316 relations: Acid rain, Adiabatic process, Aeolian Islands, Aerosol, Afar Triangle, Alaska, Albedo, Ambrym, Ammonia, Andesite, Arenal Volcano, Arizona, Arsia Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Asphalt, Athanasius Kircher, Atmosphere of Earth, Avachinsky, Basalt, British Columbia, Caja del Rio, Caldera, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Cassini–Huygens, Central Java, Chemical reaction, Chemical substance, Chlorine, Cirrus cloud, Classical antiquity, Cliff Ollier, Climate, Coal, Colima, Cone, Continental crust, Convergent boundary, Core–mantle boundary, COROT-7b, Crust (geology), Cryovolcano, Cyclades, Dacite, Deep Carbon Observatory, Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project, Deity, Demigod, Diapir, ..., Divergent boundary, Earth, East African Rift, Edinburgh Castle, Effusive eruption, Erta Ale, Eruption column, Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79, Europa (moon), European Space Agency, Exoplanet, Explosive eruption, Extensional tectonics, Extinction event, Famine, Felsic, Flood basalt, Flux melting, Fourpeaked Mountain, Fracture, Fumarole, Galeras, Galilean moons, Galunggung, Geological history of Earth, Geyser, Global Volcanism Program, Haloalkane, Halocarbon, Haraldur Sigurðsson, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiian language, Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, Hecates Tholus, Hohentwiel, Holocene, Hot spring, Hotspot (geology), Huaynaputina, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrophone, Hydrothermal vent, Ice cap, Iceland, Igneous rock, Ignimbrite, International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, Io (moon), Irish Famine (1740–41), Jalisco, Jennings River, Jet aircraft, Jet engine, Johannes Kepler, Jupiter, Kagoshima Prefecture, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kīlauea, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Komatiite, Korean Air, Koryaksky, Kuiper belt, Lahar, Lake Taupo, Lake Toba, Landform, Landscape, Large igneous province, Lassen Peak, Late Devonian extinction, Lava, Lava dome, Lava lake, Liquid nitrogen, List of extraterrestrial volcanoes, Lunar dome, Lunar mare, Luzon, Maat Mons, Mafic, Magma, Magma chamber, Magnesium, Mantle (geology), Mantle plume, Maritime impacts of volcanic eruptions, Mars, Mars Express, Mauna Loa, Mayon, Mediterranean Sea, Methane, Methods of detecting exoplanets, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Mid-ocean ridge, Monogenetic volcanic field, Montserrat, Moon, Mount Erebus, Mount Etna, Mount Fuji, Mount Katmai, Mount Merapi, Mount Nyiragongo, Mount Pinatubo, Mount Rainier, Mount Redoubt, Mount St. Helens, Mount Tambora, Mount Unzen, Mount Vesuvius, Mount Yasur, Mud volcano, Mudpot, Multi-component gas analyzer system, Nagasaki Prefecture, Nariño Department, NASA, National Geographic Society, Natural satellite, Neptune, Netherlands, New Britain, New Mexico, New Zealand, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Nitrogen, Novarupta, Nyamuragira, Oceanic crust, Ol Doinyo Lengai, Olympus Mons, Operating temperature, Orders of magnitude (mass), Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, Ozone, Pacaya, Palagonite, Parasitic cone, Parícutin, Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, Pavonis Mons, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Phreatic eruption, Pillow lava, Piton de la Fournaise, Planet, Plate tectonics, Plateau, Population bottleneck, Prediction of volcanic activity, Princeton University Press, Proterozoic, Province of Naples, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, Pumice, Pumice raft, Pyroclastic flow, Pyroclastic rock, Radiation, Radioactive decay, Réunion, Recorded history, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Rhyolite, Rille, Ring of Fire, Rio Grande rift, Roman mythology, Russian famine of 1601–03, Sakurajima, Sangay, Santa María (volcano), Santorini, Saturn, Scoria, Shield volcano, Shiprock, Shiveluch, Short ton, Siberian Traps, Silicate, Silicon dioxide, Slab (geology), Snake River Plain, Society of Jesus, Soil, Solar System, Soufrière Hills, Stratosphere, Stratovolcano, Stratum, Stromboli, Subduction, Sulfate, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sumatra, Sun, Sunset Crater, Supernatural, Supervolcano, Taal Volcano, Teide, Tephra, Tidal heating, Tide, Timeline of volcanism on Earth, Titan (moon), Toba catastrophe theory, Triton (moon), Troposphere, Tuff, Turbine, Tuya, Tuya Butte, Tuya Lake, Tuya Mountains Provincial Park, Tuya Range, Tuya River, Types of volcanic eruptions, Ulawun, Ultramafic rock, Valles Caldera, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Vanuatu, Venus, Viscosity, Volcanic ash, Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Volcanic bomb, Volcanic crater, Volcanic Explosivity Index, Volcanic field, Volcanic gas, Volcanic winter, Volcano, Volcano Number, Volcano observatory, Volcano warning schemes of the United States, Volcanology, Volcán de Colima, Voyager 2, Vulcan (mythology), Vulcano, Washington (state), Water vapor, Weathering, Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field, Whakaari / White Island, Year Without a Summer, Yellowstone Caldera, Yellowstone National Park, Yukon, Zuidwal volcano, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, 50000 Quaoar. 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Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
The Aeolian Islands (Isole Eolie,, Ìsuli Eoli, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
The Afar Triangle (also called the Afar Depression) is a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction, which is part of the Great Rift Valley in East Africa.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Ambrym is a volcanic island in Malampa Province in the archipelago of Vanuatu.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Arenal Volcano (Volcán Arenal) is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica around 90 km northwest of San José, in the province of Alajuela, canton of San Carlos, and district of La Fortuna.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Arsia Mons is the southernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars.
Ascraeus Mons is a large shield volcano located in the Tharsis region of the planet Mars.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Avachinsky (also known as Avacha or Avacha Volcano or Avachinskaya Sopka) (Авачинская сопка, Авача) is an active stratovolcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the far east of Russia.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Caja del Rio (Spanish: "box of the river") is a dissected plateau, of volcanic origin, which covers approximately 84,000 acres of land in northern Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States.
A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Central Java (Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Cirrus (cloud classification symbol: Ci) is a genus of atmospheric cloud generally characterized by thin, wispy strands, giving the type its name from the Latin word cirrus, meaning a ringlet or curling lock of hair.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cliff Ollier (born 1931) is a geologist, geomorphologist, soil scientist, emeritus professor and honorary research fellow, at the School of Earth and Geographical Sciences University of Western Australia.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Colima, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Colima (Estado Libre y Soberano de Colima), is one of the 32 states that make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.
The core–mantle boundary (CMB in the parlance of solid earth geophysicists) of the Earth lies between the planet's silicate mantle and its liquid iron-nickel outer core.
COROT-7b (previously named COROT-Exo-7b) is an exoplanet orbiting around the star COROT-7, in the constellation Monoceros, at 489 light years from Earth.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A cryovolcano (sometimes informally called an ice volcano) is a type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock.
The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.
Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock.
The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a global research program designed to transform understanding of carbon's role in Earth.
Deep Earth Carbon Degassing (DECADE) project is an initiative to unite scientists around the world to make tangible advances towards quantifying the amount of carbon outgassed from the Earth’s deep interior (core, mantle, crust) into the surface environment (e.g. biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere) through naturally occurring processes.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
A demigod or demi-god is a minor deity, a mortal or immortal who is the offspring of a god and a human, or a figure who has attained divine status after death.
A diapir (French, from Greek diapeirein, to pierce through) is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks.
In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock.
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground.
Erta Ale (or Ertale or Irta'ale) is a continuously active basaltic shield volcano in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia.
An eruption column is a cloud of super-heated ash and tephra suspended in gases emitted during an explosive volcanic eruption.
Mount Vesuvius, a stratovolcano in modern-day Italy, erupted in 79 AD in one of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in European history.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
In volcanology, an explosive eruption is a volcanic eruption of the most violent type.
Extensional tectonics is concerned with the structures formed, and the tectonic processes associated with, the stretching of a planetary body's crust or lithosphere.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava.
In igneous petrology, flux melting occurs when water and other volatile components are added to hot solid rock.
Fourpeaked Volcano is an active stratovolcano in Alaska.
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
A fumarole (or fumerole – the word ultimately comes from the Latin fumus, "smoke") is an opening in a planet's crust, often in areas surrounding volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.
Galeras (Urcunina among the 16th-century indigenous people) is an Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the departmental capital Pasto.
The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
Mount Galunggung (Indonesian: Gunung Galunggung, formerly spelled Galoen-gong) is an active stratovolcano in West Java, Indonesia, around southeast of the West Java provincial capital, Bandung (or around to the east of the West Java town of Garut).
The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geologic time scale, a system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers (stratigraphy).
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.
Haraldur Sigurðsson (born May 31, 1939) is an Icelandic volcanologist and geochemist.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
The Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain is a mostly undersea mountain range in the Pacific Ocean that reaches above sea level in Hawaii.
Hecates Tholus is a Martian volcano, notable for results from the European Space Agency's Mars Express mission which indicate a major eruption took place 350 million years ago.
Hohentwiel is an extinct volcano in the Hegau region of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany The mountain is west of the city of Singen and 20 miles (30 km) from Lake Constance.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.
Huaynaputina is a stratovolcano in a volcanic upland in southern Peru.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
A hydrophone (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Ignimbrite is a variety of hardened tuff.
The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) is a learned society that focuses on research in volcanology, efforts to mitigate volcanic disasters, and research into closely related disciplines, such as igneous geochemistry and petrology, geochronology, volcanogenic mineral deposits, and the physics of the generation and ascent of magmas in the upper mantle and crust.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
The United Nations General Assembly designated the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR).
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
The Irish Famine of 1740–1741 (Bliain an Áir, meaning the Year of Slaughter) in the Kingdom of Ireland, was estimated to have killed between 20% and 38% of the 1740 population of 2.4 million people, the (older) upper estimate a proportionately greater loss than during the worst years of the Great Famine of 1845–1852.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Jennings River is a river in far northern British Columbia, Canada, rising in the northern reaches of the Stikine Ranges of the Cassiar Mountains, at first running southwest, then turning northeast near the Tuya Range to enter Teslin Lake at its southern end, just to the east of the estuary of the Teslin River; also joining the lake in the same area is the Hayes River.
A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kīlauea is a currently active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, and the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the island of Hawaiokinai.
Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Ключевская сопка; also known as Klyuchevskoi, Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia.
Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock.
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd., operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights.
Koryaksky or Koryakskaya Sopka (Коря́кская со́пка) is an active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
A lahar (from wlahar) is a violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water.
Lake Taupo is a lake in the North Island of New Zealand.
Lake Toba (Danau Toba) is a large natural lake in Indonesia occupying the caldera of a supervolcano.
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
In geology, a large igneous province (LIP) is an extremely large accumulation of igneous rocks, including plutonic rocks (intrusive) or volcanic rock formations (extrusive), arising when hot magma extrudes from inside the Earth and flows out.
Lassen Peak, commonly referred to as Mount Lassen, is the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range of the Western United States.
The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.
Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
This is a list of active, dormant and extinct volcanoes located beyond planet Earth.
A lunar dome is a type of shield volcano that is found on the surface of the Earth's Moon.
The lunar maria (singular: mare) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions.
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.
Maat Mons is a massive shield volcano.
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
A magma chamber is a large pool of liquid rock beneath the surface of the Earth.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.
Less commonly publicized than the effects on aviation—and with less potential for catastrophe—maritime Impacts of volcanic eruptions are also dangerous.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mars Express is a space exploration mission being conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Mauna Loa (or; Hawaiian:; Long Mountain) is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean.
Mayon (Bulkan Mayon, Bulkang Mayon, Monte Mayón), also known as Mayon Volcano or Mount Mayon, is an active stratovolcano in the province of Albay in Bicol Region, on the large island of Luzon in the Philippines.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
A monogenetic volcanic field is a type of volcanic field consisting of a group of small monogenetic volcanoes, each of which erupts only once, as opposed to polygenetic volcanoes, which erupt repeatedly over a period of time.
Montserrat is a Caribbean island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mount Erebus is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.
Mount Etna, or Etna (Etna or Mongibello; Mungibeddu or â Muntagna; Aetna), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania.
, located on Honshū, is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776.24 m (12,389 ft), 2nd-highest peak of an island (volcanic) in Asia, and 7th-highest peak of an island in the world.
Mount Katmai is a large stratovolcano (composite volcano) on the Alaska Peninsula in southern Alaska, located within Katmai National Park and Preserve.
Mount Merapi, Gunung Merapi (literally Fire Mountain in Indonesian and Javanese), is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces, Indonesia.
Mount Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano with an elevation of in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Albertine Rift.
Mount Pinatubo (Bakil nin Pinatobo; Bunduk/Bulkan ning Pinatubu, Bunduk ning Apu Malyari; Palandey/Bulkan na Pinatubu; Bantay Pinatubo; Bundok/Bulkang Pinatubo) is an active stratovolcano in the Zambales Mountains, located on the tripoint boundary of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac and Pampanga, all in Central Luzon on the northern island of Luzon.
Mount Rainier (pronounced) is the highest mountain of the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest, and the highest mountain in the U.S. state of Washington.
Redoubt Volcano, or Mount Redoubt, is an active stratovolcano in the largely volcanic Aleutian Range of the U.S. state of Alaska.
Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia.
is an active volcanic group of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, near the city of Shimabara, Nagasaki on the island of Kyushu, Japan's southernmost main island.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
Mount Yasur is a volcano on Tanna Island, Vanuatu, high above sea level, on the coast near Sulphur Bay, northeast of the taller Mount Tukosmera, which was active in the Pleistocene.
A mud volcano or mud dome is a landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases.
A mudpot—or mud pool—is a sort of acidic hot spring, or fumarole, with limited water.
A multi-component gas analyzer system (Multi-GAS) is an instrument package used to take real-time high-resolution measurements of volcanic gas plumes.
is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu.
Nariño is a department of Colombia named after independence leader Antonio Nariño.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Britain (Niu Briten) is the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago (named after Otto von Bismarck) of Papua New Guinea.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) is a protected area and a World Heritage Site located west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Novarupta (meaning "newly erupted" in Latin) is a volcano that was formed in 1912, located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about southwest of Anchorage.
Nyamuragira, also known as Nyamulagira, is an active volcano in the Virunga Mountains of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated about 25 km north of Lake Kivu.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
Ol Doinyo Lengai, "Mountain of God" in the Maasai language, is an active volcano located in the Gregory Rift, south of Lake Natron within the Arusha Region of Tanzania, Africa.
Olympus Mons (Latin for Mount Olympus) is a very large shield volcano on the planet Mars.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.
The Ordovician–Silurian extinction events, when combined, are the second-largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Pacaya is an active complex volcano in Guatemala, which first erupted approximately 23,000 years ago and has erupted at least 23 times since the Spanish invasion of Guatemala.
Palagonite is an alteration product from the interaction of water with volcanic glass of chemical composition similar to basalt.
A parasitic cone (also adventive cone or satellite cone) is the cone-shaped accumulation of volcanic material not part of the central vent of a volcano.
Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, also accented Paricutín) is a cinder cone volcano located in the Mexican state of Michoacán, near the city of Uruapan and about west of Mexico City.
The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) was one of a number of research councils in the United Kingdom.
Pavonis Mons (Latin for "peacock mountain") is a large shield volcano located in the Tharsis region of the planet Mars.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
A phreatic eruption, also called a phreatic explosion, ultravulcanian eruption or steam-blast eruption, occurs when magma heats ground or surface water.
Pillow lavas are lavas that contain characteristic pillow-shaped structures that are attributed to the extrusion of the lava under water, or subaqueous extrusion.
Piton de la Fournaise (French for "Peak of the Furnace") is a shield volcano on the eastern side of Réunion island (a French department) in the Indian Ocean.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
Prediction of volcanic eruption (also: volcanic eruption forecasting) is an interdisciplinary monitoring and research effort to predict the time and severity of a volcano's eruption.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
The Province of Naples (Italian: Provincia di Napoli, Napulitano: Pruvincia 'e Nàpule) was a province in the Campania region of southern Italy; since January 2015 has been replaced by the Metropolitan City of Naples.
Puu Ōō (often written Puu Oo) is a volcanic cone in the eastern rift zone of the Kīlauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
A pumice raft is a floating raft of pumice occasionally created by ocean-based or near-ocean volcanic activity.
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra) that moves away from a volcano reaching speeds of up to.
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry is the official review journal of the Mineralogical Society of America and The Geochemical Society.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
Rille (German for 'groove') is typically used to describe any of the long, narrow depressions in the surface of the Moon that resemble channels.
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
The Rio Grande Rift is a north-trending continental rift zone.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
The Russian famine of 1601–1603 was Russia's worst famine in terms of proportional effect on the population, killing perhaps two million people, a third of the Russian people.
Sakurajima (桜島, literally "Cherry blossom Island") is an active composite volcano and a former island in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan.
Sangay (also known as Macas, Sanagay, or Sangai) is an active stratovolcano in central Ecuador.
Santa María Volcano is a large active volcano in the western highlands of Guatemala, in the Quetzaltenango Department near the city of Quetzaltenango.
Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually composed almost entirely of fluid lava flows.
Shiprock (italic, "rock with wings" or "winged rock") is a monadnock rising nearly above the high-desert plain of the Navajo Nation in San Juan County, New Mexico, United States.
Shiveluch (Шивелуч) is the northernmost active volcano in Kamchatka Krai, Russia.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
The Siberian Traps (Сибирские траппы, Sibirskiye trappy) is a large region of volcanic rock, known as a large igneous province, in Siberia, Russia.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In geology, a slab is the portion of a tectonic plate that is being subducted.
gorges, such as this one near Twin Falls, Idaho The Snake River Plain is a geologic feature located primarily within the U.S. state of Idaho.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Soufrière Hills volcano is an active, complex stratovolcano with many lava domes forming its summit, on the Caribbean island of Montserrat.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Stromboli (Struògnuli, Ancient Greek: Στρογγύλη, Strongulē) is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunset Crater is a cinder cone located north of Flagstaff in U.S. State of Arizona.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption of magnitude 8, which is the largest value on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).
Taal Volcano (Bulkang Taal) is a complex volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines.
Mount Teide (Pico del Teide,, "Teide Peak") is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain.
Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size, or emplacement mechanism.
Tidal heating (also known as tidal working or tidal flexing) occurs through the tidal friction processes: orbital energy is dissipated as heat in either the surface ocean or interior of a planet or satellite.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
This timeline of volcanism on Earth is a list of major volcanic eruptions of approximately at least magnitude 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) or equivalent sulfur dioxide emission around the Quaternary period.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
A tuya is a type of distinctive, flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet.
Tuya Butte is a tuya in the Tuya Range of north-central British Columbia, Canada.
Tuya Lake, located in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, presumably derives its name from the presence of nearby steep-sided, flat-topped volcanoes, known as tuyas.
Tuya Mountains Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, protecting the Tuya Range, a volcanic region at the head of the Tuya River.
The Tuya Range is a rmountain range in the Stikine Ranges of the Cassiar Mountains in the far north of the Canadian province of British Columbia, near its border with the Yukon Territory and to the southwest of Watson Lake, Yukon, which is the nearest major settlement.
The Tuya River is a major tributary of the Stikine River in far northwestern British Columbia, Canada.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Ulawun is a basaltic and andesitic stratovolcano situated on the island of New Britain, in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
Valles Caldera (or Jemez Caldera) is a wide volcanic caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico.
The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes is a valley within Katmai National Park and Preserve in Alaska which is filled with ash flow from the eruption of Novarupta on June 6–8, 1912.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
A Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) is a group of experts responsible for coordinating and disseminating information on atmospheric volcanic ash clouds that may endanger aviation.
A volcanic bomb is a mass of molten rock (tephra) larger than 64 mm (2.5 inches) in diameter, formed when a volcano ejects viscous fragments of lava during an eruption.
A volcanic crater is a roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity.
The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.
A volcanic field is an area of the Earth's crust that is prone to localized volcanic activity.
Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes.
A volcanic winter is a reduction in global temperatures caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid and water obscuring the Sun and raising Earth's albedo (increasing the reflection of solar radiation) after a large, particularly explosive volcanic eruption.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
The Volcano Number (also Volcano Reference File Number, Volcano Numbering System, or VNUM) is a hierarchical geographical system to uniquely identify and tag volcanoes and volcanic features on Earth.
A volcano observatory is an institution that conducts research and monitoring of a volcano.
In October 2006, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) adopted a nationwide alert system for characterizing the level of unrest and eruptive activity at volcanoes.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
The Volcán de Colima, 3,820 m (12,533 ft), also known as Volcán de Fuego, is part of the Colima Volcanic Complex (CVC) consisting of Volcán de Colima, Nevado de Colima and the eroded El Cántaro (listed as extinct).
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
Vulcan (Latin: Volcānus or Vulcānus) is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in ancient Roman religion and myth.
Vulcano (Vurcanu) is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about north of Sicily and located at the southernmost end of the eight Aeolian Islands.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
The Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field, also called the Clearwater Cone Group, is a potentially active monogenetic volcanic field in east-central British Columbia, Canada, located approximately north of Kamloops.
Whakaari / White Island is an active andesite stratovolcano, situated from the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand, in the Bay of Plenty.
The year 1816 is known as the Year Without a Summer (also the Poverty Year and Eighteen Hundred and Froze To Death) because of severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.4–0.7 °C (0.7–1.3 °F).
The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera and supervolcano in Yellowstone National Park in the Western United States, sometimes referred to as the Yellowstone Supervolcano.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The Zuidwal volcano is an extinct volcano in the Netherlands at more than below ground under the Wadden Sea, between Harlingen and Vlieland, just south west of the island Griend.
On May 18, 1980, a major volcanic eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens, a volcano located in Skamania County, in the State of Washington.
The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010.
50000 Quaoar, provisional designation, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object (cubewano) and possibly a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.
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