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Italian language

Index Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language. [1]

334 relations: Accademia della Crusca, Accusative case, Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Acute accent, Adjective, Affricate consonant, Agnolo Monosini, Ajaccio, Albania, Albanian language, Alessandro Manzoni, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, American Sign Language, Americas, Aosta Valley, Approximant consonant, Argentina, Arno, Article (grammar), ASCII, Asmara, Assimilation (phonology), Association football, Australia, Austria, Austria-Hungary, È, Bajardo, Baldassare Castiglione, Bard, BBC, Bible, Bilabial consonant, Bojano, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bourgeoisie, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Canada, Candy, Canton of Grisons, Canton of Ticino, Catalan language, Catholic Church, CELI, Central America, Certification of Italian as a Foreign Language, Ch (digraph), Chipilo, ..., Ciao, City-state, Classical Latin, Classification of Romance languages, Clitic, Close-mid back rounded vowel, Close-mid front unrounded vowel, Cocoliche, Conditional mood, Continuant, Contraction (grammar), Corsica, Corsican language, Costa Rica, Council of Europe, Courtier, Croatia, Cyprus, Dalmatian language, Dante Alighieri, Dative case, De vulgari eloquentia, Dental consonant, Design, Diet of Worms, Digraph (orthography), Diminutive, Diphthong, Discourse, Divine Comedy, Doughnut, Duchy of Benevento, Duolingo, Dyslexia, Ecuador, Edible dormouse, English language, Ethnologue, European Union, Fashion, Flap consonant, Florence, Florentine dialect, Floris Italicae lingue libri novem, France, Francesco Cossiga, French language, Fricative consonant, Friulian language, Future tense, Galician language, Gallo-Italic languages, Gemination, Germanic languages, Gh (digraph), Gian Giorgio Trissino, Giovanni Boccaccio, Gli Asolani, Glossary of Italian music, Glossary of musical terminology, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grand Tour, Grave accent, Greece, Greek language, Hard and soft C, Hard and soft G, History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, Holy See, Humanism, Iesi, Imperative mood, Imperfective aspect, India ink, Inflection, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intonation (linguistics), Ionian Sea, Isogloss, Istria, Istria County, Italian Americans, Italian Braille, Italian Cultural Institute, London, Italian dialects, Italian diaspora, Italian East Africa, Italian Empire, Italian exonyms, Italian grammar, Italian Graubünden, Italian honorifics, Italian language in Croatia, Italian language in Slovenia, Italian language in the United States, Italian language in Venezuela, Italian Libya, Italian literature, Italian orthography, Italian Peninsula, Italian phonology, Italian profanity, Italian settlers in Libya, Italian Sign Language, Italian Somaliland, Italian studies, Italian unification, Italian Wikipedia, Italians, Italic languages, Italo-Dalmatian languages, Italo-Western languages, Italy, Jerzu, Jesolo, Johann Tetzel, Johannes Gutenberg, John Milton, Joppolo, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Naples, La Spezia–Rimini Line, Labiodental consonant, Ladin language, Languages of Italy, Languages of the European Union, Languages of Vatican City, Late Middle Ages, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin script, Lenition, Lessico etimologico italiano, Lexical similarity, Libya, Ligurian (Romance language), Lingua franca, Linguistic purism, Lino Pertile, List of English words of Italian origin, List of Italian-language radio stations, List of Latin-script digraphs, Loanword, Lombard language, Lunfardo, Lutheranism, Luxembourg, Luxury goods, Malta, Martin Luther, Medici Bank, Metaphony (Romance languages), Mexico, Middle Ages, Migration Period, Milan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Italy), Minority language, Modern Standard Arabic, Monaco, Music, Mutual intelligibility, Napoleon, Nasal consonant, National University of La Matanza, Neapolitan language, Neologism, Neuchâtel, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nominative case, Norman conquest of southern Italy, Northern Europe, Northern Italy, Null-subject language, Oblique case, Occitan language, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Open-mid front unrounded vowel, Opera, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Panama, Panettone, Paraguay, Parma, Participle, Past tense, Perfective aspect, Personal pronoun, Petrarch, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonology, Phonotactics, Pidgin, Pietro Bembo, Place of articulation, Placiti Cassinesi, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Printing press, Prosody (linguistics), Realis mood, Reformation, Regional Italian, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Rio Grande do Sul, Rioplatense Spanish, Romance languages, Romania, Romanian language, Romansh language, Rome, Rooster, San Marino, San Vito (Costa Rica), Santa Catarina (state), Sardinian language, São Paulo (state), Second language, Sicilian language, Sicilian School, Signed Italian, Silent letter, Sister language, Slovene Istria, Slovene Littoral, Slovenia, Somali Civil War, Somali language, Somalia, South America, South Tyrol, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Spanish language, Spelling bee, Statistics Canada, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Stress (linguistics), Subjunctive mood, Suffix, Swahili language, Switzerland, Syntax, Talian dialect, Text messaging, The arts, The Betrothed (Manzoni novel), The Italian Language Foundation, Treccani, Trill consonant, Triphthong, Tullio De Mauro, Tuscan dialect, Tuscan gorgia, Tuscany, United States Census Bureau, Upper class, Uruguay, Varieties of Chinese, Variety (linguistics), Vatican City, Velar consonant, Venetian language, Venezuela, Venice, Veronese Riddle, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vulgar Latin, West Germany, Western Romance languages, World War II, Yellow. Expand index (284 more) »

Accademia della Crusca

The Accademia della Crusca ("Academy of the Bran"), generally abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Acta Apostolicae Sedis

Acta Apostolicae Sedis (Latin for "Register of the Apostolic See"), often cited as AAS, is the official gazette of the Holy See, appearing about twelve times a year.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Agnolo Monosini

Agnolo Monosini (Pratovecchio 1568 – Florence 1626) was an Italian scholar and cleric of the 16th and 17th centuries, who played a key role in the development of the Italian language two hundred years prior to the risorgimento.

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Ajaccio is a French commune, prefecture of the department of Corse-du-Sud, and head office of the Collectivité territoriale de Corse (capital city of Corsica).

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Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Albanian language

Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.

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Alessandro Manzoni

Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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American Sign Language

American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Aosta Valley

The Aosta Valley (Valle d'Aosta (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); Vallée d'Aoste (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Val d'Outa (usual); Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Val d'Osta) is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Asmara (ኣስመራ), known locally as Asmera (meaning "They made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest city of Eritrea.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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"È" is a letter.

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Bajardo (also Baiardo) (Baiardu) is a comune in the Province of Imperia in the Italian region Liguria.

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Baldassare Castiglione

Baldassare Castiglione (December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),Dates of birth and death, and cause of the latter, from, Italica, Rai International online.

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In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Bojano or Boiano is a town and comune in the province of Campobasso, Molise, south-central Italy.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient.

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Canton of Grisons

The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.

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Canton of Ticino

The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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The Certificato di Conoscenza della Lingua Italiana (Certificate of Knowledge of Italian Language), or CELI, is an internationally recognized qualification of the Italian language destined for foreigners wanting to validate their relative Italian fluency, offered by the Università per Stranieri di Perugia.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Certification of Italian as a Foreign Language

The Certification of Italian as a Foreign Language (Certificazione di Italiano come Lingua Straniera or CILS) is a qualification offered by the Foreigners University of Siena for foreign speakers of the Italian language, recognizing various levels of language proficiency.

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Ch (digraph)

Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.

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Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico.

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The word "ciao" is an informal salutation in the Italian language that is used for both "hello" and "goodbye".

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A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Classification of Romance languages

The internal classification of the Romance languages is a complex and sometimes controversial topic which may not have one single answer.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close-mid back rounded vowel

The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Close-mid front unrounded vowel

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Cocoliche is an Italian–Spanish mixed language or pidgin that was spoken by Italian immigrants in Argentina (especially in Greater Buenos Aires) and Uruguay between 1870 and 1970.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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In phonology, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.

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Contraction (grammar)

A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds.

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Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.

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Corsican language

Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dalmatian language

Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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De vulgari eloquentia

De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).

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Diet of Worms

The Diet of Worms 1521 (Reichstag zu Worms) was an imperial diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire held at the Heylshof Garden in Worms, then an Imperial Free City of the Empire.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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A doughnut or donut (both: or; see etymology section) is a type of fried dough confection or dessert food.

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Duchy of Benevento

The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.

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Duolingo is a freemium language-learning platform that includes a language-learning website and app, as well as a digital language proficiency assessment exam.

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Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Edible dormouse

The edible dormouse or fat dormouse (Glis glis) is a large dormouse and the only living species in the genus Glis, found in most of western Europe.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Fashion is a popular style, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle products, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Florentine dialect

The Florentine dialect or vernacular (Dialetto fiorentino or vernacolo) is a Tuscan variety of Romance spoken in the Italian city of Florence.

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Floris Italicae lingue libri novem

Floris Italicae linguae libri novem ("The Flower of Italian Language in nine books") is a book written by Florentine scholar and cleric Agnolo Monosini (1568–1626), who played a key role in the development of the Italian language two hundred years prior to the Risorgimento.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francesco Cossiga

Francesco Cossiga, (1928 – 2010).

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Friulian language

Friulian or Friulan (or, affectionately, marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Galician language

Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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Gallo-Italic languages

The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Gh (digraph)

Gh is a digraph found in many languages.

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Gian Giorgio Trissino

Gian Giorgio Trissino (8 July 1478 – 8 December 1550), also called Giovan Giorgio Trissino, was an Italian Renaissance humanist, poet, dramatist, diplomat, and grammarian.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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Gli Asolani

Gli Asolani (the people of Asolo) are dialogues in three books written between 1497 and 1504Kidwell, page 101 by Pietro Bembo in the language of Petrarch and comprise his first important work.

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Glossary of Italian music

This is an article on the terminology used to describe the music of Italy.

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Glossary of musical terminology

This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grand Tour

The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).

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Grave accent

The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.

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No description.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hard and soft C

In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.

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Hard and soft G

In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), the letter is used in different contexts to represent two distinct phonemes, often called hard and soft.

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History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi

Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Jesi (Jesi) is a town and comune of the province of Ancona in Marche, Italy.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Imperfective aspect

The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.

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India ink

India ink (British English: Indian Ink; also Chinese ink) is a simple black or colored ink once widely used for writing and printing and now more commonly used for drawing and outlining, especially when inking comic books and comic strips.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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Ionian Sea

The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.

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An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.

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Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.

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Istria County

Istria County (Istarska županija; Regione istriana, "Istrian Region") is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (out of, or 89%).

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Italian Americans

Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.

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Italian Braille

Italian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Italian language, both in Italy and in Switzerland.

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Italian Cultural Institute, London

The Italian Cultural Institute, London (Istituto Italiano di Cultura) is based at 39 Belgrave Square in Belgravia, London.

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Italian dialects

Italian dialects may refer to.

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Italian diaspora

The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy.

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Italian East Africa

Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.

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Italian Empire

The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.

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Italian exonyms

Below is list of Italian language exonyms for places in non-Italian-speaking areas of Europe: In recent years, the use of Italian exonyms for lesser known places has significantly decreased, in favour of the foreign toponym.

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Italian grammar

Italian grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the Italian language.

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Italian Graubünden

The Italian Grisons or Italian Grigioni (Grigionitaliano or Grigioni italiano; Italienischbünden; Grischun talian) is the region of the Canton of Grisons, Switzerland where Italian and Lombard are spoken.

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Italian honorifics

These are some of the honorifics used in Italy.

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Italian language in Croatia

The Italian language is a minority language in Croatia, spoken by 0.43% of the total Croatian population.

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Italian language in Slovenia

The Italian language is an officially recognized minority language in Slovenia, along with Hungarian.

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Italian language in the United States

The Italian language has been a widely spoken language in the United States of America for more than one hundred years, due to large-scale immigration beginning in the late 19th century.

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Italian language in Venezuela

The Italian language in Venezuela has been present since colonial times in the areas around Caracas, Maracay, Valencia, Maracaibo and the Andes mountains.

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Italian Libya

Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.

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Italian literature

Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.

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Italian orthography

Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.

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Italian Peninsula

The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.

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Italian phonology

The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.

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Italian profanity

Italian profanity (bestemmia, pl. bestemmie, when referred to religious topics; parolaccia, pl. parolacce, when not) refers to a set of words considered blasphemous or inflammatory in the Italian language.

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Italian settlers in Libya

Italian settlers in Libya (Italo-libici, also called Italian Libyans) typically refers to Italians, and their descendants, who resided or were born in Italian Libya, in the colonial period preceding independent Libya.

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Italian Sign Language

Italian Sign Language or LIS (Lingua dei Segni Italiana) is the visual language used by deaf people in Italy.

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Italian Somaliland

Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.

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Italian studies

Italian Studies is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the Italian language, literature, art, history, politics, culture and society.

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Italian unification

Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

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Italian Wikipedia

The Italian Wikipedia (|) is the Italian-language edition of Wikipedia.

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The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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Italo-Dalmatian languages

The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France) and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).

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Italo-Western languages

Italo-Western is, in some classifications, the largest branch of the Romance languages.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jerzu, Iertzu in sardinian language, is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Nuoro in the Italian region Sardinia, located about northeast of Cagliari and about southwest of Tortolì.

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Jesolo (or Iesolo) is a seaside resort town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Venice, Italy.

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Johann Tetzel

Johann Tetzel (1465 – 11 August 1519) was a German Dominican friar and preacher.

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Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (– February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.

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Joppolo (translit) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vibo Valentia in the Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about southwest of Vibo Valentia.

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Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.

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Kingdom of Naples

The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.

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La Spezia–Rimini Line

The La Spezia–Rimini Line (also known as the Massa–Senigallia Line), in the linguistics of the Romance languages, is a line that demarcates a number of important isoglosses that distinguish Romance languages south and east of the line from Romance languages north and west of it.

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Labiodental consonant

In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.

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Ladin language

Ladin (or; Ladin: Ladin, Ladino, Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.

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Languages of Italy

There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.

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Languages of the European Union

The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).

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Languages of Vatican City

Vatican City is a city state that came into existence in 1929.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Lessico etimologico italiano

The Lessico etimologico italiano (LEI) is an etymological dictionary of the Italian language.

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Lexical similarity

In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Ligurian (Romance language)

Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistic purism

Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.

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Lino Pertile

Lino Pertile (born 1940) is an Italian linguist, Professor of Romance Languages and Literatures at Harvard University and a former House Master of Eliot House.

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List of English words of Italian origin

This is a partial list of known or supposed Italian loanwords in English.

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List of Italian-language radio stations

This is a list of radio stations broadcasting regularly programmes in Italian outside Italy.

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List of Latin-script digraphs

This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lombard language

Lombard (native name lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, depending on the orthography) is a language belonging to the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages.

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Lunfardo (from the Italian lumbardo or inhabitant of Lombardy in the local dialect) is a dialect originated and developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the lower classes in Buenos Aires and from there spread to other cities nearby, such as the surrounding area Greater Buenos Aires, Rosario and Montevideo.

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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Luxury goods

In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, and is a contrast to a "necessity good", where demand increases proportionally less than income.

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Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Medici Bank

The Medici Bank (Italian: Banco dei Medici) was a financial institution created by the Medici family in Italy during the 15th century (1397–1494).

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Metaphony (Romance languages)

In the Romance languages, metaphony was an early vowel mutation process that operated in all Romance languages to varying degrees, raising (or sometimes diphthongizing) certain stressed vowels in words with a final /i/ or /u/ or a directly following /j/.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Italy)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (Ministero degli affari esteri e della cooperazione internazionale or MAECI) is the foreign ministry of the government of the Republic of Italy.

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Minority language

A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.

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Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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National University of La Matanza

The National University of La Matanza (Universidad Nacional de La Matanza, UNLaM) is an Argentine national university situated in La Matanza Partido, Buenos Aires Province.

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Neapolitan language

Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano; napoletano) is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria and Sicily.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel; (neu(f) "new" and chatel "castle" (château); Neuenburg; Neuchâtel; Neuchâtel or Neufchâtel)The city was also called Neuchâtel-outre-Joux (Neuchâtel beyond Joux) to distinguish it from another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière.

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Norman conquest of southern Italy

The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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Null-subject language

In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.

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Oblique case

In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Open-mid back rounded vowel

The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Open-mid front unrounded vowel

The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (sound change)

In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.

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Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

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Panettone (pronounced) is an Italian type of sweet bread loaf originally from Milan (in Milanese dialect of the Lombard language it is called paneton), usually prepared and enjoyed for Christmas and New Year in Western, Southern and Southeastern Europe as well as in the Horn of Africa, and to a lesser extent in former French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies.

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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.

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A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Past tense

The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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Perfective aspect

The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).

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Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.

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Pietro Bembo

Pietro Bembo, (20 May 1470 – either 11 January or 18 January, 1547) was an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller and a cardinal.

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Place of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).

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Placiti Cassinesi

The Placiti Cassinesi are four official juridical documents written between 960 and 963 in southern Italy, regarding a dispute on several lands among three Benedictine monasteries and a local landowner.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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Printing press

A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Realis mood

A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Regional Italian

Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.

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Rioplatense Spanish

Rioplatense Spanish (español rioplatense, locally castellano rioplatense) is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Romansh language

Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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San Vito (Costa Rica)

San Vito, originally named San Vito de Java, is the capital of the Coto Brus district of Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica.

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Santa Catarina (state)

Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in the southern region of Brazil.

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Sardinian language

Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).

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São Paulo (state)

São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Sicilian language

Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.

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Sicilian School

The Sicilian School was a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia.

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Signed Italian

Signed Italian (italiano segnato) and Signed Exact Italian (italiano segnato esatto) are manually coded forms of the Italian language used in Italy.

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Silent letter

In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.

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Sister language

In historical linguistics, sister languages, also known as sibling languages or brother languages are cognate languages; that is, languages that descend from a common ancestral language, the so-called proto-language.

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Slovene Istria

Slovene Istria (slovenska Istra, Istria slovena) is a region in southwest of Slovenia.

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Slovene Littoral

The Slovene Littoral (Primorska,; Litorale; Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia.

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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Somali Civil War

The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Tyrol

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.

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Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spelling bee

A spelling bee is a competition in which contestants are asked to spell a broad selection of words, usually with a varying degree of difficulty.

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Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Subjunctive mood

The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.

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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Talian dialect

Talian (or Brazilian Venetian,,, but) is a dialect of the Venetian language, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil.

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Text messaging

Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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The Betrothed (Manzoni novel)

The Betrothed (I promessi sposi) is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni, first published in 1827, in three volumes.

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The Italian Language Foundation

The Italian Language Foundation (ILF) was established on July 3, 2008, to promote and support Italian language education in the United States and specifically to reinstate the Advanced Placement program (AP) of the College Board for AP Italian Language and Culture.

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The Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (Italian for "Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts"), best known as Treccani for its developer Giovanni Treccani or Enciclopedia Italiana, is an Italian-language encyclopaedia.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.

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Tullio De Mauro

Tullio De Mauro (31 March 1932 – 5 January 2017) was an Italian linguist, a professor emeritus of general linguistics at the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and an Italian politician.

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Tuscan dialect

Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.

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Tuscan gorgia

The Tuscan gorgia (Gorgia toscana, "Tuscan throat") is a phonetic phenomenon governed by a complex of allophonic rules characteristic of the Tuscan dialects, in Tuscany, Italy, especially the central ones, with Florence traditionally viewed as the center.

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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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Upper class

The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.

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Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Vatican City

Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Venetian language

Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Veronese Riddle

The Veronese Riddle (Indovinello veronese) is a riddle written in late Vulgar Latin on the margin of a parchment, on the Verona Orational, probably in the 8th or early 9th century, by a Christian monk from Verona, in northern Italy.

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A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced postalveolar fricative

Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Western Romance languages

Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_language

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