines.

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HSBC

HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.

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Hukbalahap

The Hukbalahap (Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon, The Nation's Army Against the Japanese Soldiers), or Hukbong Laban sa Hapon (Anti-Japanese Army), was a Communist guerrilla movement formed by the peasant farmers of Central Luzon.

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Ibanag language

The Ibanag language (also Ybanag or Ibanak) is spoken by up to 500,000 speakers, most particularly by the Ibanag people, in the Philippines, in the northeastern provinces of Isabela and Cagayan, especially in Tuguegarao, Solana, Abulug, Cabagan, and Ilagan and with overseas immigrants in countries located in the Middle East, United Kingdom and the United States.

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Ibanag people

The Ibanag (also Ybanag and Ybanak or Ibanak) are an ethnolinguistic minority numbering a little more than half a million people, who inhabit the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ibong Adarna

Ibong Adarna is a 16th-century Filipino epic poem about an eponymous magical bird.

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Idjang

An Idjang is a triangular-shaped hilltop citadel or castle on the Batanes Islands in the Philippines, made from limestone and wood.

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Ifugao

Ifugao (Probinsia ti Ifugao; Lalawigan ng Ifugao) is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon.

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Ifugao language

Ifugao or Batad is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in the northern valleys of Ifugao, Philippines.

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Iglesia ni Cristo

Iglesia ni Cristo (abbreviated as INC English: Church of Christ) is an international church that originated in the Philippines.

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Igorot people

Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.

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Illegal logging

Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws.

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Ilocano language

Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.

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Ilocano people

The Ilocanos (Tattao nga Iloko/Ilokano), Ilokanos, or Iloko people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group that mostly reside within the Ilocos Region in the northwestern seaboard of Luzon, Philippines.

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Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Norte (Amianan nga Ilocos) is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region.

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Ilocos Region

The Ilocos Region (Rehion/Deppaar ti Ilocos; Sagor na Baybay na Luzon; Rehiyon ng Ilocos) is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as Region I, occupying the northwestern section of Luzon.

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Ilocos Sur

Ilocos Sur (Makin-abagatan nga Ilocos) is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon.

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Iloilo

Iloilo (Kapuoran sang Iloilo; Kapuoran kang Iloilo; Lalawigan ng Iloilo) is a province located in the region of Western Visayas in the Philippines.

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Iloilo City

Iloilo City, officially the City of Iloilo (Dakbanwa/Syudad sang Iloilo; Syudad kang/ka Iloilo; Lungsod ng Iloilo; Ciudad de Iloílo) is a highly urbanized city on the southeastern tip of Panay island in the Philippines.

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Improved sanitation

Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.

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Improved water source

An improved water source (or improved drinking-water source or improved water supply) is a term used to categorize certain types or levels of water supply for monitoring purposes.

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Independence Day (Philippines)

Independence Day (Filipino: Araw ng Kasarinlan; also known as Araw ng Kalayaan, (or "Day of Freedom") is an annual national holiday in the Philippines observed on June 12, commemorating the independence of the Philippines from Spain.

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Independence Day (United States)

Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

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Independent Catholicism

Independent Catholicism is a movement comprising clergy and laity who self-identify as Catholic and who form "micro-churches claiming apostolic succession and valid sacraments," despite a lack of affiliation with the main Catholic Church itself.

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Indian people

No description.

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Indigenous peoples of the Philippines

The Philippines consist of a large number of upland and lowland ethnolinguistic groups living in the country.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesian language

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.

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Insular Government of the Philippine Islands

The Insular Government of the Philippine Islands was a territorial government of the United States that was established in 1901 and was dissolved in 1935.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Rice Research Institute

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.

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Internet in the Philippines

Internet in the Philippines first became available on March 29, 1994, with the Philippine Network Foundation (PHNet) connecting the country and its people to Sprint in the United States via a 64 kbit/s link.

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Intramuros

Intramuros (Latin for "within the walls") is the historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in the Philippines

Islam is the oldest recorded monotheistic religion in the Philippines.

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It's Showtime (variety show)

It's Showtime (formerly known as Showtime and Magpasikat) is a Philippine noontime variety show that premiered on October 24, 2009, on ABS-CBN.

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Itbayat language

The Itbayat language, Itbayaten, also known generically as Ibatan, is an Austronesian language, in the Batanic group, spoken in the Batanes Islands.

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Ivatan language

The Ivatan (Ibatan) language, also known as Chirin nu Ibatan ("language of the Ivatan people"), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Batanes Islands.

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Ivatan people

The Ivatans are a Filipino ethnolinguistic group predominant in the islands of Batanes of the Philippines.

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Jacinto Zamora

Jacinto Zamora y del Rosario (14 August 1835 - 17 February 1872) was a Filipino secular priest, part of the Gomburza trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century.

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James Bond

The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japanese occupation of the Philippines

The Japanese occupation of the Philippines (Filipino: Pananakop ng mga Hapones sa Pilipinas; Japanese: 日本のフィリピン占領; Hepburn: Nihon no Firipin Senryō) occurred between 1942 and 1945, when Imperial Japan occupied the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II.

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Japanese people

are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.

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Japanese war crimes

War crimes of the Empire of Japan occurred in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

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Jeepney

Jeepneys (Filipino: Dyipni), sometimes called simply jeeps (Filipino: dyip), are the most popular means of public transportation in the Philippines.

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Joaquín González (politician)

Joaquín González (July 22, 1853 - September 21, 1900) was a Filipino politician and a member of the Malolos Congress that wrote the Malolos Constitution, the first Philippine constitution, after the country declared independence from Spain in 1898.

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Johor

Johor or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia.

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Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation

The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG6) since 2016.

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Jollibee

Jollibee is a Filipino multinational chain of fast food restaurants owned by Jollibee Foods Corporation (JFC).

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José Alejandrino

José Cándido Alejandrino y Magdangal (December 1, 1870 – June 1, 1951) was one of the Filipino generals during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War.

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José Burgos

José Apolonio Burgos y García was a Filipino Catholic priest, accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century.

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José de la Cruz

José de la Cruz (2 December 1746 – 12 March 1829), more popularly known as Huseng Sisiw, was one of the great Filipino writers during the Spanish regime.

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José Nepomuceno

José Nepomuceno (May 15, 1893 – December 1, 1959) was one of the pioneering directors of the cinema of the Philippines.

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José P. Laurel

José P. Laurel, PLH (born José Paciano Laurel y García; March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was a Filipino politician and judge.

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José Rizal

José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, widely known as José Rizal (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines.

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Joseph Estrada

Joseph Ejercito "Erap" Estrada (real name José Marcelo Ejército Sr.; born April 19, 1937) is a Filipino politician and former actor who served as the 13th President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001 and as the 9th Vice President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998.

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Juan Luna

Juan Luna y Novicio (October 23, 1857 – December 7, 1899), better known as Juan Luna was a Filipino painter, sculptor and a political activist of the Philippine Revolution during the late 19th century.

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Juan Sebastián Elcano

Juan Sebastián Elcano (sometimes misspelled del Cano; c.14864 August 1526) was a Spanish explorer of Basque origin who completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.

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Judicial and Bar Council

The Judicial and Bar Council (JBC; Sangguniang Panghukuman at Pang-abogasya) of the Philippines is a constitutionally-created body that recommends appointees for vacancies that may arise in the composition of the Supreme Court, other lower courts, and the Legal Education Board, and in the offices of the Ombudsman, Deputy Ombudsman and the Special Prosecutor.

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Judiciary

The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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KAI T-50 Golden Eagle

The KAI T-50 Golden Eagle (골든이글) is a family of South Korean supersonic advanced trainers and light combat aircraft, developed by Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) with Lockheed Martin.

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Kalinga language

Kalinga is a dialect continuum of Kalinga Province in the Philippines, spoken by the Igorot people, alongside Ilocano.

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Kamayo language

Kamayo (Kinamayo or alternatively spelled as Camayo), also called Kadi, Kinadi, or Mandaya, is a minor Austronesian language of the central eastern coast of Mindanao in the Philippines.

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Kankanaey language

Kankanaey (also spelled Kankana-ey) is a South-Central Cordilleran language under the Austronesian family spoken on the island of Luzon in the Philippines primarily by the Kankanaey people.

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Kapampangan language

Kapampangan, Pampango, or the Pampangan language is one of the major languages of the Philippines.

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Kapampangan people

The Kapampangan people (Taung Kapampangan), also known as Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the fifth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2.89 million.

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Karate

(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.

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Karay-a language

The Karay-a language, or Kinaray-a (Karay-a + the infix -in-) (ISO: krj), is an Austronesian regional language spoken by the Karay-a people, mainly in Antique in the Philippines as well as Iloilo and other provinces on the island of Panay.

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Kare-kare

Kare-kare is a Philippine stew complemented with a thick savory peanut sauce.

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Katipunan

The Katipunan (usually abbreviated to KKK) was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution.

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K–12

K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, indicates the sum of primary and secondary education in several nations, including India, the United States, Canada, Ecuador, South Korea, Turkey, Philippines, Egypt, Australia, Afghanistan, and Iran for publicly supported school grades prior to college.

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Kedatuan of Dapitan

The Kedatuan of Dapitan (also called "Kingdom of Dapitan") was an ancient Philippine polity once based at Bohol at Tagbilaran Strait.

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Kingdom of Tungning

The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.

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Korean drama

Korean dramas or K-dramas are television dramas in the Korean language, made in South Korea.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Koxinga

Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.

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Kulintang

Kulintang is a modern term for an ancient instrumental form of music composed on a row of small, horizontally laid gongs that function melodically, accompanied by larger, suspended gongs and drums.

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Kundiman

Kundiman is a genre of traditional Filipino love songs.

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Kutai

Kutai is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on the island of Borneo and is also the name of the native people of the region, who have their own language of the same name and their own rich history.

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Laguna (province)

Laguna, officially known as the Province of Laguna (Lalawigan ng Laguna; Provincia de Laguna), is a province in the Philippines, located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon.

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Laguna Copperplate Inscription

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (Filipino: Inskripsyon sa Binatbat na Tanso ng Laguna, Malay: Prasasti keping tembaga Laguna; often shortened into the acronym LCI), a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 AD, is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines.

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Laguna de Bay

Laguna de Baý (Lawa ng Laguna, Lawa ng Baé; Lake of Laguna, Lake of Baý) is the largest lake in the Philippines located east of Metro Manila between the provinces of Laguna to the south and Rizal to the north.

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Lakan

In early Philippine history, the rank of Lakan denoted a "paramount ruler" (or more specifically, "paramount datu") of one of the large coastal barangays (known as a "bayan") on the central and southern regions of the island of Luzon.

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Lakandula

Lakan Dula (Baybayin:, Abecedario: Lácandólá) was the regnal name of the last Lakan (paramount ruler or paramount datu) of the pre-colonial Tondo when the Spaniards first conquered the lands of the Pasig River delta in the Philippines, in the 1570s.

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Languages of the Philippines

There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.

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Lapu-Lapu

Lapu-Lapu (Baybayin:, Abecedario: Lápú-Lápú) (fl. 1521) was a ruler of Mactan in the Visayas.

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Latin American Asian

Latin American Asians are Asians of Latin-American (Either of North American or South American) descent.

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Latin Union

The Latin Union was an international organization of nations that used Romance languages that existed as a functional institution from 1983 to 2012.

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Leapfrogging (strategy)

Leapfrogging, also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II.

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Lechon

Lechón in Spanish or Leitão in Portuguese is a pork dish in several regions of the world, most specifically in Bairrada, Portugal and Spain and its former colonial possessions throughout the world.

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Legislative districts of the Philippines

The legislative districts of the Philippines are the divisions of the Philippines' provinces and cities for representation in the various legislative bodies.

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Leni Robredo

Maria Leonor "Leni" Gerona Robredo (born Maria Leonor Santo Tomas Gerona; April 23, 1965) is a Filipina lawyer and social activist who is the 14th and current Vice President of the Philippines.

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Leo Echegaray

Leo Echegaray (11 July 1960 – 5 February 1999) was the first Filipino to be meted the death penalty after its reinstatement in the Philippines in 1993, some 23 years after the last judicial execution was carried out.

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Leyte

Leyte is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines.

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Liangzhu culture

The Liangzhu culture (3400–2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Limahong

Limahong, Lim Hong, or Lin Feng, well known as Ah Hong or Lim-A-Hong or Limahon, was a Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574.

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Lino Brocka

Catalino "Lino" Ortiz Brocka (April 3, 1939 – May 22, 1991) was a Filipino film director.

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List of active volcanoes in the Philippines

Active volcanoes in the Philippines, as categorized by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), include volcanoes in the country having erupted within historical times (within the last 600 years), with accounts of these eruptions documented by humans; or having erupted within the last 10,000 years (holocene) based on analyses of datable materials.

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List of Asian countries by population

This is a list of Asian countries and dependent territories by population sorted by normalized demographic projections.

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List of cities by GDP

This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by length of coastline

The coastline paradox states that a coastline does not have a well-defined length.

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List of Filipino actors

This is a list of present and past notable Filipino actors in stage, film and television in the Philippines, in alphabetical order by first name.

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List of largest cities

Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.

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List of metropolitan areas by population

One concept which measures the world's largest cities is that of the metropolitan area, which is based on the concept of a labor market area and is typically defined as an employment core (an area with a high density of available jobs) and the surrounding areas that have strong commuting ties to the core.

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List of metropolitan areas in the Philippines

The Philippines has three metropolitan areas as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).

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List of national birds

This is a list of national birds, most official, but some unofficial.

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List of newspapers in the Philippines

This is the list of newspapers currently being published in the Philippines.

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List of Presidents of the Philippines

Under the present Constitution of the Philippines, the President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and serves as the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces.

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List of sovereign state leaders in the Philippines

The types of sovereign state leaders in the Philippine archipelago have varied throughout the country's history, from heads of ancient chiefdoms, kingdoms and sultanates in the pre-colonial period, to the leaders of Spanish, American, and Japanese colonial governments, until the directly-elected President of the modern sovereign state of the Philippines.

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List of the orchids of the Philippines

There are about 141 genera of orchids representing about 1,100 species of orchids 900 of which that is described are endemic to the Philippines.

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List of traditional children's games

This is a list of games that used to be played by children, some of which are still being played today.

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List of United States military bases

This is a list of military installations owned or used by the United States Armed Forces currently located in the United States and around the world.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Local colleges and universities (Philippines)

Local colleges and universities (LCUs) are higher educational institutions that are being run by local government units in the Philippines.

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Lolong

Lolong (died 10 February 2013) was the largest crocodile in captivity.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Los Baños, Laguna

, officially the, (name), is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Lower house

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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Luções

Luções (Spanish: Luzones) was a demonym used by Portuguese sailors in Malaysia during the early 1500s, referring to the people who lived in Manila Bay, which was then called Lusong (Portuguese: Luçon) Eventually, the term Luções would refer to the peoples Luzon island, and later on, would be exclusive to the peoples of the central area of Luzon (now Central Luzon. None of the Portuguese writers who first used the term in the early 1500s had gone to Lusong themselves, so the term was used specifically to describe the seafarers who settled in or traded with Malaysia at that time. The last known use of the Portuguese term in surviving records was in the early 1520s, when members of Magellan's expedition (notably Antonio Pigafetta, and Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz) used the term to describe seafarers from Lusong whom they encountered on their journeys. This included a "young prince" named Ache who would later become known as Rajah Matanda. There have proposals to rename the current Central Luzon Region of the Philippines into Luções or an abbreviation of the current provinces of the region.

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Lumad

The Lumad are a group of non-Muslim indigenous people in the southern Philippines.

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Lumpia

Lumpia is a spring roll commonly found in Indonesia and the Philippines.

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Lupang Hinirang

"Lupang Hinirang" (ˈlupaŋ hiˈniɾaŋ; originally in ˈpatɾja aðoˈɾaða) is the national anthem of the Philippines.

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Luzon

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.

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Ma-i

Ma-i or Maidh (also spelled Ma'I, Mai, Ma-yi or Mayi; Baybayin) was an ancient sovereign state located in what is now the Philippines, notable in Philippine historiography for being the first place in the Philippines ever to be mentioned in any foreign account.

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Mactan

Mactan or Maktan is a densely populated island located a few kilometres (~1 mile) from Cebu Island in the Philippines.

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Madja-as

The Kedatuan of Madja-as or the Confederation of Madja-as (Kinaray-a: Kapunuan kang Madyas; Aklanon: Kapunuan it Madyas; Hiligaynon: Kahugpungan sang Madyas; Cebuano: Kahugpongan sa Madyas; Baybayin), also known as Sri-BisayaJovito S. Abellana, "Bisaya Patronymesis Sri Visjaya" (Ms., Cebuano Studies Center, ca. 1960) (Malayo-Sanskrit), was a pre-Hispanic Mandala in Panay, within the Visayas islands in what is now the Philippines, and was the oldest Srivijayan vassal in the archipelago, next to the Sulu Archipelago.

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Madrasa

Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Magdalo (Katipunan faction)

The Magdalo faction of the Katipunan was a chapter in Cavite, mostly led by Ilustrados of that province during the Philippine Revolution.

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Magellan's Cross

Magellan's Cross (Cruz de Magallanes) is a Christian cross planted by Portuguese and Spanish explorers as ordered by Ferdinand Magellan upon arriving in Cebu in the Philippines on (depending on source) 15 March 1521.

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Maguindanao

Maguindanao (Maguindanaon: Dalapa sa Magindanaw) is a province in the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

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Maguindanao language

Maguindanao or Maguindanaon is an Austronesian language spoken by majority of the population of Maguindanao province in the Philippines.

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Maguindanao massacre

The Maguindanao massacre, also known as the Ampatuan massacre after the town where the mass graves were found, occurred on the morning of November 23, 2009, in the town of Ampatuan in Maguindanao province, on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines.

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Mahjong

Mahjong (Mandarin) is a tile-based game which was developed in China in the Qing dynasty and has spread throughout the world since the early 20th century.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Majapahit

The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.

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Major non-NATO ally

Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

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Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa

Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa ("For God, People, Nature and Country") is the national motto of the Philippines.

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Makhdum Karim

Makhdum Karim or Karim ul-Makhdum was an Islamic preacher from Johor (in present-day Malaysia).

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Malacca

Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.

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Malacca Sultanate

The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Malay language in the Philippines

Malay is spoken by a minority of Filipinos, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago and parts of Mindanao, mostly in the form of trade and creole languages.

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Malayo-Polynesian languages

The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.

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Malays (ethnic group)

Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Malaysian language

The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.

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Malolos Constitution

The Political Constitution of 1899 (Constitución Política de 1899), informally known as the Malolos Constitution, was the basic law of the First Philippine Republic.

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Maluku Islands

The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.

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Mamasapano clash

The Mamasapano clash was an incident that occurred during a police operation, codenamed Oplan Exodus, which took place on Sunday, January 25, 2015, at Tukanalipao, Mamasapano, Maguindanao, by Special Action Force (SAF) of the Philippine National Police (PNP) (allegedly joined by United States Army Special Forces) against the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF).

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Mamasapano, Maguindanao

, officially the, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Manananggal

The Manananggal (sometimes confused with the Wak Wak and Aswang, also translates literally to "Remover") is a vampire-like mythical creature of the Philippines, a malevolent, man-eating and blood-sucking monster or witch.

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Mandaluyong

Mandaluyong City (Lungsod ng Mandaluyong) is a city in the Philippines located directly east of Manila.

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Mandolin

A mandolin (mandolino; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick".

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Mango

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

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Mangyan

Mangyan is the generic name for the eight indigenous groups found on the island of Mindoro, southwest of the island of Luzon, the Philippines, each with its own tribal name, language, and customs.

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Manila

Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Manila Bay

Manila Bay is a natural harbour which serves the Port of Manila (on Luzon), in the Philippines.

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Manila Bulletin

The Manila Bulletin, (also known as the Bulletin and previously known as the Manila Daily Bulletin from 1906 to September 23, 1972 and the Bulletin Today from November 22, 1972 to March 10, 1986) is the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by circulation, followed by the Philippine Daily Inquirer.

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Manila galleon

The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.

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Manila hostage crisis

The Manila hostage crisis, officially known as the Rizal Park hostage-taking incident, took place when a disgruntled former Philippine National Police officer named Rolando Mendoza hijacked a tourist bus in Rizal Park, Manila, Philippines on August 23, 2010.

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Manila in the Claws of Light

Manila in the Claws of Light (Filipino: Maynila, sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag) is a 1975 Filipino drama film directed by Lino Brocka based on the novel In the Claws of Brightness by Edgardo M. Reyes.

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Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 1

The Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 1 is the first metro line of the Manila Light Rail Transit System.

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Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 2

The Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 2, also known as LRT Line 2, LRT-2, or Megatren, is a rapid transit line in Metro Manila in the Philippines, generally running in an east-west direction along the Radial Road 6 and a portion of the Circumferential Road 1.

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Manila massacre

The Manila massacre (Filipino: Pagpatay sa Maynila) involved atrocities committed against Filipino civilians in the City of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, by Japanese troops during World War II at the Battle of Manila (February 3, 1945 – March 3, 1945).

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Manila Metro Rail Transit System

The Manila Metro Rail Transit System also known as the MRT Line 3, MRT-3 or Metrostar Express is a rapid transit system of Metro Manila, Philippines.

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Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 7

The Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 7 (MRT-7) is an under-construction rapid transit line in the Philippines.

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Manny Pacquiao

Emmanuel Dapidran Pacquiao, PLH (born December 17, 1978) is a Filipino professional boxer and politician, currently serving as a Senator of the Philippines.

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Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel L. Quezon (born Manuel Luís Quezon y Molina; August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was a Filipino statesman, soldier, and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944.

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Manuel Roxas

Manuel Acuña Roxas (born Manuel Róxas Acuña; January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the fifth President of the Philippines who served from 1946 until his death in 1948.

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Maranao language

Maranao is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines, and in Sabah, Malaysia.

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María Orosa

María Orosa e Ylagan (1893–1945) was a Filipino food technologist, pharmaceutical chemist, humanitarian and war heroine.

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Marcelo H. del Pilar

Marcelo H. del Pilar (born Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán; August 30, 1850 – July 4, 1896), better known by his pen name Plaridel,.

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Maria Makiling

Maria Makiling, in Philippine mythology, is a diwata (anito) or lambana (fairy) associated with Mount Makiling in Laguna, Philippines.

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Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.

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Mariano Gómez

Mariano Gómez de los Ángeles was a Filipino Catholic priest, part of the Gomburza trio who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century.

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Mariano Ponce

Mariano Ponce (March 22, 1863 – May 23, 1918), was a Filipino physician, writer, and active member of the Propaganda Movement.

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Marikina River

Marikina River (Tagalog: Ilog Marikina) is a river in eastern Metro Manila, Philippines.

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MarketWatch

MarketWatch operates a financial information website that provides business news, analysis, and stock market data.

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Martial law in the Philippines

Martial law in the Philippines (Batas Militar sa Pilipinas) refers to several intermittent periods in Philippine history wherein the Philippine head of state (such as the President) places an area under the control of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and its predecessor bodies.

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Masbateño language

Masbateño or Minasbate is a Bicol-Visayan language spoken by more than 600,000 people, primarily in the province of Masbate in the Philippines.

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Mass in the Catholic Church

The Mass or Eucharistic Celebration is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated.

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Mayon

Mayon (Bulkan Mayon, Bulkang Mayon, Monte Mayón), also known as Mayon Volcano or Mount Mayon, is an active stratovolcano in the province of Albay in Bicol Region, on the large island of Luzon in the Philippines.

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Media of the Philippines

In 2004, the Philippines had 225 television stations, 369 AM radio broadcast stations, 583 FM radio broadcast stations, 10 internet radio stations, 5 shortwave stations and 7 million newspapers in circulation.

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Megadiverse countries

The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.

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Member states of the United Nations

The United Nations member states are the sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly.

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Mestizo

Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.

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Metatarsal bones

The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.

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Metro Manila

Metropolitan Manila (Kalakhang Maynila, Kamaynilaan) is the seat of government and one of the three defined metropolitan areas of the Philippines.

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Mexican War of Independence

The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Miagao Church

The Miagao Church also known as the Santo Tomas de Villanueva Parish Church is a Roman Catholic church located in Miagao, Iloilo, Philippines.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Miguel López de Legazpi

Miguel López de Legazpi (c. 1502 – August 20, 1572), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Basque-Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565.

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Milkfish

The milkfish (Chanos chanos) is the sole living species in the family Chanidae.

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Mindanao

Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.

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Mindoro

Mindoro is the seventh largest island in the Philippines by land area with a total of 10,571 km2 (4,082 sq.mi) and with a total population of 1,331,473 as of 2015.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Models of migration to the Philippines

There have been several models of early human migration to the Philippines.

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Modern art

Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Moriones Festival

The Moriones is a lenten rites held on Holy Week on the island of Marinduque, Philippines.

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Moro conflict

The Moro conflict is an insurgency in the Mindanao region of the Philippines.

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Moro Gulf

The Moro Gulf is the largest gulf in the Philippines.

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Moro Islamic Liberation Front

The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF; جبهة تحرير مورو الإسلامية Jabhat Taḥrīr Moro al-ʾIslāmiyyah) is a group based in Mindanao, Philippines seeking an autonomous region of the Moro people from the central government.

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Moro National Liberation Front

The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) is a political organization in the Philippines that was founded in 1972.

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Moro people

The Moro, also called the Bangsamoro or Bangsa Moro, are the Muslim population of the Philippines, forming the largest non-Catholic group in the country and comprising about 11% (as of the year 2012) of the total Philippine population.

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Motocross

Motocross is a form of off-road motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits.

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Mount Apo

Mount Apo (Bukid Apo) and (Bundok Apo) is a large solfataric, potentially active stratovolcano in the island of Mindanao, Philippines.

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Mount Pinatubo

Mount Pinatubo (Bakil nin Pinatobo; Bunduk/Bulkan ning Pinatubu, Bunduk ning Apu Malyari; Palandey/Bulkan na Pinatubu; Bantay Pinatubo; Bundok/Bulkang Pinatubo) is an active stratovolcano in the Zambales Mountains, located on the tripoint boundary of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac and Pampanga, all in Central Luzon on the northern island of Luzon.

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Mountaineering

Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.

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Municipalities of the Philippines

A municipality (bayan/munisipalidad; banwa; lungsod/munisipalidad; baley; balen/balayan; banwaan; bungto; ili) is a local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mutual Defense Treaty (United States–Philippines)

The Mutual Defense Treaty between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America was signed on August 30, 1951, in Washington, D.C. between representatives of the Philippines and the United States.

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MV Doña Paz

MV Doña Paz was a Philippine-registered passenger ferry that sank after colliding with the oil tanker on December 20, 1987.

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N. V. M. Gonzalez

Néstor Vicente Madali González (September 8, 1915 – November 28, 1999) was a Filipino novelist, short story writer, essayist and poet.

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Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa

Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa (Catalan: Narcís Claveria i Zaldua; 2 May 1795 – 20 June 1851) was a Spanish army officer who served as the Governor-General of the Philippines from July 16, 1844 to December 26, 1849.

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National Artist of the Philippines

Order of National Artists of the Philippines (Filipino: Orden ng mga Pambansang Alagad ng Sining ng Pilipinas) is an order bestowed by the Philippines on Filipinos who have made significant contributions to the development of Philippine art.

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National Institute of Informatics

The is a Japanese research institute created in April 2000 for the purpose of advancing the study of informatics.

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National Scientist of the Philippines

The rank and title of National Scientist of the Philippines (Filipino: Pambansang Alagad ng Agham ng Pilipinas) or the Order of National Scientists is the highest award accorded to Filipino scientists by the Philippine government.

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National Telecommunications Commission (Philippines)

The Philippines' National Telecommunications Commission (Pambansáng Komisyón sa Telekomunikasyón), abbreviated as NTC, is an attached agency of the Department of Information and Communications Technology responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.

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National university

A national university is generally a university created or managed by a government, but which may at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Negrito

The Negrito are several different ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of South and Southeast Asia.

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Negros Island

Negros is the fourth largest island of the Philippines, with a land area of.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New People's Army

The New People's Army (NPA) (Bagong Hukbong Bayan) is the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP).

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New Spain

The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Newly industrialized country

The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.

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Next Eleven

The Next Eleven (known also by the numeronym N-11) are the eleven countries – Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam – identified by Goldman Sachs investment banker and economist Jim O'Neill in a research paper as having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICS countries, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century.

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Nick Joaquin

Nicomedes Márquez Joaquín (May 4, 1917 – April 29, 2004) was a Filipino writer, historian and journalist, best known for his short stories and novels in the English language.

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Ninoy Aquino International Airport

The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA, formerly known and still commonly referred to as Manila International Airport as well as its codename Nichols Field (Nichols), is the airport serving Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area.

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Noli Me Tángere (novel)

Noli Me Tángere (Latin for Don’t Touch Me) is a novel written by José Rizal, one of the national heroes of the Philippines, during the colonization of the country by Spain to describe perceived inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling government.

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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Nora Aunor

No description.

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North Borneo

North Borneo (usually known as British North Borneo, also known as the State of North Borneo) was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo.

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North Borneo dispute

The North Borneo dispute is the territorial dispute between the Federation of Malaysia and the Republic of the Philippines over much of the eastern part of the state of Sabah, a territory known as North Borneo prior to the formation of the Malaysian federation.

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North Luzon Expressway

The North Luzon Expressway (NLE or NLEx), formerly known as the North Diversion Road and Manila North Expressway (MNEX), is a 4 to 8-lane limited-access toll expressway that connects Metro Manila to the provinces of the Central Luzon region in the Philippines.

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Northern Mindanao

Northern Mindanao (Hilagang Kamindanawan, Amihanang Mindanao) is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region X. It comprises five provinces: Camiguin, Misamis Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Bukidnon and Misamis Occidental and two cities classified as highly urbanized, all occupying the north-central part of Mindanao island, and the island-province of Camiguin.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network

In a hypothesis developed by Wilhelm Solheim, the Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) is a trade and communication network that first appeared in the Asia-Pacific region during its Neolithic age, or beginning roughly around 5000 BC.

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Official development assistance

Official development assistance (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid.

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Okir

Okir (also spelled as okkil, okil, or ukkil) is the term for geometric and flowing designs (often based on an elaborate leaf and vine pattern) and folk motifs that can be usually found in Maranao, Maguindanao and Muslim-influenced artwork, especially in the southern Philippines, and in some parts of Southeast Asia.

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.

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Ottoman expedition to Aceh

The Ottoman expedition to Aceh started from around 1565 when the Ottoman Empire endeavoured to support the Aceh Sultanate in its fight against the Portuguese Empire in Malacca.

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Ottoman–Habsburg wars

The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain.

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Outline of ancient India

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: Ancient India is the Indian Subcontinent from prehistoric times to the start of Medieval India, which is typically dated (when the term is still used) to the end of the Gupta Empire.

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Outline of the Philippines

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Philippines: The Philippines – sovereign country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Overseas Filipinos

An Overseas Filipino (Pilipino sa Ibayong-dagat) is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside the Philippines.

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Paella

Paella is a Valencian rice dish that has ancient roots but its modern form originated in the mid-19th century in the area around Albufera lagoon on the east coast of Spain adjacent to the city of Valencia.

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Palau

Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Palawan

Palawan (pron.), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya i'ang Palawan / Paragua; Kapuoran sang Palawan; Lalawigan ng Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA.

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Pan-Philippine Highway

The Pan-Philippine Highway, also known as the Maharlika Highway or the National Highway is a network of roads, bridges, and ferry services that connect the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao in the Philippines, serving as the country's principal transport backbone.

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Panay

Panay is the sixth-largest and fourth most-populous island in the Philippines, with a total land area of and with a total population of 4,477,247.

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Pancit

In Filipino cuisine, pancit are noodles.

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Pangasinan language

The Pangasinan language or Salitan Pangasinan is one of the major languages of the Philippines.

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Pangasinan people

The Pangasinan people (Totoon Pangasinan), also known as Pangasinense, are a ethnolinguistic group native to the the Philippines.

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Pannai

Pannai, Panai or Pane is a Buddhist kingdom existed around 11th to 14th century located on east coast of Northern Sumatra.

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Pantaleon Alvarez

Pantaleon "Bebot" Diaz Alvarez (born January 10, 1958) is a Filipino politician and the current Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines and represents the 1st District of Davao del Norte, the Philippines.

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Paoay Church

The Saint Augustine Church (Spanish: Iglesia de San Agustín de Paoay), commonly known as the Paoay Church, is the Roman Catholic church of the municipality of Paoay, Ilocos Norte in the Philippines.

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Papuan languages

The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.

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Parliament

In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Pasig River

The Pasig River (Ilog Pasig and Río Pásig) is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay.

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Pasig River Ferry Service

The Pasig River Ferry Service is the only water-based transportation in Metro Manila, Philippines that cruises the Pasig River from Pinagbuhatan in Pasig to Intramuros in the City of Manila.

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Paulo Campos

Paulo C. Campos (July 7, 1921 – June 2, 2007) was a Filipino physician and educator noted for his promotion of wider community health care and his achievements in the field of nuclear medicine for which he was dubbed as "The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines".

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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PDP–Laban

The Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan, more commonly known as PDP–Laban, is the ruling political party in the Philippines.

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Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.

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Pedro Flores (inventor)

Pedro Flores (26 April 1896- December 1963) was a Filipino businessman and yo-yo maker who has been credited with popularizing Yo-yos in the United States.

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Peninsulars

In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular (pl. peninsulares) was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies.

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People Power Revolution

The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986 or simply EDSA 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in the capital city of Manila from February 22–25, 1986.

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People's Daily

The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.

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Peoples of Palawan

Palawan, the largest province in the Philippines, is home to several indigenous ethnolinguistic groups namely, the Kagayanen, Tagbanwa, Palawano, Taaw't Bato, Molbog and the Batak tribes.

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Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Philippine adobo

Philippine adobo (from Spanish adobar: "marinade," "sauce" or "seasoning") is a popular dish and cooking process in Philippine cuisine that involves meat, seafood, or vegetables marinated in vinegar, soy sauce, garlic, and black peppercorns, which is browned in oil, and simmered in the marinade.

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Philippine Air Force

The Philippine Air Force (PAF; Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas, Fuerza Aérea de Filipinas) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

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Philippine Airlines

Philippine Airlines (PAL), a trade name of PAL Holdings, Inc.

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Philippine Army

The Philippine Army (PA; Filipino: Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Ejército Filipino) is the main, oldest and largest branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) responsible for ground warfare.

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Philippine Atheists and Agnostics Society

The Philippine Atheists and Agnostics Society (PATAS) is a nonprofit organization for the public understanding of atheism and agnosticism in the Philippines.

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Philippine Daily Inquirer

The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is a newspaper in the Philippines.

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Philippine Declaration of Independence

The Philippine Declaration of Independence (Filipino: Pagpapahayag ng Kasarinlan ng Pilipinas) was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo (present-day Kawit, Cavite), Philippines.

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Philippine Drug War

The "Philippine Drug War" refers to the drug policy of the Philippine government under President Rodrigo Duterte.

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Philippine eagle

The Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), also known as the monkey-eating eagle or great Philippine eagle, is an eagle of the family Accipitridae endemic to forests in the Philippines.

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Philippine English

Philippine English is any variety of English (similar and related to English) native to the Philippines, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos.

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Philippine Human Development Network

The Human Development Network Foundation Inc. (HDN) is a non-stock, non-profit organization whose mission is to propagate and mainstream the concept of sustainable human development through research and advocacy.

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Philippine Independent Church

The Philippine Independent Church (Iglesia Filipina Independiente; Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas; Libera Ecclesia Philippina, colloquially called the Aglipayan Church) is an independent Christian denomination in the form of a national church in the Philippines.

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Philippine jade artifacts

Philippine Jade Artifacts made from white and green nephrite and dating as far back as 2000–1500 BC, has been discovered at a number of archeological excavations in the Philippines since the 1930s.

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Philippine languages

In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.

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Philippine literature

Philippine literature is literature associated with the Philippines from prehistory, through its colonial legacies, and on to the present.

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Philippine Marine Corps

The Philippine Marine Corps (PMC; Filipino: Hukbong Kawal Pandagat ng Pilipinas, Spanish: Infantería de Marina de Filipinas) is the marine corps of the Philippines, a naval infantry force under the command of the Philippine Navy.

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Philippine mythology

Philippine mythology is the body of myths, tales, and superstitions held by Filipinos, mostly originating from beliefs held during the pre-Hispanic era.

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Philippine National Police

The Philippine National Police (Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas, abbreviated PNP) is the armed, civilian national police force in the Philippines.

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Philippine Nautical Highway System

The Philippine Nautical Highway System, also the Road Roll-on/Roll-off Terminal System (RRTS) or simply the RoRo System, is an integrated network of highway and vehicular ferry routes which forms the backbone of a nationwide vehicle transport system in the Philippines.

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Philippine Navy

The Philippine Navy (PN; Filipino: Hukbong Dagat ng Pilipinas, Armada de Filipinas) is the naval warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

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Philippine peso

The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso (Philippine English:,, plural pesos; piso; peso; sign: ₱; code: PHP), is the official currency of the Philippines.

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Philippine presidential election, 1986

The Presidential election was held on 7 February 1986 in the Philippines were snap elections, and are popularly known as the Snap Elections, that followed the end of Martial Law and brought about the People Power Revolution, the downfall of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, and the accession of Corazon C. Aquino as President.

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Philippine presidential election, 1992

Presidential elections, legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 11, 1992.

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Philippine presidential election, 2004

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2004 was held on Monday, May 10, 2004.

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Philippine presidential election, 2010

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2010 were held on Monday, May 10, 2010.

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Philippine presidential election, 2016

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2016 was held on Monday, May 9, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election.

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Philippine revolts against Spain

During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, 1521–1898, there were several revolts against the Spanish colonial government by indigenous Moro, Lumad, Indians, Chinese (Sangleys) and Insulares (Mestizos), often with the goal of re-establishing the rights and powers that had traditionally belonged to Lumad Timueys, Maginoo Rajah and Moro Datus.

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Philippine Revolution

The Philippine Revolution (Filipino: Himagsikang Pilipino; Spanish: Revolución Filipina), also called the Tagalog War (Spanish: Guerra Tagalog, Filipino: Digmaang Tagalog) by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain with its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.

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Philippine Sea

The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east and northeast of the Philippines occupying an estimated surface area of.

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Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation

Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation (PSACC), formerly Sulpicio Lines, is a shipping line in the Philippines.

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Philippine Spanish

Philippine Spanish (español filipino, castellano filipino) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Philippines mostly by Spanish Filipinos.

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Philippine Standard Time

Philippine Standard Time (Pamantayang Oras ng Pilipinas, abbreviated PST or PhST), also known as Philippine Time (PHT), is the official name for the time in the Philippines.

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Philippine Statistics Authority

The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) was created on September 12, 2013 when the Philippine Statistical Act of 2013 (Republic Act No. 10625) was signed by President Benigno S. Aquino III.

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Philippine tarsier

The Philippine tarsier (Carlito syrichta), known locally as mawmag in Cebuano/Visayans and mamag in Luzon, is a species of tarsier endemic to the Philippines.

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Philippine television drama

Philippine television drama, also known as teleserye, Filipino telenovelas or P-drama, is a form of melodramatic serialized fiction in television in the Philippines.

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Philippine Trench

The Philippine Trench (also Philippine Deep, Mindanao Trench, and Mindanao Deep) is a submarine trench to the east of the Philippines.

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Philippine–American War

The Philippine–American War (also referred to as the Filipino-American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection, the Tagalog Insurgency; Filipino: Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano; Spanish: Guerra Filipino-Estadounidense) was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Philippines Campaign (1944–1945)

The Philippines campaign, the Battle of the Philippines or the Liberation of the Philippines (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas, Labanan sa Pilipinas & Liberasyon ng Pilipinas), (Operation Musketeer I, II, and III) (Filipino: Operasyon Mosketero I, II, at III), was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines during World War II.

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Philippines v. China

Philippines v. China (PCA case number 2013–19), also known as the South China Sea Arbitration, was an arbitration case brought by the Republic of the Philippines against the People's Republic of China under Annex VII to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) concerning certain issues in the South China Sea including the legality of China's "nine-dotted line" claim.

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Pineapple

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.

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Pinoy

Pinoy is an informal demonym referring to the Filipino people in the Philippines and their culture as well as to overseas Filipinos in the Filipino diaspora.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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PLDT

PLDT Inc.,, formerly known as the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (Kompanya ng Teleponong Pangmalayuan ng Pilipinas), is the largest telecommunications and digital services company in the Philippines and the most known internet service provider.

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Plutocracy

A plutocracy (πλοῦτος,, 'wealth' + κράτος,, 'rule') or plutarchy is a society that is ruled or controlled by people of great wealth or income.

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Port of Cebu

Port of Cebu (Pantalan ng Sugbo) is a seaport located in Cebu City, Philippines.

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Port of Davao

The Port of Davao, or Davao Port (Daungan ng Dabaw, Pantalan sa Dabaw), is a seaport located in Davao, Mindanao island in the Philippines.

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Port of Iloilo

The Port of Iloilo in Iloilo City, Philippines, serves the province and city of Iloilo and the entire Panay Island, in Western Visayas of the Philippines.

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Port of Manila

The Port of Manila (Pantalan ng Maynila) refers to the collective facilities and terminals that process maritime trade function in harbours that serve the Metro Manila Area.

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Port of Subic

The Port of Subic Bay is in the Subic Bay Freeport Zone, the former U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay, on Subic Bay in the Philippines.

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Port of Zamboanga

The Port of Zamboanga (Chavacano: Puerto de Zamboanga) and (Cebuano: Pantalan sa Zamboanga) is a seaport located in Zamboanga City, Philippines.

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Portuguese people

Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Prehistory of the Philippines

The prehistory of the Philippines covers the events prior to the written history of what is now the Philippines.

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President of the Philippines

The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.

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President of the Senate of the Philippines

The President of the Senate of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Senado ng Pilipinas), or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines, and third highest and most powerful official in the Government of the Philippines.

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Presidential Communications Group (Philippines)

The Presidential Communications Group or simply the Communications Group, is the collective name for the newly formed offices within the Office of the President of the Philippines and refers to the following positions and offices: the Presidential Spokesperson and the Presidential Communications Operations Office (PCOO)—formerly the Office of the Press Secretary.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Presidio

A presidio (from the Spanish, presidio, meaning "jail" or "fortification") is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence.

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PricewaterhouseCoopers

PricewaterhouseCoopers (doing business as PwC) is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Prince of Asturias

Prince or Princess of Asturias (Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title used by the heir apparent or heir presumptive to the throne of Spain.

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Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

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Proleptic Gregorian calendar

The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian calendar backward to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582.

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Propaganda Movement

The Propaganda Movement was a period of time when native Filipinos were calling for reforms, lasting approximately from 1880 to 1886 with the most activity between 1880 and 1895.

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Protestantism in the Philippines

Protestant Christians make up nearly 6% of the Filipino population.

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Provinces of the Philippines

The Provinces of the Philippines (Filipino: Mga Lalawigan ng Pilipinas) are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines.

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Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park

The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park is a protected area of the Philippines located about north of the city centre of Puerto Princesa, Palawan, and which contains the Puerto Princesa Underground River.

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Pythonidae

The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia.

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Quezon City

Quezon City (Lungsod Quezon,; Ciudad Quezón; also known as QC or Kyusi) is the most populous city in the Philippines.

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Rafflesia

Rafflesia is a genus of parasitic flowering plants.

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Rail transport in the Philippines

Rail transport in the Philippines is used mostly to transport passengers within Metro Manila and the nearby province of Laguna.

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Rainforest

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.

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Raja

Raja (also spelled rajah, from Sanskrit राजन्), is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia.

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Rajah Baguinda

Rajah Baguinda Ali, also known as Rajah Baginda Ali, Rajah Baginda, Raha Baguinda, or Rajah Baguinda, was a prince from a Minangkabau kingdom in Sumatra, Indonesia called "Pagaruyung".

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Rajah Gambang

Rajah Gambang (Baybayin: ᜄᜋ᜔ᜊᜅ᜔) (r. 1390–1420), was a sovereign of the Kingdom of Tondo.

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Rajah Humabon

Rajah Humabon, later baptized as Don Carlos, was the Rajah of Cebu at the time of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's arrival in the Philippines in 1521.

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Rajah Matanda

Rajah Ache (Baybayin:, Abecedario: Rája Aché), better known by his title Rajah Matanda (1480–1572), was one of the rulers of Maynila, a pre-Hispanic Tagalog polity along the Pasig River in what is now Manila, Philippines.

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Rajah Salalila

In Philippine folk tradition, Rajah Salalila (Baybayin:, Sanskrit: शरीर, syarirah) was the Rajah or paramount ruler of the early Philippine settlement of Maynila, and the father of the individual named Ache, who would eventually be well known as Rajah Matanda.

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Rajahnate of Butuan

The Rajahnate of Butuan (also called as Kingdom of Butuan; Butuanon: Gingharian hong Butuan, Gingharian sa Butuan, Kaharian ng Butuan/Karahanan ng Butuan, Chinese: 蒲端國, Púduānguó in Chinese records), was an Indic polity centered on present Mindanao island in the modern city of Butuan in what is now the southern Philippines.

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Rajahnate of Cebu

The Rajahnate of Cebu (Cebuano: Gingharian sa Sugbu; Filipino: Kaharian ng Cebu; Malay: Kerajaan Cebu), or simply Sugbu, was an Indianized monarchical polity on the island of Cebu in the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.

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Rajahnate of Maynila

In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity") of Maynila (Bayan ng Maynila; Baybayin:; Balen ning Maynila) was a major trade hub located on the southern part of the Pasig River delta,Abinales, Patricio N. and Donna J. Amoroso, State and Society in the Philippines.

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Ramon Barba

Ramon Cabanos Barba (born August 31, 1939, San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte) is a Filipino inventor and horticulturist, UPD.edu.ph best known for inventing a way to induce more flowers in mango trees using ethrel and potassium nitrate.

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Ramon Magsaysay

Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay Sr. (August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was a Filipino politician who was the seventh President of the Philippines, serving from December 30, 1953 until his death in an aircraft disaster.

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Rappler

Rappler is a news website based in the Philippines with a bureau in Jakarta, Indonesia.

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Recession

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Reconquista

The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.

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Regions of the Philippines

In the Philippines, regions (rehiyon), (ISO 3166-2:PH) are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces (lalawigan) of the country for administrative convenience.

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Remittance

A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.

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Reptile

Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of Negros

The Republic of Negros (Republika sang Negros; Republika sa Negros; Republika ng Negros; República de Negros) was a short-lived cantonal revolutionary republic in the eponymous Visayan island, and later, an administrative division, which existed while the Philippines was under Spanish and American sovereignty.

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Republic of Zamboanga

The Republic of Zamboanga was a short-lived sovereign republic, founded by General Vicente Alvarez with his Zamboangueño Revolutionary Forces after the Spanish government in Zamboanga officially surrendered and turned over Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora La Virgen del Pilar de Zaragoza to Gen.

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Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012

The Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10354), informally known as the Reproductive Health Law or RH Law, is a law in the Philippines, which guarantees universal access to methods on contraception, fertility control, sexual education, and maternal care.

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Restorationism

Restorationism, also described as Christian Primitivism, is the belief that Christianity has been or should be restored along the lines of what is known about the apostolic early church, which restorationists see as the search for a more pure and more ancient form of the religion.

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Retirement

Retirement is the withdrawal from one's position or occupation or from one's active working life.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Revolutionary Government of the Philippines (1898–1899)

The Revolutionary Government of the Philippines (Filipino: Pamahalaang Panghimagsikan ng Pilipinas) was an insurgent government established in the Spanish East Indies on June 23, 1898, during the Spanish–American War, by Emilio Aguinaldo, its initial and only President.

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Ring of Fire

The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.

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Rizal

Rizal, officially known as the Province of Rizal (Lalawigan ng Rizal), is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region, east of Manila.

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Rizal Without the Overcoat

Rizal Without the Overcoat is a book by Filipino writer Ambeth Ocampo, adapted from his "Looking Back" column in the Philippine Daily Globe from October 1987 to July 1990.

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Rizal, Kalinga

(formerly known as Liwan), officially the is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Rodrigo Duterte

Rodrigo Roa Duterte (born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, the southernmost island of the country to hold the office.

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Romblomanon language

Romblomanon is an Austronesian regional language spoken, along with Asi and Onhan, in the province of Romblon in the Philippines.

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Rondalla

The rondalla is an ensemble of stringed instruments played with the plectrum or pick and generally known as plectrum instruments.

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Rugby football

Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.

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Ruy López de Villalobos

Ruy López de Villalobos (ca. 1500 – April 4, 1544) was a Spanish explorer who sailed the Pacific from Mexico to establish a permanent foothold for Spain in the East Indies, which was near the Line of Demarcation between Spain and Portugal according to the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1529.

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Saba banana

Saba banana is a triploid hybrid (ABB) banana cultivar originating from the Philippines.

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Sabah

Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.

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Saltwater crocodile

The saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the estuarine crocodile, Indo-Pacific crocodile, marine crocodile, sea crocodile or informally as saltie, is the largest of all living reptiles, as well as the largest riparian predator in the world.

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Sama-Bajau

The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines.

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Samar

Samar is the third largest island in the Philippines.

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Sambal language

Sambal or Sambali is a Sambalic language spoken primarily in the Zambal municipalities of Santa Cruz, Candelaria, Masinloc, Palauig, and Iba, and in the Pangasinense municipality of Infanta in the Philippines; speakers can also be found in Panitian, Quezon, Palawan and Barangay Mandaragat or Buncag of Puerto Princesa.

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San Agustin Church (Manila)

San Agustin Church (Spanish: Iglesia de la Inmaculada Concepción de María de San Agustín) is a Roman Catholic church under the auspices of The Order of St. Augustine, located inside the historic walled city of Intramuros in Manila.

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San Juanico Bridge

San Juanico Bridge (Tulay ng San Juanico and Puente de San Juanico) is part of the Pan-Philippine Highway and stretches from Samar to Leyte across the San Juanico Strait in the Philippines.

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San Juanico Strait

San Juanico Strait (Kipot ng San Juanico) is a narrow strait in the Eastern Visayan region in the Philippines.

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Santa Maria Church

The Church of Our Lady of the Assumption (Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion), commonly known as the Santa Maria Church is the parish church of Santa Maria in Ilocos Sur province, Philippines.

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Sarimanok

The Sarimanok is a legendary bird of the Maranao people who originate from Mindanao, an island in The Philippines.

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Seat of government

The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".

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Second EDSA Revolution

The Second EDSA Revolution (EDSA II) was a four-day political protest from January 17–20, 2001 that peacefully overthrew the government of Joseph Estrada, the thirteenth President of the Philippines.

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Second Philippine Republic

The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas; きょうわこく|Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: República de Filipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.

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Secular state

A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.

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Sedition

Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Senate of the Philippines

The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino: Senado ng Pilipinas, also Mataas na Kapulungan ng Pilipinas or "upper chamber") is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress; the House of Representatives is the lower house.

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Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Osmeña Sr., PLH, (9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) was a Filipino politician who served as the third President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.

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Shafi‘i

The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Sharif Kabungsuwan

Shariff Muhammed Kabungsuwan (Malay: Muhammad Kebungsuwan, Jawi: شريف کبوڠسووان) was the first Sultan of Maguindanao in the Philippines.

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Sin tax

A sin tax is an excise tax specifically levied on certain goods deemed harmful to society, for example alcohol and tobacco, candies, drugs, soft drinks, fast foods, coffee, sugar, gambling and pornography.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Singkil

Singkíl (or Sayaw sa Kasingkil) is a folk dance of the Maranao people of Lake Lanao based on the epic legend Darangen, an adaptation of Ramayana.

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Sinigang

Sinigang is a Filipino soup or stew characterized by its sour and savoury taste most often associated with tamarind (Filipino: sampalok).

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Sinocentrism

Sinocentrism refers to the ideology that China is the cultural center of the world.

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Sinulog

The Sinulog-Santo Niño Festival is an annual cultural and religious festival held on the third Sunday of January in Cebu City, and is the centre of the Santo Niño Catholic celebrations in the Philippines.

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Sipa

Sipa (lit. kick or to kick) is the Philippines' traditional native sport which predates Spanish rule.

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Sisig

Sisig is a Filipino dish made from parts of pig head and liver, usually seasoned with calamansi and chili peppers.

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SMS

SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.

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Soccsksargen

Soccsksargen (officially styled as SOCCSKSARGEN) (pronounced), formerly known simply as Cotabato or Kota Bato, is an administrative region of the Philippines, located in south-central Mindanao.

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Social networking in the Philippines

Social networking is one of the most active web-based activities in the Philippines, with Filipinos being declared as the most active users on a number of web-based social network sites such as Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South China Sea

The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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South Luzon Expressway

The South Luzon Expressway (SLE or SLEx), formerly known as the South Superhighway (SSH), Manila South Diversion Road (MSDR), and Manila South Expressway (MSEX), is a network of two expressways that connects Metro Manila to the provinces of the Calabarzon region in the Philippines.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Sovereignty of the Philippines

The Sovereignty of the Philippines refers to the status of the Philippines as an independent nation.

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Space program of the Philippines

The space program of the Philippines is decentralized and is maintained by various agencies of the Department of Science and Technology.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish architecture

Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out in any area in what is now Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide.

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Spanish East Indies

The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish Filipino

A Spanish Filipino (Spanish and Chavacano: Español Filipino o Hispano Filipino; Tagalog: Kastila, Tisoy o Conio; Cebuano and Hiligaynon: Cachila) is a Filipino who has Spanish or Hispanic lineage, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.

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Spanish language in the Philippines

Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898.

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Spanish naming customs

Spanish naming customs are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain.

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Spanish treasure fleet

The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.

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Spanish–American War

The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.

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Spanish–Moro conflict

The Spanish–Moro Conflict (Filipino: Sagupaang Espanyol-Moro) was a series of wars lasting over several centuries from the beginning of Spanish colonization of the Philippines, to the Spanish–American War when Spain finally began to subjugate Moroland after centuries of failing to do so.

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Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines

The Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines (Ispiker ng Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas) is the presiding officer and the highest-ranking official of the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives as well as the fourth highest and most powerful official of the Government of the Philippines.

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Special Action Force

The Special Action Force (SAF) is the National Mobile Unit of the Philippine National Police founded by Fidel V. Ramos.

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Sports in the Philippines

Sports in the Philippines is an important part of the country's culture.

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Sri

Sri (Devanagari: श्री, IAST: Śrī, IPA: /ʃɹiː/ or /ɕɹiː/, pronounced 'shri'), also transliterated as Sree, Shri, Shri, Si or Seri is a word of Sanskrit origin, used in the Indian subcontinent as a polite form of address equivalent to the English "Mr." or "Ms." in written and spoken language, but also as a title of veneration for deities.

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Srivijaya

Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Subduction

Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

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Subic Bay

Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines, about northwest of Manila Bay.

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Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway

The Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEx) is a four-lane expressway north of Manila, in the Philippines, built by the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA), a government owned and controlled corporation under the Office of the President of the Philippines.

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Sulawesi

Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.

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Sultan

Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Sultanate of Maguindanao

The Sultanate of Maguindanao (Maguindanaoan: Kasultanan sa Magindanaw; Jawi: كسولتانن ماڬوايندنااو; Filipino: Kasultanan ng Maguindanao; Malay: Kesultanan Maguindanaw; سلطنة ماجوينداناو) was a Sultanate state that ruled parts of the island of Mindanao, in southern Philippines, especially in modern-day Maguindanao province and Davao City.

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Sultanate of Sulu

The Sultanate of Sulu (Tausūg: Kasultanan sin Sūg, Jawi: کسلطانن سولو دار الإسلام, Kesultanan Sulu, سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo (present-day the certain parts of Sabah and North Kalimantan).

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Sultanate of Ternate

The Sultanate of Ternate is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Indonesia, established by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257.

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Sulu

Sulu (Tausūg: ولايا سين سوگ, Wilāya sin Sūg) is a province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

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Sulu Archipelago

The Sulu Archipelago (Tausug: Sūg, Kepulauan Sulu, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines.

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Sumatra

Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

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Sundaland

Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Supreme Court of the Philippines

The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas; colloquially referred to as Korte Suprema) is the highest court in the Philippines.

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Surigaonon language

Surigaonon is a Philippine regional language spoken by Surigaonon people in the province of Surigao del Norte, Dinagat Islands, Surigao del Sur, and some portions of Agusan del Norte especially the towns near the Mainit Lake, Agusan del Sur and Davao Oriental.

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Taal Volcano

Taal Volcano (Bulkang Taal) is a complex volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines.

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Tabon Man

Tabon Man refers to remains discovered in the Tabon Caves in Lipuun Point in Quezon, Palawan in the Philippines.

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Taekwondo

Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

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Tagalog language

Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

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Tagalog people

The Tagalog people (Baybayin) are a major ethnolingustic group in the Philippines.

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Tagalog Republic

Tagalog Republic (Filipino: Republika ng Katagalugan or Republikang Tagalog) is a term used to refer to two revolutionary governments involved in the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Philippine–American War.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwanese indigenous peoples

Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.

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Tamils

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tapa (Filipino cuisine)

Tapa is dried or cured beef, mutton, venison or horse meat, although other meat or even fish may be used.

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Tausug language

Tausug (Tausug: Bahasa Sūg, Bahasa Suluk) is a regional language spoken in the province of Sulu in the Philippines, in the eastern area of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, and in North Kalimantan, Indonesia by the Tausūg people.

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Tboli people

The Tboli people are one of the indigenous peoples of South Cotabato in Southern Mindanao.

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Technical Education and Skills Development Authority

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) (Filipino: Pangasiwaan sa Edukasyong Teknikal at Pagpapaunlad ng Kasanayan) serves as the Philippines’ Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) authority.

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Telenovela

A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced primarily in Latin America.

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Telephone numbers in the Philippines

Telephone numbers in the Philippines follow an open telephone numbering plan and an open dial plan.

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Television in the Philippines

Television in the Philippines was introduced in 1953.

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Ten-pin bowling

Ten-pin bowling is a sport in which a player (called a "bowler") rolls a bowling ball down a wood-structure or synthetic (polyurethane) lane and towards ten pins positioned at the end of the lane.

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Ternate, Cavite

Ternate, officially the Municipality of Ternate (Bayan ng Ternate; or Bahra, Municipio de Bahra), is a fourth-class municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines.

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Territorial disputes in the South China Sea

The South China Sea disputes involve both island and maritime claims among several sovereign states within the region, namely Brunei, the People's Republic of China (PRC), Republic of China (Taiwan), Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

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Territorial waters

Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.

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Text messaging

Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.

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Thailand

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The 5 Network

TV5, known on-air as The 5 Network or simply 5, (formerly known as ABC 5) is a Filipino commercial broadcast television network based in Mandaluyong City.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Manila Times

The Manila Times is the oldest existing English-language newspaper in the Philippines.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Philippine Star

The Philippine Star (self-styled The Philippine STAR) is a print and digital newspaper in the Philippines and the flagship brand of the PhilStar Media Group.

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Tidore

Tidore (Kota Tidore Kepulauan) is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, west of the larger island of Halmahera.

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Tiger Cub Economies

The term Tiger Cub Economies collectively refers to the economies of the developing countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam the five dominant countries in Southeast Asia.

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Tinikling

Tinikling is a traditional Philippine folk dance which originated during the Spanish colonial era.

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Tito Sotto

Vicente "Tito" Castelo Sotto III (born 24 August 1948) is a Filipino politician, and the 29th and current Senate President of the Philippines.

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Tomato

The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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Tomás del Rosario

Tomás Guillermo T. del Rosario (February 10, 1857 – July 4, 1913) is a Filipino judge and statesman who served as the first Governor of the province of Bataan from 1903 to 1905.

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Tondo (historical polity)

In early Philippine history, the Tagalog settlement at Tondo (Baybayin) was a major trade hub located on the northern part of the Pasig River delta, on Luzon island.

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Tondo Conspiracy

Tondo Conspiracy of 1587-1588 (known by numerous outer names such as the Revolt of the Lakans or the Conspiracy of the Maharlikas), was a revolt planned by Tagalog nobles, led by Agustin de Legazpi of Tondo and his cousin Martin Panga, to overthrow the Spanish government situated in the Philippines due to the injustices felt by the Filipinos.

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Toungoo dynasty

The Toungoo dynasty (တောင်ငူမင်းဆက်,; also spelt Taungoo dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from the mid-16th century to 1752.

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Tourism

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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Traditional games in the Philippines

Traditional Filipino Games or Indigenous games in the Philippines, Seasite.niu.edu are games commonly played by children, usually using native materials or instruments.

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Travel + Leisure

Travel + Leisure is a travel magazine based in New York City, New York.

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Treaty of Manila (1946)

The Treaty of Manila of 1946, formally the Treaty of General Relations and Protocol, is a treaty of general relations signed on in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines.

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Treaty of Paris (1763)

The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

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Treaty of Paris (1898)

The Treaty of Paris of 1898 (Filipino: Kasunduan sa Paris ng 1898; Spanish: Tratado de París (1898)) was an agreement made in 1898 that involved Spain relinquishing nearly all of the remaining Spanish Empire, especially Cuba, and ceding Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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Tropical nations at the Winter Olympics

Several tropical nations have participated in the Winter Olympics despite not having the climate for winter sports.

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Tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.

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Tubbataha Reef

The Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (Bahurang Tubbataha) is a protected area of the Philippines located in the middle of the Sulu Sea.

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Tydings–McDuffie Act

The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act, is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines, then an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period.

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Typhoon Haiyan

Typhoon Haiyan, known as Super Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, was one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded.

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Typhoons in the Philippines

Approximately twenty tropical cyclones enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility yearly of which ten will be typhoons with five being destructive.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Unitarianism

Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations Human Rights Council

The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.

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United Nations Human Settlements Programme

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–Habitat) is the United Nations agency for human settlements and sustainable urban development.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor

The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) provided an interim civil administration and a peacekeeping mission in the territory of East Timor, from its establishment on 25 October 1999, until its independence on 20 May 2002, following the outcome of the East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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University of Hawaii Press

The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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University of the Philippines

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University of the Philippines Madrigal Singers

The University of the Philippines Madrigal Singers (UPMS), also known as the Philippine Madrigal Singers or simply Madz, is one of the major choral groups based in the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Its current conductor and musical director is Mark Anthony Carpio. They are the first choir in the world to win the European Grand Prix for Choral Singing twice (in 1997 and in 2007). To date, only four choirs in the world have attained this achievement.

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Upper house

An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.

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Uranium–thorium dating

Uranium–thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique established in the 1960s which has been used since the 1970s to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Vice President of the Philippines

The Vice President of the Philippines (Pangalawang Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Bise Presidente ng Pilipinas) or in (Vicepresidente de Filipinas) is the second-highest executive official of the government of the Philippines, after the President.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Vigan

(Siudad ti Vigan; Lungsod ng Vigan.; Local pronunciation), officially the, is a component settlement_text and capital of the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Visayan languages

Visayan (Bisaya or Binisaya) is a group of languages of the Philippines that are related to Tagalog and Bikol languages, all three of which are part of the Central Philippine languages.

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Visayans

The Visayans (Visayan: Mga Bisaya) is an umbrella term for the Philippine ethnolinguistic groups native to the whole Visayas, the southernmost islands of Luzon and most parts of Mindanao.

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Visayas

The Visayas, or the Visayan Islands (Visayan: Kabisay-an,; Kabisayaan), is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao.

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Visiting Forces Agreement (Philippines – United States)

The Philippines–United States Visiting Forces Agreement, sometimes the PH–US Visiting Forces Agreement, is a bilateral visiting forces agreement between the Philippines and the United States consisting of two separate documents.

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Voice of America

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.

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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Volleyball

Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

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Volunteer military

A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.

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War on Terror

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.

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Waray language

Waray is the fifth-most-spoken native regional language of the Philippines, native to Eastern Visayas.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Western Visayas

Western Visayas (Kabisay-an Nakatundan; Kanlurang Kabisayaan) is an administrative region in the Philippines, numerically designated as Region VI.

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Wikimapia

Wikimapia is a privately owned open-content collaborative mapping project, that utilizes an interactive "clickable" web map with a geographically-referenced wiki system, with the aim to mark and describe all geographical objects in the world.

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Wilhelm Solheim

Wilhelm G. Solheim II (1924—2014) was an American anthropologist recognized as the most senior practitioner of archaeology in Southeast Asia, and as a pioneer in the study of Philippine and Southeast Asian prehistoric archaeology.

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WIN/GIA

The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) was an international cooperation of independent market research and polling firms.

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Winter Olympic Games

The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Boxing Council

The World Boxing Council (WBC) is one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the International Boxing Federation (IBF), World Boxing Association (WBA) and World Boxing Organization (WBO) and one of the two original sanctioning bodies (along with the WBA).

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World Boxing Organization

The World Boxing Organization (WBO) is a sanctioning organization which recognizes professional boxing world champions.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yahoo!

Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..

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Yakan language

Yakan is a language of Basilan Island in the Philippines.

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Yo-yo

A yo-yo (also spelled yoyo) is a toy consisting of an axle connected to two disks, and a string looped around the axle.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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Zamboanga City

, officially the, (Chavacano: Ciudad de Zamboanga, Lungsod ng Zamboanga), is a highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula,.

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Zamboangueño people

The Zamboangueño people or Zamboangueño nation (Chavacano/Spanish: Pueblo/Nación Zamboangueño) are a creole ethnolinguistic nation of the Philippines originating in Zamboanga City.

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.ph

.ph is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Philippines.

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1872 Cavite mutiny

The Cavite mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of Filipino military personnel of Fort San Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in Cavite, Philippine Islands (then also known as part of the Spanish East Indies) on January 20, 1872.

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1924 Summer Olympics

The 1924 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.

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1972 Winter Olympics

The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the (French: Les XIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was held from February 3 to February 13, 1972, in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan.

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1980 Summer Olympics boycott

The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott was one part of a number of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

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1986–90 Philippine coup attempts

From 1986 to 1987, there were six plots to overthrow Philippine President Corazon Aquino involving various members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

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1990 Luzon earthquake

The 1990 Luzon earthquake struck the Philippines at 4:26 p.m. on July 16 (PDT).

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1997 Asian financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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2GO

2GO, formally 2GO Travel, is a passenger ferry company which is based in Manila, Philippines and part of 2GO Group, a listed company owned by the Chinese government through the China-Asean Investment Cooperation Fund.

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Redirects here:

Christian Southeast Asia, Colonial period of the Philippines, Etymology of the Philippines, Filipines, Filipino Republic, Filippines, Hispanized Southeast Asia, ISO 3166-1:PH, Islas Filipinas, Islas de Filipinas, Las Islas Filipinas, Legazpi Boulevard, Lu Sung, PHILIPPINE, PHILIPPINES, Philiphines, Philipine, Philipines, Philippenes, Philippinan, Philippine, Philippine Archipelago, Philippine Colonial History, Philippine Islands, Philippine archipelago, Philippine islands, Philippine republic, Philippines Colonial History, Philippines Republic, Philippines archipelago, Phillipenes, Phillipine, Phillipines, Phillippenes, Phillippine, Phillippines, Pilipinas, Pinas (country), Regional population of the Philippines, Republic of Philippines, Republic of Pilipinas, Republic of the Philippines, Republika ng Pilipinas, The Philipines, The Philippines, The Phillipines, The Phillippines, The Republic of the Philippines.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippines

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